Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide AFYS A101 001
Popular in Pink and Blue: Examining The Role of Gender in Children's Development
Popular in Child and Family Studies
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Kiel on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AFYS A101 001 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Erica Weisgram in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Pink and Blue: Examining The Role of Gender in Children's Development in Child and Family Studies at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Psychology of Gender 0 Why Study Gender 0 O O 0 it s important to society we assume we know someone based on their gender gender differences are important social constructs Look for causes and correlates of gender differences I Makes us ask why What s related 0 ex Do children who play with building toys have be erspa alskMs Promotes equality 0 Factors that increase perceptions of differences 0 Perceptual salience what we see looks clothing how someone expresses themselves Functional use to organize environments bathrooms store sec ons lngroupOutgroup Bias people develop a bias toward their own group and a negative bias toward other groups Unequal status men or women can each be perceived to have lower status Competition society sets up competitions between men and women Biological Bias it s the Y chromosome no evidence this actually cause significant differences 0 Femininity 0 Changed from only housewife to workhome life balance 0 Masculinity O Breadwinner toughruggedsuavesensitive 0 Women s roles have kind of changed but expectations of men have only been added to 0 Important Gender Terms Sex biological genitalia chromosomes height body fat etc Gender socially given traits boys vs girls Cisgender birth sex and gender align Genderqueer don t identify as man or woman Gender neutral pronouns ze shehe hir hisher 0 Why we focus on gender differences 0 0 categories simplify our environment stereotyping has evolutionary basis safety from other tribes I cultures that hide genitalia in daily dress came up with standards to signify sex ie dresses for girls etc o Habituation used to study categorization in babies I show multiple pictures of men they get less interested as the pictures become monotonous I show picture of a woman their interest perks up because they can recognize a difference 0 Babies can tell the difference between men and women I hair cues I voice cues 0 We remember things that confirm a stereotype and ignore things that contradict it Confirmation Bias Breaking Down Stereotypes o minimize between group differences 0 point out within group differences where people don t fit stereotypes Gender Differences and Similarities o How We Study Gender 0 metaanalysis combine all studies on a topic to summarize I 2005 Janet Hyde does metaanalysis or metaanalyses 0 Men and Women are very similar 0 78 of gender differences are considered small or nonexistent 0 Large Differences 0 play style 0 attitudes toward sex 0 throwing 0 Sport abilities differences are small in young kids and large in adults 0 we may be wired the same but we encourage differences 0 Why do we perceive differences 0 comparisons we seek out differences 0 he s just like his Dad assigns male behavior 0 selffulfilling prophecies 0 Confirmation bias 0 What can we do about it 0 point out similarities between boys and girls 0 point out counterexamples of stereotypes 0 Biological Processes 0 Brain Differences I size boys is bigger I timing girls mature faster I some structural differences 0 Hormones I androgens maletype affect some differences I CAH XX individuals get overload of androgens prenatally 0 external genitalia slightly masculinized 0 may have more masculine play style and personality 0 a little more likely to be attracted to women Gendered Toys 0 Gender differences in toys are large 0 differences start early 0 Masculine and feminine toys have different characteristics 0 boy and girls sections are relatively new didn t exist in 70s and 80s 0 Why Study Toys 0 marketing toward specific genders has exploded in recent decades toys are important to children s experiences toys aid cognitive and social development toys send gender messages to kids I halloween costumes what genders appear in ads for specific toys 0 Theories of Gender Different Play 0 Biological Influence I Hormones CAH girls slightly more interested in boystyle play 0 Social Influences I parent purchases I marketing influences colors who s on the box TV ads I sibling influence toys get passed down I peer influence likesdislikes Parenting Beyond Pink amp Blue by Christia Spears Brown Chapters 16 Chapter 1 Noticing Gender 0 Cycle that encourages gender gaps 0 Adults make gender categories important 0 Kids notice what adults emphasize 0 Kids understand the importance of category 0 Kids have heightened explanations for gender groups Humans consistently use gender to categorize people We use gender to determine children s interests Humans generally find it insulting if someone s gender is confused for the oppos e Chapter 2 Why Labels Matter 0 Children depend on the actions of adults to learn more about the world Through actions we teach them gender is important 0 Children don t rely on stereotypes between girls and boys naturally adults make these groups meaningful 0 Children make up exaggerated or incorrect reasons why boys and girls are different once they learn gender is important 0 Stereotypes are hard to reverse once they re learned Parents only have about three years in which they can influence children without large amounts of outside world influence Chapter 3 Why We Focus on Gender Differences o Humans obsess over gender because we love to categorize people 0 Babies learn to categorize early on it makes navigating world easier 0 Babies easily learn faces especially man v woman 0 Henri Tajfel minimal group experiment 0 Putting people into random groups led them to stereotyping and prejudices against each other 0 Categories take up less mental energy it s easier to categorize 3 mental tricks in thinking when we sort people 0 1 We exaggerate group differences 0 2 We exaggerate intergroup similarities o 3 We remember stereotypeconsistent information 0 Key Issues We develop ability to categorize quickly We form categoriesstereotypes on any basis Gender groups are easy to latch onto We overestimate group similarities OOOO Chapter 4 There Are Gender Differences Men are from North Dakota Women are from South Dakota is more accurate than Men are from Mars Women are from Venus Real differences between men and women are usually found in studies on babies because they haven t been exposed to stereotypes yet Metaanalysis analyzes all studies done on a specific topic 0 found girls typically aren t more emotional than boys 0 found no differences in math performance I boys typically feel better about math 0 not much difference found in how much boys or girls talk I girls tend to develop language slightly faster couple of months ahead 0 girls and boys same on positivenegative selfesteem I girls generally feel worse about their bodies 0 girls and boys have the same physical aggression I boys generally have more unprovoked aggression Play segregation begins in preschool some differences like smiling only happen when child is being watched some differences are based on experience boys and girls have same spatial skill ability but girls typically have less exposure Four Key Issues 0 Research on babies kids and adults have different results 0 Few differences between boys and girls this is less likely to be published 0 Differences impulse control selfconfidence in math language development body image postpuberty depression unprovoked anger and play style 0 Differences are more pronounced because of experience or trying to fit a social role Chapter 5 How Different is Different We often ignore differences between samegender kids For most traits boys differ from other boys and girls differ from other girls more than the two groups differ from each other Even with boygirl differences distributions largely overlap We can t predict traits based on gender We assume random differences are based on gender This isn t usually true Chapter 6 Decoding Neuroscience Most ideas about brain and hormonal differences between boys and girls are exaggerated incorrect or based on studies with rats 0 Only a few reliable difference between boys and girls Brain size Rate of Brain Development Size of the Third Nucleus of Anterior Hypothalamus Degree of Interest in Mechanical Toys 0 The brain develops throughout the entirety of childhood and isn t complete until adolescence 0 Children can lose skills or abilities if they don t get used For example girls may have less spatial skills because on average they play less video games than boys I If girls and boys play the same amount of video games they have equalspa alskMs o Genderblind parenting is more about exposing a child to a variety of experiences so they can gain social cognitive and emotional abilities than erasing gender stereotypes Pinkedl A Color s Effects on Girls Marketing in the Toy Industry An Excerpt from Cinderella Ate My Daughter by Peggy Orenstein 0 Pink associates girls identity to appearance 0 Appears in many toy beauty products 0 Children weren t assigned to colors until the 20th Century 0 Before this time girls and boys wore similar white nursery clothes 0 When nursery colors were introduced boys were linked to pink red strength and girls were linked to blue Virgin Mary purity 0 Childrens marketing strategy started emphasizing gender mainly in the 1980s Many perceptions we have about children s nature were created or magnified by marketing trends 0 The terms toddler and tween were introduced to increase clothing sales Children can start to recognize brands at 1218 months 0 Emphasizing gender differences is proven to increase sales 0 If parents buy a baseball glove for their son they re more likely to buy one for their daughter if a pink version is available 0 Female characters have historically flopped on Sesame Street 0 Viewers hold them to different standards I if Elmo was a girl he d be ditzy instead of whimsical o Abby who features fullon feminine features pink sparkles is the first successful female character Dora the Explorer was created to counteract Barbie and resemble a real child 0 Merchandise still featured many vanitymakeup products These ultrafeminine characters are wrong but there aren t typically alternative female characters to show diversity within girls Our belongings give clues about our identity 0 Do all the ultrapink toys tell girls what they ought to be Toys have often been intended to instill values or skills 0 Baby dolls intended to foster maternal skills 0 Tinker toys train sets etc fostered industrialization Gender Roles were challenged in the 1960s 0 Barbie arrives represented independence for women no husband no kids variety of occupations constant attention to appearance 0 Barbie s age target have dropped now she s prettier and is marked as a fairy or mermaid instead of an astronaut or President Since the 1970s many clothes and toys are more gender stereotyped o How is this affecting children s stereotypes and prejudices Blakemore Ch 12 The Media as an Agent in Gender Development 0 Children s Books I Contribute to gender roles depending on content 0 Picture and Story Books I 1940s 1960s 11 male characters for every 1 female I Most genderneutral characters animals etc frequently referred to with male pronouns by adults I Very gender stereotyped 0 women rarely seen outside home 0 boys lead girls follow 0 Changes Over Time I little change before and after women s movement 1966 1975 I subtle changes increasing and decreasing as society s views change I efforts to decrease sexism have made an impact 0 still more male characters than females but ratio is less dramatic 0 men still stereotypically powerful and active women more nurturing and good I Girls and women s roles have changed but men and boys have not 0 men rarely seen as domestic or with feminine qualities 0 fathers often portrayed as absent uninvolved or incompetent I Unbalanced portrayals and stereotypes still exist 0 older books still prevalent in society 0 Why More Male Characters I boys more adverse to feminine traitsstories than girls are to masculine traitsstories 0 Books for Older ChildrenYoung Adolescents I boys likely to pick nonfictionadventure girls likely to pick fictionrelationships books are more specifically marketed to boys or girls girl magazines focus on appearancerelationships boy magazines focus on specific interests skateboarding guitar etc 0 Reading Practice of Older Adults Adolescents I many boys opposed to girl books in front of classmates but weren t opposed to them in private many bookstores have wider selection of girl books many girls rely heavily on teen magazines to learn how to become a woman 0 usually more relevant to white girls 0 Conclusions I few studies on characteristics of books aimed towards older children I books usually very genderoriented 0 Television 0 Children s Programs I most including public programming are very gendered o majority of characters are males o On Sesame Street males dominate Muppet characters but humans characters are very diverse 0 Male Muppet behavior isn t necessarily characterized as masculine 0 Cartoons I predominantly male characters 0 some popular female characters don t have feminine characters I females more likely to complain and be dependent males more likely to be assertive and independent I newer cartoons less stereotypes 0 still don t show men nurturing or with feminine characteristics 0 Other Programs I World Wrestling Federation WWF many boys replicated behavior on playground 0 Television Intended for Adults I young children often watch adult showsmovies I 31 male to female ratio I women more likely to be young thin and receive comments on their appearance 0 likely to have male jobs now but personal lives and relationships still very stereotyped I music videos males dominant women sexualized 0 Violence on Television I by the time a child is an adolescent they ve seen 100000 acts of violence on TV I TV is more violent than the typical real world 0 doesn t usually show realistic pain or consequences of violence 0 Children s Programs are the Most Violent I violence usually occurs in cartoons 0 characters not usually harmed slapstick think Looney Toons I almost all violent characters are male 0 TV Commercials I young kids can t tell the difference between programming and advertisements o Directed Towards Adults I more males youngattractive women I portrayals of men haven t changed much I voiceovers primarily male 0 Directed Towards Children I children less exposed to TV are less likely to request toys I boy and girl commercials are visibly and audiny different 0 boy ads are boisterous and aggressive 0 positive consequences highfives etc for aggression 0 girl ads refer to attractiveness passive activities 0 Conclusions I Women s roles in ads have changed seen in nontraditional occupations etc I Men s roles haven t changed much 0 Video Games and Computers I boys play more video games than girls 0 GenderRelated Content in Video Games I typical female roles damsels in distress sex symbols or villains I support violence and aggression even in ERated games I girls typically prefer genderneutral nonviolent games Tetris Tamagotchi etc I preschool education games dominated by male characters 0 Computers amp Internet I girls and boys have similar frequency of use 0 also equal in online leadership and chat room use
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