Unit 2 (Ch33-35)
Unit 2 (Ch33-35) EBIO 1040-01
Popular in Evolutionary Biology: Diversity of Life
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Popular in Biology
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This 33 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha R on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EBIO 1040-01 at Tulane University taught by Michael Doosey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology: Diversity of Life in Biology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Spiralia Ecdysozoa Platyzoa Lophotrochozoa Ctenop Mollusca Annelida Anthropoda Nematoda Chordata Echinodermata Cnidaria hora Porifer a Platyhelminthes V 1V 1 Cephalo Neodermata Chelicerata Maryapodia 33 ch ardat vertebra L AL 1 V 7 1 V W V Turbel Cesto Chond ACtino laria Trematoda da Ammote rIchth Amphlbla pteryg Sarcoptergyu yes 11 L 4L 4 L 4 L A C333 schistos Hook Trichin Ascari Gine Platyp Kanga Oposs oma worms ella 5 us roo um SmeSIs Worm Protostomia Spiralia Ecdysozoa Platyzoa Lophotrochozoa Phylum Platyhelminthes Rotifera Mollusca Annelida Anthropoda Nematoda Chelicerata Maryapodia Hexapoda r x J k E r 1 Class Polyplacophora Merostomata Arachnida Chilopoda Diplopoda Crustacea Malacostraca Insecta K J k J r Oligochaeta Hirudinea 1f Order Aranea Scorpiones Isopoda Amphipoda k Hook worms Clonorchls Trichinella Ascaris SpeCIes Sinesis Schlstosoma E Deuterostomia Chordata Echinodermata Urochordata Cephalochordata b Amniote Reptilia Chondrlchthy Amphibia Actmopterygn Mammalla es Bony Fish Sarcoptergyn Bony Flsh AsterOIdea EchInOIdea Ophlurodea CrInOIdea Holothuroidea Porotheria Theria Lungfish f 39 K n 39 39 39 Mgw rsw 1131 N N 7 mm tggmmead gwugm QCSDEEJ Mg m mg x K J K J L J F RhVnChocephalia Chelonia Squamata Crocodylia Monotreme Coelacanth k G e n U S Archaeopteryx D Ichthyostega Tiktaalik K J r x Platypus Kangaroo Opossum SpeCIes Intro to Kingdom Animalia Ch33 Friday September 25 2015 1000 AM 0 Learning Goals 0 Understand 5 key transitions in animal evolution 0 Know what a body cavity is amp how the coelom develops 0 Become familiar with basic animal divisions amp taxonomy 0 General Features of Animals 0 lack rigid cell walls amp are typically more flexible Active move more rapidly amp complexly Diversity of Form Diversity of Habitat I Most occur only in the sea but many occur in freshwater amp land most animals reproduce sexually Embryonic Development 39 Zygote first undergoes a series of mitotic divisions that produces a ball of cells blastula O Tissues 0 Challenges Faced 0 Find amp digest food 0 Find a mate amp reproduce 0 Maintain balance with fluids amp salts o Circulate nutrients 0 Remove waste products Taxonomy 0 Kingdom Animalia O Subkingdom Parazoa I Phylum Porifera sponges O Subkingdom Eumetazoa 39 Clade Radiata radial symmetry 39 Clade Bilateria bilateral symmetry El Protostomes El Deuterostomes 0 Evolution of the Animal Body Form 0 5 KEY TRANSITIONS 1 Symmetry gt El Parazoa Sponges lack definite symmetry DD Eumetazoa have a symmetry defined along an imaginary axis drawn through the animal39s body I 2 Main Types o 0000 O Can be bisected into 2 equal halves in any 2D plain Will look the same from every angle Sessile Organisms tend to have radial symmetry Advantages D Awareness of food mates in all directions D No investment in limbs wings etc amp how to use them 0 Disadvantages D Limited to food that floats by mmquot Capture prey with tentacles or something D Can39t escape danger Defend yourself Ex spikes on outside D How to reach your mates Rely on external fertilization D How to disperse offspring 39 quotM Have motile larva stage 00000 0 Body has right amp left halves that are mirror images bottom top etc 0 Only the sagittal plane bisects the animal into 2 equal halves ltgt Advantages D D For humans head is on top More efficient shape for moving through environment Animals tend to become cephalized as they develop a head a brain amp a central nervous system D Evolution of a definite brain area D Actively seek out food amp mates Run away from predators Animals in motion have a specific direction D Animal awareness becomes concentrated in the direction of motion sense organs are right up front 2 Tissues El Subkingdom Parazoa sponges 9 Lack defined tissues amp organs El Subkingdom Eumetazoa 9 Have distinct amp welldefined tissues 0 Cells have characteristic morphology 3 Body Cavity El Only in eumetazoa El 9 Evolution of efficient organ systems was not possible until there was a cavity for accommodating amp supporting them I During embryonic development produce 3 Germ Layers o 0 0 Acoelomates Pseudocoelomates V w i quot F1Al Unit2 Page 1 IUI GLLUIIIIIIUUGLIIIS 0L bu39J39JUI Lllls LIICIII D During embryonic development produce 3 Germ Layers O O Pseudocoelomates Kx39 Coelomates D 3 Basic Kinds of Body Plans among Bilateria gt O o f 51 ltgt Referred to as the coelom D Advantages O The body cavity made possible the development of advanced organ systems 159 MWquot 3 Wbe bOdY Plan 9 to flow nutrients amp remove wastes O 9 Advantages ltgt I39Tube in a Tubequot 0 within coelom b Fluids are relatively incompressible so the coelom acts as a hydrostatic skeleton ltgt Digestion can be independent of movement 0 for internal organs 0 More space to store gametes 4 Patterns of Development D The Basic Bilaterian pattern of development 9 Mitotic cell divisionscleavages of the egg form ltgt Blastula indents to form a 2layer thick ball with b b 5 Segmentation repeated parts throughout the body D The combination of bilateral symmetry amp a linear I39tube in a tubequot body plan opens up a new evolutionary pathway segmentation El leading ultimately to the most successful organisms arthropods amp chordates D Advantages 9 in adults such as occurs in the annelids 9 because each segment can move independently D Segmentation appeared several times in the evolution of animals m mFIhlgl 8320 Formation of rycn cats pone Coelom 5 Lu C39L UJ ITIr JL L hbl I JUVL IL39LH39IL H I Bilaterians can be divided into 2 Groups 0 I Anus if present develops either from blastopore or another region of embryo I Mouth develops later from another region of the embryo This split in animal evolution occurred at least 540 million years ago They also differ in 3 other function embryological features I Cleavage pattern of embryonic cells gt D Protostomes El Deutrostomes quot 7quot I m quot I Developmental fate of cells gt r r Praia rqmwrr D Protostomes cleavage MT 9 Embryonic cell has a destiny 7 w 1quot a 9 Take one cell gtLoss of all cell tissues that would come from that cell w 39L OMIEDHN D Deutrostomes cleavage v 9 Embryonic cells can become anythIng J J l l l LXL ZLJ U 1i gt Spirallan Protostomes J h39ezmwn 9 Take one cell away others compensate 39 0 Can grow a twin from the one cell taken away I Formation of Coelom gt D Protostomes Schizocoely D Deutrostomes Enterocoely amp l 0 Traditional Classification of Animals a l o Multicellular animals metazoans are traditionally divided into 36 distinct phyla based on km quotW as L M shared anatomy amp embryology m M l n um quot quot39fquot 0 Kingdom Animalia I ubkingdom Pa razoa lacks symmetry amp tissues D Phylum Porifera I ubkingdom Eumetazoa Has symmetry amp tissues D Phylum Cnidaria D Phylum Ctenophora D Clade Bilateria 0 Current Phylogeny O The traditional animal phylogeny is being reevaluated using molecular data 0 Animal phylogeny developed from morphological molecular life history amp other types of relevant data I Some parts of this phylogeny aren39t firmly established I New studies are constantly appearing often with somewhat different conclusions 0 LOOK AT FIGURE 331 amp 332 amp comprehend it Dcutcvostomos 5 a 1 l f Unit2 Page 2 Dwrm wuN Jrih 45 r knvuh4kbu 35rbw ais in p uamkw siat A usaw k v CHEN wmmo w Phyla Porifera amp Cnidaria Monday September 28 2015 945 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Understanding deep divisions with Kingdom Animalia 0 Know characteristics of Porifera Cnidaria amp Ctenophora 0 Know the classes of Phylum Cnidaria amp learn the life cycle of Scyphozoa 0 Kingdom Animalia o Subkingdom Parazoa I Phylum Porifera sponges o Subkingdom Eumetazoa I Clade quotRadiataquot III Phylum Cnidaria jellyfish corals etc III Phylum Ctenophora comb jellies I Clade Bilateria 0 Subkingdom Parazoa Phylum Porifera o therefor lacking organs o 7000 marine species 150 freshwater species 0 Various Growth Forms I III Mobile stage uses various means such as cilia to help them move around I Sessile immobile 0 Types of Reproduction I Asexual Fragmentation I Sexual III into water III 39 eventually will settle amp transform into sessile adult 9 Plankton Small organisms that float or drift in great numbers in bodies of salt or fresh water 0 Cell Types I Truly Multicellular I 3 Functional Layers in the quotvasequot 1 9 Water comes in ostia amp exits osculum o of sponge 0 Used by taxonomists to classify sponges D Types of spicules vary greatly amongst various organisms gt gt Epithelial wall to eggs these support the sponge39s body Amoebocyte ltgtltgtltgt quotSkeletonquot 3 9 Faces the internal cavity Pore Choanocyte ltgtI Spongin D Joint action of choanocyte flagella moves water fiber through the sponge O Flagella pulls food up against the outside mesh of the collarl Spicule Ostium O O Engulfs amp digests food from passing water 6 O Transfers food to amoebocytes primarily in the form of ammonia El i I Choanocyle 1 Water enters through m outer pores 2 Water passes over the choanoc es Flagellum 3 Water enters the spongocoel central cavity 4 Water Lits through the osculum Collar See figure demonstrating processes amp structure of Porifera 0 Subkingdom Eumetazoa 0 Animals with distinct tissues Nucleus Ectoderm iomxs the exoskeleton 0 Symmetry I o Embryos have distinct layers gt Ma a gye Ammang Unit2 Page 4 Animals with distinct tissues Wmmaw Embryos have distinct layers gt oooi III Only in bilateral animals Divided into 2 monophyletic Groups I quotRadiataquot III Phyla Cnidaria Ctenophora I Clade Bilateria III All remaining animal phyla We are Focusing on Clade quotRadiataquot Today o Phylum Cnidaria I Overview III Hydrozoans Coral Anemones III 9100 species III Greek knide nettle III Ancient group Precambrian 580 million years ago III The I Anatomic Structure amp Characteristics gt gt Ectoderm forms the cxoskcletou Mesoderm develops Endoderm v 39 forms themner III A major evolutionary innovation in cnidarians is of food inside the animal 9 Digestion takes place partly in gastrovascular cavity 9 Cells then engulf fragments by III Cnidarians use to capture prey O Mechanism of discharge unknown 9 Some carry venom O This is what creates a jellyfish sting III Bodies have but O 2 Layers to Body Wall 1 Epidermis 2 O No reproductive circulatory or excretory systems D Mesoglea between layers not mesoderm b 9 Body plan has single opening leading to 0 Site of 0 Site of most 0 Site o 0 Simo I Life Cycle gt III Have 2 very different forms in their life cycle a bl I Cnidarian Life Cycle III medusa but many alternate between these 2 forms medusa forms gametes Life Cycle Overview gt 1 Sexes separate 2 O D Coelenterate belongs to the cnidaria ctenophora phylum 3 Metamorphosis into O 4 asexually 0 I Cnidaria Classes III Anthozoa 9 Sea anemones most corals sea fans Solitary amp colonial polyps O O 9 III Cu bozoa O Box Jellies A Harman 9 rm Unit2 Page 5 nor Some cnidarians occur only as polyps amp others exist only as In general in species having both polyp amp medusa in life cycle the lining of organs A Figure 338 Phylum Cnidariatcmdarians m Mimi l quotIlla ll 11 l39 n Elln Jihl39m m quotQuillquoti I39I3939 slim 4le ll I39llquot A llza 1quotltrztlquotquotltnl39tquot l 39ll1ll39l39lllllllllll llH39Jllll lllquotl Yl39l1 S h I V V x up Aux1 u titlh 39l7l39l39l l lI39 1H39 t I39If39ltt39Hr tlr m l39 l t lu39 1 39 l quotJquot t39i ltll39 l39ilx vrnfmlh n T 139 nquot1HIrIlK39W quotin39 l39ltl lrruquot tPll l lll 1 pmquot l 7 ll hHMm tl ltllltfll39ll qvIIIlII39Ilt39I39tlllllull lllltll39flll39dlll v t idsquot A Iulz39 lltIl 1 ll l il l l A I No l 419310 I l39 liil talI 39 St to39y 39 lc mgr3 r I Hydra t 39T Il l Polw Figure 339 Two body forms of cnidarians The polyp and the medusa Adult K f Medusa v39 7 i quot I ll Fertilized egg 1 I quotA ll l x A I I39 V I V Q rphyra Planula I f l jume of polyp lawali t t g Stroblla I 39 polyp ready to bud v39 x 4 Polyp 39 I 39 I ll l tlquotlllquot quot ll W quot3941 39 ana39gcc anquot an N J E Dl39jn3939ul 391quot 11 fquotf39 lL LI 3 III Cubozoa O Box Jellies voraciousfish O Stings may be fatal to humans III Hydrozoa O Hydroids Hydra Portuguese man of war III Scyghozoa 39 O Jellyfish O Medusa more conspicuous amp complex r o Phylum Ctenoghoral I Known as sea walnuts or gooseberries I Has that beat in a coordinated fashion III Largest organism to move using cilia I Many are bioluminescent Unit2 Page 6 Platyhelminthes Rotifers amp Nematodes Ch33 amp 34 Wednesday September 30 2015 1000 AM 0 Learning Goals 0 Become aware of the diversity of phyla Platyhelminthes flatworms Rotifera amp Nematoda 0 Learn about the parasitic lifestyle 0 Know about human diseases caused by parasitic worms 0 Know the classes of flatworms Kingdom Animalia o Subkingdom Parazoa I Phylum Porifera o Subkingdom Eumetazoa I Clade Radiata El Phylum Cnidaria El Phylum Ctenophora I Clade Bilateria El Protostomes O Spiralia O Ecdysozoa El Deuterostomes Evolution of the Animal Body Plan 0 Bilateria is divided into 2 groups P ROTOSTO M ES 0 Clades of Protostomes All protostomes belong to either the Spiralia or the Ecdysozoa o Spiralia I Embryos develop using I I of the body musculature I 2 Clades El Platyzoa Rotifera amp Platyhelminthes 9 Most prominent group are the flatworms platyhelminthes Lophophore Trochophore 0 Simple bodies with systems quot39 quotm 39 j quotquot Anlunm ltgt system 0 Includes marine amp freshwater planarians amp parasitic flukes amp tapeworms El Lophotrochozoa Bryozoa Mollusca amp Nemertea O 2 Defining Characteristics 0 mm v u 3 rig xx HH ud z o I I present that39s what is molted I Includes 2 large groups nilnphnphnr nu pholomd warm Ibihncnnphnnlarm I I SpiraliaPlatyzoa Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms O o SoftBodied animals 0 Bodies are solid aside from an I Only El Muscular contractions in the pharynx allows food to be ingested amp torn into small bits 0 O O I Marine freshwater moist terrestrial o System 0 parasitic flatworms lack digestive systems El Instead directly through body walls 0 Have an amp osmoregulatory system I by the control of water and salt concentrations 0 Simple nervous system F amp I can distinguish light from dark 0 Reproduction I I reproduction I Also h regeneration 0 El Trematoda Flukes El Cestoda Ta peworms Classes T quot quot39l l o Turbellaria I Class Turbellaria flatworms gigswuqu CI 3000 Species 39 El El Dugesia Common planarian in bio labs UnitZ Page 7 o Turbellaria I ClassTurbellaria flatworms ef gymm El 30005pecies Dugesia Common planarian in bio labs marine Some marine species eat cnidarians amp incorporate the cnidocytes into their own epidermis o Neodermata I Class Trematoda flukes El 11000 Species Trematoda El El Intricate lifestyles 9 Complex life cycles within intermediate hosts Highly modified parasitic flatworms that attach to host I I I I K Ganglia Ventral nanc cord 39s enzymes mam El Specific Species O Clonorchis Sinensis Chinese liver fluke ltgt Infects 20 million in East Asia 0 Spreads through using human feces to fertilize irrigated fields spreads through fish amp snails 0 Causes jaundice amp liver cirrhosis O Schistosoma ltgt Schistosomiasis Infects 200 million people in tropics 0 Causes anemia diarrhea amp tissuebrain damage I Class Cestoda tapeworms CI 5000 Species El Greek kestos belt El Up to 30 feet long El Highly modified to intestinal walls of host El Shows ultimate parasite strategy quotif you don39t need it get rid of itquot Cestoda rostellum GraVId a aproglomd l 09 Hill 0 El Uses 9 Primitive excretory amp nervous system 39mmaw39e Iomd o 93909 Flame Cell uml 39Ilh O No respiratory system I Body consists of a 2000 o 0 Each proglottid can make 100000 eggs 0 One tapeworm makes 600 million eggs per year 0 o O Proglottids shed in feces b Proglottids scatter over grass gtcows get infected by eating grass gttapeworms form cysts in beef muscles gtinfect humans who eat Rotifera Phiodina rare beef I Phylum Rotifera o found in between grains of soil or sand 0 Feeding I Uses draws particles into the mouth I Muscular I They are sessile filter feeders or raptorial pursue prey or both 0 I Brain I 1 eye spots I Sensorybristles O o Reproduction I Although they have sexes are sepa rate El reproduction is usually parthenogenic o Ecdysozoa Phylum Nematoda o Consists of vinegar eels eelworms amp other roundworms o I Marine freshwater parasitic amp freeliving Covered by a flexible thick cuticle that is molted as they grow Digestive system is well developed Sexual Reproduction OOOO egg larval adult Emetobdmn n Ichkuis El Caenorhabditis elegans has only 959 cells I Important in genetic amp developmental studies o Lifestyles I prey on protists amp other small animals I of plants I Others live within the bodies of larger 39 El Largest known nematode 9 met placenta of sperm whales 0 About 50 soecies cause human disease UnitZ Page 8 I prey on protists amp other small animals I of plants I Others live within the bodies of larger El Largest known nematode 9 met 0 About 50 species cause human disease I Hookworms El El Produces anemia quotlaziness germquot I TrichineIa causes trichinosis El Forms cysts in muscles from larva El Infection from eating undercooked meat I Ascaris Lumbricoides intestinal roundworm D L The Life Cycle of Guinea Worm Disease placenta of sperm whales El Adult female can be 30 cm long OThocycle slam El Rare In areas With modern plumbing swumumwl m Cquot all 39 J U39quotIl39i a n l I Gumea Worm lDranuncuus MedneSIsl If 33733 3 3 3mwn mm m mm1quot m m Ixnlx nubnut Hand l39quotll lquotbL AIfll39D rlnhu hva ru MICr Mun uu 179101 minquot Inquot1 lcm slo anam1ra nullquot anquot myquot 1 PM lluquot h El Adult female worm up to 12 meters long I 0 The cycle continues I 39N lax wuch 39MI 015 mu vvpg39d h Ilw unAlI IwurM 1 uvlmb quotn I lnlv39u null IVI IIN bow um M c quotmy fan pr mmm wm may O 0 Ex Water Flee El Life Cycle 1 Eggs are released in water Eaten by copepod People consumed copepods when drinking water Worm enters the body through drinking water contaminated with the copepod Copepod dissolves in the stomach releasing larval worms Worm matures amp begins to tunnel under the skin 7 Secretes irritant that causes papules to form on ankles amp wrists I Other serious tropical nematode diseases El Filariasis El Elephantiasis 9915quot Flea is the copepod UnitZ Page 9 Mollusks Friday October 2 2015 1000 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Learn the four dominant classes of Mollusca I Know the taxonomy I Diversity of morphologies 0 Know the functions of the mantle foot amp radula 0 Kingdom Animalia o Subkingdom Parazoa I Phylum Porifera o Subkingdom Eumetazoa I Clade Radiata III Phylum Cnidaria III Phylum Ctenophora I Clade Bilateria III Protostomes O Lophotrochozoa Mollusca amp others III Deuterostomes PHYLUM MOLLUSCA 0 Overview 0 100000 Species I Second in diversity only to arthropods 0 Include snails slugs clams octopuses amp others 0 Some have shells some don39t 0 Range in size from microscopic to huge O O Economically significant in other ways I Pearls are produced in oyster a I F use A a III An mollusk that has a shallow ear shaped pierced with respiratory holes 9 Edible marine mollusk I Zebra mussels edible 0 Body Plan Nophrldium if there is one o I I for many calm Intestine Divided into Canada m 0 Internal Organs Monti III Limited to small spaces around the excretory organs heart amp part of the intestine v III Also Anus III They are very efficient Shell Gm l I against predator amp adverse environments Ctenidium I Secreted by outer surface of mantle I Typical shell has O o Radula gt N Mouth ONO I Characteristic of most mollusks m cord Emphagu I I algae or other foods 0 Circulatory System I Open CirCUIatory sys ceme u H OPEN cmcuuroav SVSIEM Hem III Hemoymph sloshes around hemocoel maivalve mollusk r MJMmai Mamk vessels vesses Ventnde 0 It39s a series of spaces between the internal organs Arm 2 I 39 77 39 b It encloses most of the internal organs quot 0 Blood and other fluids circulate through it III I 0 Reproduction Sums g o 39 39 warm ownam sum I Few are hermaphroditic b mma39 Vcsvm vessel branchlal vesse o I fertilization o Free swimming larval stage 0 Similar to Annelida Bryozoa amp Nemertea elf mouth p I es CLASSES OF MOLLUSKS PolyplacophoraChitons o 1000Species O o group of mollusks 322 aorta gonad pericardium ventricle shell plate r r aun39cle Unit2 Page 10 Polyplacophora Chitons 1000 Species O O O OO O group of mollusks I Other mollusks are highly modified versions of the primitive chiton body plan polymany placophoraplates gt Soft body Highly adapted for adhering to rocks amp other hard surfaces like flatworms 0 Gastropoda Limpets Snails Slugs Whelks Conch O O 00 62000 living species I Has the widest range of ecological niches among the mollusks Highly 39 Moves bv waves of Basic I III Feed with I Scrapes algae or animals from various surfaces III Can bore through shells of other mollusks Clades in the quotGroupquot Snails amp Slugs characterized by their ability to breath air III Adapted for life on land III III Their III 9 Vividly colored amp patterned o 9 Have 0 Bivalvia Clams Oysters Scallops O O 0 Cephalopoda Squids Octopuses Cuttlefishes Chambered nautilus amp Ammonites Buried in the sand ca rries off o 700 Species o Offense Defense I III III Feed on fish crustaceans other mollusks I Quickly squeeze o AnatomicalStructureCharacteristics 0 Giant Squid Architeuthis amp Colossal Squid Mesonychoteuthis are most mysterious is extremely sophisticated 9 Can still submerge in water must return to surface to breathe Can be grazers browsers filter feeders scavengers detritivores amp even carnivores O Mantle cavity amp anus are moved from the posterior to the anterior gt gt for defenseattack just like flatworms amp jellyfish Si I ion to cover their escape Tentacles III Looks amp works like the vertebrate eye cornea lens iris amp retina I Formed from ancestral mollusk by extending dorsal surface to become the head III 8 in octopus 10 in squid many in nautilus gt g Nautilus Scuxd 333 aorta gonad pericardium ventricle 39 39 39 Tquot 39I auncle girdle nephridium pedal nerve cord v man a ywk a Torsion in gastropods T I 393 J r x b l A 39 e s v39 Mantle cavny Mantle Anus Anus now i Hr anteror 39 Bivalvia Hinch an CW39quotquot 299139quot 6 Hum Addnclm I39 muscle Digeslivo 39 and Ill Anus Mouh 39 l I i39 mphon z I 4 39 y I v39 r quot 1 quotz l Water ow Morale Inca mm may Gonod Gill siphon Octopus A III OUTERMOST CHAMBER Only mollusks with a active predators mm are all mu of I Shell gt gt I s shequot consists 0 0 III III I Size III Squid are the largest invertebrates 40 50 feet long 0 Uses vl Th uni6 ll fquot T 19 2 A helium unmn 5 T qud L 29 2quot ca A 3quot 1 Tquot 112thle Lawn 6 3939 39 1111 h 12 9 Size estimated from squid sucker scars on sperm whales their chief predator III Giant octopi seen with tentacles 45 feet long In sea ofJapan o Colossal Squid Mesonychoteuthis Hamiltoni Unit2 Page 11 AnneHdaCh34 Monday October 5 2015 1002 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Learn the 3 classes of Annelida 0 Know the taxonomy 0 Diversity of morphologies 0 Understand how segmentation led to an increase in the complexity of structure amp function in annelids 0 Kingdom Animalia o Subkingdom Parazoa I Phylum Porifera o Subkingdom Eumetazoa I Clade Radiata III Phylum Cnidaria III Phylum Ctenophora I Clade Bilateria III Protostomes 9 Lophotrochozoa 0 Phylum Mollusca 0 Phylum Annelida El Deuterostomes PHYLUM ANNELIDA 0 Diversity 0 15000 Species I Majority are marine worms 0 Live in 0 Include marine bristle worms leeches amp earthworms Coelom Annuli MetamereSomite Dorsal mcscmmy 0 Segmentation amp metamerism O 1 1 0 Evolution of metamerism allowed much greater complexity in structure amp function Ventral mesenlery Seplu m Evolution of a more I Provides III This is why a worm can live after being cut in half The ancestral larval form 000 earthworms o aquatic worms 0 Hydrostatic Skeleton NOT FOUND IN LEECHES cgtIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII o Peristalsis of longitudinal amp circular muscles body cavity psoudocoel around gm mmg ygemowm I it E 21quot 1111 r W Body Plan 0 Head is composed of 2 segments I I Terminal portion TheIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIII I quotTube in Tubequot Get diagrams of anatomy cross section head general body 0 O O O O 0 Taxonomy 0 2Clades 39 mwolvchaetes Unit2 Page 12 D Primarily amp usually the bottom of the body of water I Clitellata Oligochaetes amp Hirudinea a O 3 Classes I Class Polychaeta bristle worms I Class Oligochaeta earthworms I Class Hirudinea leeches CLADES amp CLASSES Clade Polychaeta 0 Class Polychaeta SandwormsBristle Worms 0 Diversity D 10000 Species I Mostly I 1 mm 3 meters long I Some l inhabit or are inhabit upper layers of the sea 0 Characteristics I Important part of marine food chains I Welldifferentiated 0 Form amp Function I Prostomium may or may not be retractile D Often bears D Surrounds mouth amp amp other parts ma worm in a tube D Usually the O Circulation amp Respiration I Most have I Circulation varies D In Nereis a d O Nervous System amp Sense Organs I Dorsal cerebral ganglia I Sense Organs a a o Reproduction amp Development Membrane lining abdomen amp covers abdominal organs I 0 Specific Types I Nereis Clamworms gt D Lives in mucuslined burrows near low tide 0 Comes out of hiding night to search for food D Predatory D Head 0 Prostomium has 2 Prostomial tentacles Palp ltgt Palps sensitive to touch amp taste 0 Short sensory tentacles 0 Small dorsal eyes sensitive to light 0 Peristomium has Prostomium Peristomium ltgt Aventral mouth 0 2 jaws ltgt 8 sensory tentacles D Segments with parapodia Clade Clitellata o Monophyletic group O Unit2 Page 13 Jaw Vta E39 n39ttenn39ae Sensory Palps 7 m 393 HE KE Ii Ferretamigo H Prostomium Alta cirri Polychaeta Circulatory System intestinal pa39cpodlol le culmmn c rculo Ion ventral vessel Nereis Evened pharynx Tentacles cirri Setae Parapodia O 0 Reproduction my head and an called a clitellum clitelllum 0 Permanent in Oligochaetes Only forms during reproductive season in Hirudinea D Mucus secreted by clitellum holds worms together a I 39 I39 0 Young worms emerge from cocoon 53 0 Exhibit The newborn offspring of a species is similar in most regards quotx to the adult seminal receptacle 39 Rana nl spar VI 0 Class Oligochaeta Earthworms 0 Diversity I 3000 Species Occur in habitats of o Forma amp Function I Sometimes called quotnight crawlersquot Bloodvessels I Burrow in moist rich soil amp I t t Gizzard quotes 41 D Damp Oesophagus Crop 0 Why you see worms on sidewalk after it rains tunnels were flooded amp they were near surface D underground amp go dormant coiled in a slime 39 39 sc39e 39ayer chamber Brain Spenglgggtndium Seminal vesncle 39 Contractions Of Seminal receptacle I Contraction of the ligree 00rd D Causes segments to become short amp wide pushing against the burrow Mo 0 Setae I Bristlelike rods set in a sac amp moved by tiny muscles glizzagrdl dimmllbio dvessal I outward in cuticle 39 I by digging into walls of burrow 0 Nutrition I D Feed on decayed organic matter leaves refuse etc I I Muscular into small pieces I 0 Circulation amp Respiration I aortic arches 39 Blood weasel I Longitudinal Digestive 0 Nervous System amp Sense Organs muscles be I central nervous system amp quot I No eyes a Has many can respond tolight 3152 o Reproduction amp Development I Setae Class Hirudinea 0 Diversity feed on small invertebrates E 0 Form amp Function D Developed 12 suckers parasites have 2 0 Most use suckers to attach amp quotinchquot along surfaces I Nephridiopore Sense organ D Especially for blood sucking ones Salivary D Enables them to consume more than their body mass gland 0 Nutrition I Not all are parasitic Male gonopore Female for ingesting smaller invertebrates amp suck blood gonopore Seminal vesicle Unit2 Page 14 lVlalB gonopore 0 Nutrition I Not all are parasitic Female for ingesting smaller invertebrates amp suck blood gonopore Seminal vesicle I Other terrestrial leeches climb trees or bushes to reach I Most are D Prefer tissue fluids amp blood pumped from open wounds 0 Reproduction duct I Cocoons are buried in mud or damp soil 0 Medicinal Leeches Crop Intestine I PostOperative Therapy D Especially during reconnection of severed limbs 0 Keeps swelling of down so there isn39t too much blood not circulating amp causing tissue to die Posterior ucke Unit2 Page 15 Arthropoda Ch34 Wednesday ctober 7p 2 15 1 2 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Learn characteristics of arthropods amp differences between annelids 0 Know that jointed appendages are adapted for many purposes 0 Become aware of diversity of arthropods 0 Learn the taxonomy of subphyla classes and some orders of arthropods 0 Taxonomy 0 Subkingdom Parazoa O Subkingdom Eumetazoa I Radiata I Bilateria III Protostomes O Ecdysozoa ltgt Arthropoda 0 Nematoda El Deuterostomes 0 Age of Arthropods 0 There are 3x as many species of arthropods as all other animal species 0 There may be as many 2030 million species of arthropods waiting to be discovered 0 Most are insects 0 Over 25 of all known species on Earth are just different ways of make a bee e Phylum Arthropoda 0 History 0 Nearly 12 million named species of arthropods does not include extinct species I Abundance amp wide ecological distribution makes them the most diverse animal group 0 Rich fossil history dating to late Precambrian were arthropods O ampwith 0 Morphology O with welldeveloped organ systems 0 Part of arthropod success explained by I Tagmosis III Fusion of segments into 9 3 Major Body Sections 0 Head thorax amp abdomen 0 Head amp thorax may be fused into cephalothorax o Bodies are covered with a tough cuticle nonliving outer layer El Protects against water loss III Must undergo ecdysis molting III Hydrostatic skeleton function was lost 39 ior division of labor III May be modified into antennae mouthparts or wings I Can be extended amp retracted I Joints provide III Each joint has a set of tendons that can be pulled back amp forth by tiny muscles III Allows for an infinite variety of movements Biramous Uniramous Li I 539 i ii gt Unit2 Page 16 III Allows for an infinite variety of movements No motile cilia I Typically molt 47 times I Vulnerable while molting very active I Intricate mouthparts OO O III Highly Developed Sensory Organs Eves vary from simple I Have other sensory structures for touch smell hearing balancing amp chemical reception 0 Reproduction O o Pronounced o O 0 They creep crawl amp swim with modified legs They used modified to bite sting suck amp chew They used modified as sensory organs pedipalps antennae Many used modified legs to reproduce with I Ex Crawfish 0 Economic Importance 0 Seafood industry edible insects O Pollinate commercial crops fruit 0 Carry or cause many diseases I Malaria Typhus amp Lyme 0 Primary converts of plant to animal tissue 0 Size 0 Very small mites gt 35 meters long 0 why I Size limited by I The O O O O for gas exchange a large insect would be immobile by predators TAXONOMY 0F PHYLUM ARTHROPODA 0 SubphylumTrilobita o Extinct Trilobites 0 Subphylum Chelicerata 0 Spiders Scorpions Ticks Horseshoe Crabs 0 Subphylum Myriapoda O Centipedes Millipedes 0 Subphylum Crustacea O Crustaceans 0 Subphylum Hexapoda O Insects Subphylum Trilobita 0 Ancient O Arose before the Cambrian flourished amp then became extinct 200 million years ago 0 Bottom dwellers 0 Scavengers 0 267 cm long Unit2 Page 17 Subphylum Chelicerata Spiders scorpions ticksmites horseshoe crabs Appendages o modified as chelicerae O I Includes 0 0 Body divided into cephalothorax amp abdomen 0 Most suck liquid food from prey 0 Classes 0 Class Merostomata Horshoe Crabs amp Water Scorpions extinct El From the Triassic Period 0 The modern horseshoe crab El Most 0 Class Arachnida Spiders Scorpions Ticks amp Mites I Diversity El 80000 Species El Mostly 0 Common in warm dry regions I Most are predaceous El Have claws fangs poison glands or stingers El Mostly towards insects El ingest fluids amp soft tissues from bodies of their prey o Fe Elli pally Fmanma El 40000 species El Anterior appendages are a pair of El 0 Modified for in males Spiniwr tt V 0 Basal parts of pedipalps used to El terminate in claws Respiratory Breathe by 1 Parallel air pockets extend into blood filled chamber 2 Air enters chamber through a slit in body wall Sensory Systems 0 Most have ltgt Each have a lens optic rod amp retina I I O O Detect air currents web vibrations amp other stimuli Web Spinning Habits Wm 39 quot39 WWWquot Cm I39m w W 39 Has I 0 Spinning silk is a O Silk used for orb webs lining burrows forming egg sacks amp wrapping prey El 0 Silk amp will stretch a lot before 0 NAHHH 0 They help keep insect populations in check 0 American tarantulas rarely bite amp their bite isn39t dangerous 0 Fuck Yeah they Savage 0 Species of black widows are dangerous Sham J Venom is neurotoxic 3933 pedipalps Unit2 Page 18 douse ws 0 Fuck Yeah they Savage 0 Species of black widows are dangerous gt Venom is neurotoxic ltgt Brown Recluse Spiders b Hemolytic venom destroys tissue around bite I Order Scorpiones Scorpions CI 1400 Species worldwide a zones but occur in temperate areas I I Feed on insects amp spiders at a I Order Acari Ticks amp Mites El 30000 species so far I I Size 0 Mites gt1 mm long 0 Ticks gt2 cm Medically amp economically the most important arachnids D Unit2 Page 19 chel icorae 39i39r podipalp 5d 39 u l K 539 E n I n l x I 39 39H kL a a rquot iI39Er Genital w organs 1 39 39 Walking legs Tjl q comin mEquotquot xquotl i L I39 i it Lung I If in I I opening quotrmquot 13mg 39anus first walking pedipalps leg chelicera abdomen Arthropoda Ch34 Friday October 9 2015 1203 PM I Learning Objectives 0 Learn the taxonomy of subphyla classes amp some orders 0 Understand hexapodainsecta life history amp metamorphosis SUBPHYLUM MARYAPODIA Chilopoda amp Diplopoda I Class Diplopoda Millipedes o 10000 Species 0 Body Plan bodies I 25 100 segments 0 Most I Few eat living plant tissue 0 Some I Class Chilopoda Centipedes o 30005pecies O 0 Body Plan I bodies I Up to 177 segments I I O I Eat earthworms cockroaches amp other insects 0 Mostly harmless to humans I Some tropical centipedes are dangerous SUBPHYLUM CRUSTACEA I Diversity 0 67000Iivingspecies O I quotInsects of the Seaquot Mi Illipee e mumlied 1 litmu head short H antenna a quot nimutli Must huhquot egaaaems limit 2 pairs ILIIl lugsI Centipede hrm Twill antenna I K agl rf 1 ii if Mast body segments have II lair William 0 Crabs Shrimp Lobsters Barnacles Crayfish Copepods Pi bugs amp Sand fleas I Body Plan 0 O O Appendages are I Head amp Thorax fused to form a cephalothorax I Abdomen Head 1 pair are antennules II 1 Pair of II 2 Pairs o Zbranched I Covers most of body or just cephalothorax I Most have a larva unlike the adult in form amp undergo o I Evidence of common ancestor for diverse group I Class Malacostraca 0 Diversity I 20000 Species I 3 Subclasses amp 14 Orders 0 Order Isopoda I Only truly I crustaceans I Common landforms include sow bugs amp pill bugs I Some are highly modified as parasites as fish I Body Plan I I II Have 0 Order Amphipoda I Resemble isopods Last abdominal somitetagma consisting of rminImWull I39 I lamaquot Laupurlsva In a I I III39IJIIIIiI a 9 quot a 39 5 K LI 3 III T 5 f 1qu If iLuuc nmcnna 1 I l 1 II V I l 395quot quot quot 39 II I u I NI HI quot1 an39il llllll39ll a 39 5 39 I quotL39 a quot Iliaslaumen m 4 39E39I HI 39 139 quot quotEAquot2 in nu if I Hir II a II I 39 H39 39 39 3 Ira3 Li n n ilmrnx 39 2 E 1 quothi ll ll 39 I I ed am 151 H mm 39n mm 39Ill39araiul l iailm am humname munmmm lhc pll Ema cm ltE39l ll39l39l a III39UIEEIM hull I Ill39rl1nE39liquotn 3939rrrr General morphology of a gaImmarId amphipod I mum k l 1 u ra I GIs are In thoraCIc regIon gi PM like i 39 MM I Many are Wm II Others are beachdwelling freshwater or parasitic In sinsmgga 39 0 Order Decapoda I Cray sh lobsters crabs amp true shrimp I 18000 Species I Appendages El 0 It crabs the first pair of walking legs form pinchers El II Legspan ranges from a few millimeters to 35 meters SUBPHYLUM HEXAPODA I Class Insecta 0 Diversity II More the halfthe animal species I One billion billions 1018 insects are alive right now UnitZ Page 20 2nd amen I39lclrupqll anal El n 39I39Ijlsrw39 39rfir39JI aIr Ii quotl k 39e39VJIUT III I 139 I lquotquota haii my ulnai nunwtquot I39apaflr39 0 Diversity III More the half the animal species I One billion billions 1018 insects are alive right now cau an m if 1quot I Found in nearly all habitats except the sea if Ai 1 N III Common in freshwater brackish water amp salt marshes 53 39a39i wm39 mt Lilli III Abundant in soils forest canopies deserts amp wastelands 0 Adaptive Traits I I withstand rigorous conditions amp are readily dispersed 0 Body Plan I III Head III Thorax Son wave and nitrogenous wage 0 Has a A o outgrowths of body wall V c M III Abdomen Foeccs and mine I Universal mouthpart structures lt Anus III Modifications reflect eating habits 0 Internal Organization 7 39V I 4 j v39lni gflrc Rec39um midgut quot V Nlndgu39 takes place through Malpighian Tubules wdguv 1 Reamovphon 0 H30 mm and valuable organic molcc utcs III Formed bellows to III Spiracles through which air enters the tracheal system 0 sensory Receptors Momu hothoul Madhou 7N x or Wen we El Detect chemical amp mechanical signals 15 3quot quot 39 4 quot quot 39 quot 39 39 39 39 V quot El Detects sound 39 u I I 39 39 quot lt used a quot quot III Pheromones A chemical excreted by an animal affecting the 39 behavior or physiology of others of its species III Mating signals trail markers 0 Many insects undergo metamorphosis Hemimetabolous Development III Simple metamorphosis El Complete Metamorphosis o Insects amp Human Welfare I Beneficial Insects III Insects produce III Bees 10 billion worth of food crops in the US annually III They39re s amp an important food source for many fish amp birds I Harmful Insects El Some eat amp destroy plants amp fruits 0 Nearly every cultivated crop has several insect pests El Some destroy food clothing amp property III Medically important insects include vectors for disease agents 0 is carried by Anopheles mosquitos O Fleas carry a disease that changed human history in the Middle Ages 0 s is carried by mosquitos TAXONOMY o Phylum Arthropoda 0 SubphylumTrilobita O Subphylum Chelicerata I Class Merostomata I Class Arachnida III OrderAraneae III OrderScorpiones III OrderAcari o Subphylum Myriapoda I Class Chilopoda I Class Diplopoda O Subphylum Crustacea I Class Malacostraca III Orderlsopoda III OrderAmphipoda III Order Decapoda O Subphylum Hexapoda I Class Insecta Unit2 Page 21 Echinoderms and Protochordates Ch35 Monday ctober 12 2015 1000 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Understand differences between protostomes and deuterostomes 0 Know Echinoderm morphology and taxonomy 0 Know the four characteristics of Chordates 0 Learn the subphyla of Chordata TAXONOMY 0 Kingdom Animalia o Subkingdom Eumetazoa I Clade Bilateria III Protostomia ii Deutrostomia O Phylum Echinodermata O Phylum Chordata Review Differences Between Deutrostomes amp Protostomes O O 0 Evolution of the Animal Body Plan 0 Deuterostomes differ from protostomes ii Protostomes Spiral cleavage III Deuterostomes Radial cleavage ii Protostomes Determinate development ii Deuterostomes Indeterminate development PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA 0 Diversity 0 6000 Species I Sea stars brittle stars sea urchins sand dollars sea cucumbers 0 Greek spine derma skin 0 0 Origin remains unclear I Thought to have evolved from bilaterally symmetrical ancestors because larvae are bilaterally symmetrical Symmetry Pentaradial symmetry O I 5 axes of symmetry o Composed ojust beneath the skin 0 May be tightly or loosely joined 0 All members have I Provides the ability to maintain a variety of postures with no muscular effort V O Radially organized Process 1 Water 2 Water flows through 3 extends from the ring canal may have suckers I Tube feet are generally on the oral side to make contact with substrate I by means of tube feet 0 Reproduction 0 Regeneration Manyableto I Some reproduce asexually by splitting O O Unit2 Page 22 VIII n Ii clone cuntl EiJrrv39il nrwil III Each class has a characteristic type of larvae Asteroidea 5 CLASSES not extinct of Echinodermata 0 Class Asteroidea sea stars amp sea daisies 0 Important in many marine systems 0 Some have 0 Class Echinoidea sea urchins amp sand dollars Echinoiea O 0 Some eat the uni eggs of a sea urchin 0 Class Ophiurodea brittle stars O o Probably most abundant group in terms of s of species amp s of individuals in a habitat o unlike starfish that go like this gt 0 Very o Often Class Crinoidea sea lilies amp feather stars gt 0 GET MORE ON THEM 0 Class Holothuroidea sea cucumbers O Ophiuroidea Crinoidea o Holothuroidea Unit2 Page 23 Chordata Ch35 Wednesday October 142015 1000 AM Introduction on Oct 12th PHYLUM CHORDATA Chordates are deuterostome coelomates Nearest relatives are echinoderms only other deuterostomes Fishes amphibians reptiles birds amp mammals I Distinguishing Features Fig 354 quotM O augments O I Provides a stiff primitive endoskeleton so that the organism can move I Beneath the nerve chord I Originally evolved for filter feeding in water I Later was adapted for respiration I In other organisms the anus is the most posterior thing on the body Chordate Characters in Adults in regards to humans 0 Nerve Chord gtSpinal Chord amp Brain 0 Notochord gtReplaced by bony vertebrate vertebral column 0 Pharyngeal SlitsPouches gtMost are lost except for one that becomes the Eustachian Tube I Some remnants help form thyroid gland and other things Post Anal Tail gtRegresses coccyx bone I Sometimes infants are born with a slight remnant but it is removed in surgery I This clearly does remain in other species Other Distinguishing Characteristics 0 Chordata o 3 SUBPHYLUMS Subphylum Urochordata 0 1300 Species m 0 Greek Ouratail39 Latin Chordacord tunicates O against which the muscles work what does this mean OOO Covered with I Larval amp Adult Stages El Larvae 0 Tadpole like have notochord amp nerve chord 0 Has all characteristics of chordates they will further develop as they El Adults 0 Typicall o that surrounds the animal I Pharynx lined with cilia El ubphylum Cephalochordata LanceletsAmphioxus 0 Greek Khephale head Latin chordachord O 30 Species Closest relatives to vertebrates O 0 common in 0 Hard to see because they39re buried in the sand with only their mouth sticking out lvl throughout lifetime OOOOOO not inherited from protostomes I Segmentation in chordates is probably an adaptation of burrowing as in am NOTES FOR TODAY SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA 0 Learning Goals 0 Distinguish Vertebrates from other Chordates 0 Learn the classes of Subphylum Vertebrata 0 Know howjaws evolved in fishes 0 Understand the adaptations for the invasion of terrestrial habitats by vertebrates TAXONOMY 0 Kingdom Animalia O Subkingdom Eumetazoa I Deuterostomia El Phylum Echinodermata El Phylum Chordata 0 Subphylum Urochordata 0 Subphylum Cephalochordata 0 Subphylum Vertebrata Subphylum Vertebrata Vertebrates are chordates with a spinal column Distinguished from non vertebrates by O I I Replaces Notochord during embryonic development ead I Distinct amp well differentiated I O Unit2 Page 24 Notochord 1IIIIIvlIlI39I39IIII Dorsal hollow nerve cord iv IlIIV I LquotII II III IIII I E II IIIm39Il vawweea hr hi Ii your ILL 39em Ia un Waryq Inlnmrr 301ml ml Lul 51 TIII I Cir4w Ilanr Imi uln III r a may Ll39lll tfl NJIII lIll ll39 I Illlvlllil39Jl391quotllquotl39llll39lvl39lMlll39l le I d llmll II In IIII Il IlII39 IIII ll 1quot If ll39 null lquot JIIJl39l minI unr Mrcccrc Icntun crl crcr Cum rum to v 5h ij Holihj tnf P iJ39l P Imy39u win 3911 1l Figure 357 Tunlcales phylum Chordata subphylum Urochovdala a Elu v1 pm I Hum v39 IIurvmnsm luvuh r l39l1lt t TlIi39I I II 39I ll39llll lllIl39l1lllt l39lt I lelllmtIvImnup 0 Other Characteristics O I I Contributes to the development of various structures 0 PHYLOGENYHISTORY OF VERTEBRATES A WW quot Wm O n l awval 39 mamau winam munmm bimboM ownm lump 7 2 than I Made of cartilage or bone I hm 39 J 4 5 db S 939 ul ifquot 35 A 0 Brief History of Vertebrates 39 mm 0 lst appeared in the oceans about 545 million years ago 1231133537 quot quot quotquot 39 quot u I Mouth on end fin the other quot39 quot13quot 53 439 O Jawed fishes soon became dominant o Amphibians invaded the land WW Hm 31112 o Reptiles replaced them as the dominant land vertebrates w m l j39quot mv 0 Birds amp mammals became dominant after Cretaceous mass extinction I limit 0 Evolution of Jaws M 2221 J cw quot39 W 139 The lst shes had mouths With Hgqu 3511 Phyloqmyol jghying quotmenuquot m i p v lu I39 wva 2 Development of that were made of cartilage r n 3 y of all chordates at some point I i I Larger more active chordates need more oxygen gttissue between slits become quot39 quot 39 more surface area quotin 39 23 m 4 to hold slits open 539 Gi arChes become Figure 3513 Evolution oflhejaw e 6 Boney gill arches n x it I 1q1 739 ulrn ml xln I Vertebrates 0 Devonian Period 0 Known as quotage of fishes39I 0 Armored fishes placoderms amp spiny fishes acanthodians both had jaws I common during El I common in El Much O essentially all of these pioneer vertebrates disappeared in one of several mass extinctions 400 million years ago 0 TABLE 351 Wamof shes i Antonino lumber 39 group In typiuliupm In hummus 011Mquot Specch O 30000 Species 500 families SM mam rimi hurt ui V IH mumMm m win a whim 0 Over half of all vertebrates my WWW Z ktmwvnx in mgs H nld m39 v 39IVI39IQUVInWl um HI hr 2r 0 39 Characteristics ml a 1mm w unlike 2 2 1xoquotlm 393 O Vertebral Column Hagfish amp lamprey exceptions ELM WWW h mm Hmmwwm 0 WM quot MWWM o 39 I Hagfish amp lamprey exceptions WMmuquot onr lnr v3939 1w r39u39 39 wombMuquot 39r O Bquot mum rA39mmm39L m 1 n v 1121 x m quotcmlal O Q 39 dr 39 I Inability has been inherited by all their vertebrate descendants quotquotquot quotWquot it Wquot I Unable to synthesize aromatic amino acids quot CLASSES 2 Clades Pumai Annmmr r39 wivmmm mm a39r n eftvn 39n quotu quotmy E i l 0 CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES sharks skates rays quot 39 SPEClES hrmtnml 3901qu lhlriMl39i39lh li1Niyllr mu ulmu xixrum n nl F n I I Became the dominant sea predators in the Carboniferous period 280 Million years ago L quotquot quotquot 53 quot quot quotquotquot quot mquot 139339 El Calcified with granules of El Light strong skeleton El El Easily lost but continuously replaced I Sharks amp bony fishes have fully developed El I Reproduction El Different from other fishes El In most species the I Sharks have El Not able to recover quickly from population declines CLADE Boney Fishes 0 1m 400 million years ago I Adopted a completely of bone Most speciesrich group of all vertebrates 30000 species Significant adaptations include swim bladder amp gill cover that allows bony fishes to I Filled amp drained with gases internally O O O I Flexing plate I Efficient bellows system when stationary CLASSES amp are born via Class Actinopterygii Rayfinned fishes I Most diverse vertebrate class Unit2 Page 25 Sinum hlnmlrv quot 39 nayitma a 39 39s39h 39 quotquot umm m 39 Efficient bellows system when stationary CLASSES 0 Class Actinopterygii Rayfinned fishes I Most diverse vertebrate class El 50 Orders 39 support stiffen each fin Moral u I bonannobm I J GENUSSPECIES I Paedocypris smallest vertebrate El 10 mm long I Beluga Sturgeon El 7meters long quot39 iiiiyif a quot lem blown gallbtadd Supported by Almost certain that they39re SPECIES I Coeacanth El Thought to be extinct since Mesozoic Era El off Southern Africa I Lungfish quot El El O Burrow deep in mud before lake dries amp estivate until wet season 0 Class Amphibia 39 39 Inuitm O Diver5ity I 3 n n I 3 Orders om npiunnnpin cummm sudx I 5670 species um Donn um ms 39 39 Mquot h u Ila El 37 Families t swam hug439 ivt xxtun u 0 First vertebrates to walk on land mu Lint xtmnu ilsnm 11 in 40 0 Direct descendants of fishes M u m quotw 1mm I Legs mu 245 9quot in ruq rqwmi in I Lungs pair f 5 r Cutaneous Respiration 39 Li 0 I nagim El El Supplement lungs El Separate pulmonary circuit allows higher pressure blood to tissues El Improves separation of pulmonary amp systemic circuits El Prevents mixing of oxygenated amp nonoxygenated lungs o by vertebrates required several I Legs gtsupport body39s weight I Lungs Extract oxyegn from air I Redesign heart amp circulatory system to drive larger muscles I Reproduction still in water to prevent egg drying I System to prevent whole body desiccation ANCESTORS OF AMPHIBIANS O lchthyostega I Evolved from lobefinned fish I One of the I Sturdy forelegs flippershaped hind limbs El Moved like a seal I x I Long broad overlapping ribs forms solid cage for lungs amp hea O Tiktaaik I In 2006 a transitional fossils was found El Had Posterior El El El ORDERS OF AMPHIBIANS 0 Order Caudata Salamanderm 0mm omrcum Manua I I Smooth moist skin I Livein I O OrderApodaCaeciians I I 0 Order Anura Frogs amp Toads I Life Cycle quot W39wu um 1 External Egg Fertilization 2 Eggs laid in water 0 Lack watertight membranes amphibians amp jaws with 3 4 Gradual metamorphosis into adult form I Frogs El Smooth moist skin a v El Mostly live I Toads El El a Mostly live in Unit2 Page 26 J39liwz s the iiieransa 43quan Marsh Fwy Suns Tum Unit2 Page 27 Chordata Ch35 Monday October 19 2015 1000 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Understand the adaptations for the invasion of terrestrial habitats by vertebrates 0 Know the significance of the evolution of the amniotic egg 0 Learn amp distinguish the remaining vertebrate classes CLADE Amniotes Leameryshe Embryo o Reptiles birds amp mammals are amniotes o Amniotic egg has 4 membranes Fig 3520 1 Chorion III Outermost layer III Allows III 2 Amnion III 3 Yolk Sac III Provides 4 Allantois III CLASSES 0 Class Reptilia amp I Occur worldwide except in coldest region due to ectothermia I All living reptiles exhibit 3 key features I O Watertight t Covers bodv amp El El F I 2 Important Modern Characteristics 1 O Sperm fertilizes egg before protective membranes are formed El 0 Oxygen is provided to body more efficiently o O Crocodiles birds amp mammals have completely divided 4chamber heart III Regulate body temperature by moving in amp out of sunlight quotquot39 quotquot n quotmquot O Mammals birds ORDERS living I Order Rhynchocephalia tuataras I Order Chelonia turtles amp tortoises III Differ from other reptiles because their bodies are 9 Marine turtles must return to land to lay eggs I Order Squamata Snakes amp Lizards III Paired Copulatory Organs hemipenesis in malesl III Snakes 3000 Species 39 0 Lack Limbs o o III Lizards 3800 Species 0 Many have I Order Crocodylia III 25 Species American Alligator I Alligator mississipiensis III III Bodies well adapted to stealth hunting gt m green 0 Eyes on top of head pm W mlquot 7 Ms and nostrils on O Nostrils on top of snout on m of WITmm O Enormous mouth 9 Strong necks III Crocodiles O O Typically regions d edge of upper jaw overlolps A I 39 A 39 in teeth in lower jaw so all you Unit2 Page 28 V WW0 M D Crocodiles owe 80tccthquotl 0 Typically mum F edge of upper jaw whips regions Show awsused teeth in lower 39aw so all you quot 39 fordiggingne 33 more than llvmg reptlles sec on downpanting mm D Alligators 0 Only 2 species 0 Class Aves Birds m P39Mmm w 05m Amscl I Most diverse of all terrestrial vertebrates El 28 Orders 166 Families D 8600 Species I Success lies in unique structure Feather D F I Still retain many D El 1 I 2 Major Distinguishing Characteristics ng WM El Feathers Q Ban w Damu O Provideliftfo Q quot Gran 0 Birds stay very warm Linked structures provide continuous surface amp a sturdy flexible shape D Flight Skeleton Q 0 0 Often 0 Provides Rigidity ltgt Anchors strong flight muscles I Archaeopteryx1st known bird D Skull with teeth D Long reptilian tail 0 Inside the ma Img Iaagramam quotsml fru 39Wquot WWW gt A 4 m H u u II a 39 quot 39 W V van 90v y A 7 l J s 39 t Email1 l I BILmlow 1 l I 4 D Efficient Respiration o anthewaythrougmungs El EffICIent CIrculatIon Fm 39 quot 255 3 ausacs 3 39 I l 0 ram ltgt Muscles receive fully oxygenated blood 39 39 V gagiigac y Run aur 1035 D Endothermy Body 0 Average Temp 4042 C 0 Class Mammalia I 4500 Species El Fewest of species among vertebrate classes CI 3200 species are rodents bats shrews or moles D Hi 0 Long that extend from hair follicles mammar t Gland 0 Purpose k I L 3quot M1yriru m39 O f v Snowy ltgt 23 0 Ex Porcupine 4mm El MammaryGlands ll 10 0 Females possess mammaryglandsthat quot1 mun 3 v lq l llrl lrcm39 I Other Characteristics in most mammals T I Mammalian lineage also gave rise to I El Specialized Teeth n a 0 Different types of teeth to match particular eating habitats 7 D Digestion of Plants 0 Herbivorous mammals rely on mutualistic partnership with a o The Kg 0 The bacteria lives in a pouch called the cecum that branches from the end 39 Unit2 Page 29 O The 0 The bacteria lives in a pouch called the cecum that branches from the end of the small intestine opment of III Devel o o O Antlers are made of bone NOT keratin Mammals Bats O Bats SUBCLASSES I Subclass Prototheria most primitive III I O Monotremesegg laying 0 b Reptiles also have this 0 Only 3 Living Species b DuckBilled Platypus b 2 Echidna Species 39 Subclass Theria III 2 Living Clades infraclasses III Marsupials pouched mammals 9 Major difference us pattern of embryonic development ltgt 0 O Kangaroo Australia 0 Opossum North amp Central America III Placental Mammals O that nourishes embryo throughout its development 0 0 9 Includes most living mammals Unit2 Page 30 9 Elephant lt x Human
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