Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide Fw 104
Popular in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Potter on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Fw 104 at Colorado State University taught by Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2) in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
History of Wildlife Management 0 Learn from mistakes or successes in conservation 0 Ecosystem function stand point trying to change people s perspectives Prehistoric People And Wildlife 0 Food hunting and gathering caveman times 0 Early mammals mammoth saber tooth etc o Pleistocene Extinction 0 Climate 0 Disease 0 Humans hunting and coordinating to wipe out species 0 Agricultural Society 0 Land conversion had a huge impact on wildlife 0 Animal domestication wild animals dangerous pollute gene pool of domestic animals animals are overgrazing take out the predators 0 Growing Human Population 0 Industrializing 1500 AD humans have occupied all ecosystems of North America 0 Different Cultures in US 0 Native Americans Respected nature and developed closer ties with it o Europeans French English Spanish Dominion take over natural resources Tragedy of the Commons the idea of a prominent resource being shared will be overused Wildlife was abundant and wouldn t ever die off Market Hunting Era 18501899 Duty to tame super abundance Passenger pigeon goes extinct 18501900 0 Gregarious large ocks one egg per nest 0 Trees being removed took away their shelter 0 Demand for their meat railroad construction telegraph was used to communicate about where the pigeons were spotted making hunting them more effective Robins and shorebirds in high demand for feather and food Waterfowl almost wiped out because of the punt gun 10 shotgun shells per clip Bison 30 million in 1860 which dropped to 150 in 1889 o Railroads specialized hunters to kill them for sport and restrict Native Americans their furs were also used for machine belts Carolina Parakeet gone by 1870 Preservation Era 19001929 Legal protections Yellowstone National Park was created in 1872 National Park Service established by Wilson in 1916 John Miur 0 Created the Sierra Club Theodore Roosevelt 0 First forest preservation acts 0 Appointed Gifford Pinchot as chief of US Forest in 1905 proposed wise use of resources Era of Game Management Conservation Era 19301965 Game Manager Aldo Leopold Great Depression in the 19305 0 Civilian Conservation Corps provided work planting trees improving parks and eliminating predators Franklin Roosevelt Ding Darling conservation cartoon artist 0 Biological Survey duck stamp designer began National Wildlife Federation Sanibel NWR won Pulitzers Soil Conservation Service Bureau of Land Management Wildlife Society Environmental Era 19661984 Rachel Carson wrote Silent Spring and helped environmental efforts 0 DDT and pesticides impacting species in fat tissue pollution accumulation and in environment 0 Bioaccumulation build up of a substance in an animal or a part of its body 0 Biomagnificationbuildup in concentration of substance in the food chain Earth Day Endangered Species Act of 1973 National Environmental Policy Act of 1970 EPA Present Era 1990Present Conservation Biology discussions on biodiversity Animal Rights Ecosystem Management Human Relations to conservation Populations 0 Population abundance N number of individuals of a species that occupies a particular area 0 Births and deaths contribute 0 Density Narea 0 Birth or nataity rate number of births per number of individuals over time Ratechange per unit of time Fecundity number of eggs produced per female 0 Fertility percent of female eggs that are fertile Production surviving offspring produced by a population 0 Recruitment number of individuals that make it to the breeding age Fitnessability of an individual or population to survive and reproduce offspring which passes on genetic material 0 Mortality or Death Rate number of deaths per number of individuals over a speci ed time period 0 Dispersalmovement of individuals from one place to another 1 Immigration number of animals entering a population over time 2 Emigrationnumber of animals leaving a population over time Age Structure Harvesting can affect the age structure of a population Population growth curves help determine how much hunting or shing we can do in order for a population to still be sustainable If you harvest 50 of the population verses 80 you will get more yield over time but trying to explain this to sheries often doesn t work 0 Amount of births parental care can affect the age structure too Population Growth Models 0 Exponential Growth Models Lab cultures yeast and bacteria lntroduced recovering populations Invasive species brown tree snakes in Guam 0 Biotic Potential Maximum rate at which a population can grow with no limited resources r Max births b and minimum deaths d Rbd assuming that there are no entering or leaving animals in the population Biotic potential varies based on species 0 Charles Darwin says populations cannot in nitely increase o Logistic population Growth Model K carrying capacity max number of individuals in a population that a habitat can sustain Changes Depends on habitats cover food etc The curve starts outwith births being greater than deaths and increases until it reaches carrying capacity where the births equal the deaths Approaches To Wildlife Management Direct Management Transplanting animals to help endangered species repopulate Harvest regulations 0 Arti cial feeding saving injured wildlife introducing or removing exotic species captive raising killing threatening wildlife Indirect Management 0 Environmental control increasing water ow prescribed fires creating water holes 0 A species can be maintained to indirectly affect another species Groups of Wildlife For Management 0 Big Game 0 Hooved animals and carnivores deer account for greater than 50 of harvested game 0 Polygynous so males are hunted more NOT females 0 Hunting is good for controlling big game populations 0 Small Game 0 Rabbits and squirrels account for 60 of hunting 0 Pheasants grouse etc account for the other 40 0 Small game hunting declined since the 19805 due to urbanization loss of habitat etc 0 Tons to hunt self limiting abundant in early stages of succession Migratory Game Birds 0 USFWS enforce federal protection 0 Drought in 19305 caused waterfowl populations to plummet 0 Canadian Geese stop migrating to Canada because of ponds lakes etc in the US 0 Non Webbed Migratory Birds 0 Mourning doves 70 million killed a year doesn t affect them too badly o Sandhill Cranes dams and water diversions threaten habitat Furbearers o Rodentia Mustelidae Felidae and Canidae o Trapping restricted to winter Unprotected Species 0 Prairie dogs gophers moles ground squirrels jack rabbits bats weasels skunks feral animals etc 0 Wild Free Roaming Horses and Burro Act protects feral animals Endangered and Threatened Species o Climax communities closely monitored researched and expensive programs 0 Respond slowly to management Watchable and Nongame Wildlife 0 Watchable all species 0 Nonconsumptive wildlife recreation strives to educate people enhance the opportunities to watch species and in uence wildlife conservation Lack of funding 0 Large declines in neotropical migratory birds is caused by destruction and forest fragmentation o Amphibians declining worldwide Management for Game Threatened and Endangered Species Pros focuses money on a few species Cons needs of other species are often ignored Maximize Species Richness 0 Pros managing for many species promotes watchable wildlife Cons non natives included Maximize Ecosystem Biome Function 0 Pros protecting potential for diversity now and future generations Cons unrealistic not enough time Common Management Errors 0 Small scale 0 Open systems 0 Missing life history and ecology Over simpli cation o No evaluation of management impacts Management Techniques 0 Trapping Netting and Darting o What do you want to learn is the stress on the animal worth it 0 Do you need to observe catch follow or mark them Use of invasive or noninvasive techniques 0 Know harvest rate population size birthrates and death rates document food habitat type dispersalhome range Age and growth when they die reach maturity etc 0 Sample population for age distribution 0 Examples markings on ns tooth wear invasive 0 Food Habits lnvasive stomach analysis while animal is alive or dead Noninvasive scat and pellet analysis behavioral observation Marking Animals 0 Permanent semi permanent radio telemetry collars tags bands tattoos PIT tags toe clippings bird banding and ear tags Nonpermanent hair clipping toenail clipping dyes drop off collars Tracking 0 Low Tech Tracking 0 Mark and recapture animals 0 Small animal trapping on plotting grid 0 Recapture or harvest of banded birds 0 High Tech Radio Telemetry o Collars backpacks on birds lots of hiking to get to them 0 Higher Tech 0 GPS Collars Location heart rate temperature 0 Doppler Radar Noninvasive works on arial animals tracks populations Guest Speaker Mark Viera Wildlife Management Goas 0 Increase decrease or stabilize populations of animals 0 Through direct or indirect approaches 0 Secondary goals watchable wildlife trophy bucks and game damage Species Big Game 0 Mule deer elk moose and Pronghorn Management harvestmortality herd composition population estimates I Harvest animals removed by hunting oz Estimated number killed via phone surveys and internet surveys I Natural Mortality Estimates put out radio collars rm Herd Composition measures of recruitment 393 Density Dependent competition for food water space disease 393 Density lndependent no pattern drought dams clear cutting weather 0 Bighorn Sheep Highly social herds Largely limited by habitat and disease events Directly manage population by agencies culling shooting or moving to minimize transmission of disease Rselective Species highly reproductive big populations large amounts of young produced lots of population uctuation live in beginning successive stages 0 Difficult to estimate populations biological processes tied to habitat conditions 0 K Selective Species less births more effort put into parenting smaller populations less uctuation live longer good competitors live in climax communities 0 Black Bears and Lions 0 Small Game 0 Rabbits squirrels waterfowl coyotes chukar and raccoons o Nonnative Chukar introduction from Utah Rocks tall grass standing water in Cooter Canyon Two years of direct management 0 Waterfowl Indirect management created habitat of smart reed and shallow wetlands NonGame 0 Sharp tailed Grouse Direct management reintroduced birds to Colorado R selected species largely dependent on indirect management farmers in the area were paid to not farm environment made 0 American White Pelican lrrigation reservoirs indirect management maintain islands for birds nesting sites Fisheries Populations of aquatic animals not just sh o Aquatic biota interacting with environment Three Interacting Components Biota aquatic animals and plants Habitaton land and in water Humans recreational and commercial components Importance 3 billion people rely on sh for protein Jobs Recreation Food industry aquariums aqua biotics Anchovy shery is the largest in the world Goals of Fishery Management 0 Sustainable use commercial harvest recreational opportunities shing and aquarium trade 0 Conservation of biodiversity Human health mercury levels in shabove 1 part per million FDA doesn t allow consumption air pollution Data Collection 0 Sampling 1 Passive Capture trap set up and sh come to it Gill nets ne nets operculum gets caught can be set vertically or horizontally Trap Fyke Nets used in ponds reservoirs and lakes shorelines herds sh into a coral Long lines can be up to 50 miles long have baited hooks to catch predatory sh 0 Bycatchcatching the wrong animal in a trap Pot Traps catch lobster and other crustaceans Cat sh Traps or Noodling 2 Active Capture Seining Nets Beach Seine Purse Seine lake and commercial use has a bottom so the sh can t get away Stream Seine Trawl pull a net behind a boat 0 Midwater 0 Bottom scrape bottom of aquatic systems and can destroy reefs and mix up sediment Electro shing boat barge backpack shock enough to stun sh not kill them 0 Angling can be either active or passive shing 3 Noncapture Methods Hydro acoustics SONAR Creel surveys ask shers how many sh they caught SnorkelScuba Diving Counting Towers Measurement and Data Needing To Be Collected Species age gender length and weight reproductive condition disease movement us of habitat mortality 0 Can age sh by their scales like tree rings can see how big they were at a certain age 0 Body mass cannot be used to age a sh because it depends on how good environmental conditions and prey are 0 Diet can be found by gastric lavage o Markings n clipping tattoos oy tags PIT tags 0 Movement PIT tags and reader station telemetryl GPS Manager s Toobox 0 Habitat 0 Eggs live on clean aerated substrates 0 Juveniles habitat with vegetation to hide from predators 0 Adult predators need structures to hide behind Hatcheries 0 Not as t as wild sh due to no natural selection in hatcheries 0 When introduced into the environment they often outcompete the smaller native species 0 High densities of sh can cause their wild counterparts to contract diseases the hatchery sh have been vaccinated for 0 Mercury loaded Harvestregulations manage sh size and age structure 0 Maximum sustained yield populations at half of their carrying capacity produce the maximum number of sh harvested each year 0 Intentional Removals remove nonnative sh killing or outcompeting native species 67 nonnatives introduced to Colorado since 19005 0 Human Education 0 Restrictions on bottom trawls o Bait dumping illegal 0 100000 ne and a year in jail Rea d i n g s Wolves In Yellowstone Wolves gone in the twentieth century increased the elk population and lowered the number of berries on the ground which bears like to eat 19905 wolves returned to Yellowstone more berries were found in bear droppings o Shrubs and berries recovering from overgrazing of elks Important to bear diet in late summer Dropped elk herd from 190003400 Bears eat berries in summer and elk in the spring Numbers of bear populations increased 34 times 0000 Water Table And Eutrophication Donana National Park in Spain known for coastal wetlands with 361 species of birds and 750 species of plants In the north there s farmland and tourism take a lot of water from the parks boreholes 4 million cubic meters a year 30 dams upstream also restrict the wetlands water Destruction of native juniper and afforestation of umbrella pine and eucalypts also drain the water Pine has also invaded places once held by heather further draining the water table of Donana National Park Lake Washington in Seattle is undergoing Eutriphication from sewage containing high levels of phosphorus produces lots of cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria grows unchecked in high levels of phosphorus xing nitrogen and adding too many nutrients into lakes Farming can also cause eutrophication by adding large amounts of fertilizer into the water Norfalk Broads are trying to x problem by making farmers use other methods than fertilizer to grow crops domestic sewage is treated and mudsuckers Sometimes sh are introduced to eat cyanobacteria and promote other plants In Venice eutrophication is terrible because of waste being dumped directly into the lagoon no barrier of trees between the city and lagoon and farmers waste dumped into lagoon Bettinatti s team is solving the problem by harvesting Uva and reintroducing Zostera
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