Popular in History of Western Civilization
Popular in History
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Western Civilization Lecture Week 1 09012015 Primary source document or physical object created during the time under study 0 First hand accounts 0 No de nitive truth about the past 0 Historical knowledge gained by analyzing primary sources Secondary source documents written after an event has occurred 0 History textbooks Offer different perspectives analysis and conclusions The Roots of Western Civilization The Formation of Cities and the Emergence of Empires in the Ancient Near East 0 Characteristics of early civilization 0 O O O 0 Agricultural systems more stable food supplies Settled population not so migratory Social structures become more differentiated More elaborate political systems with rationale behind them usually involving religion System of written communication Taxation records etc Trade and commerce Creations of fundamental goods weaponry religious items etc Neolithic Revolution 100003000 BCE Transition period from pre history to history Begins in ancient Near East ends the Stone Age Transitions to a sedentary life permanent agricultural settlements Domestication of animals and plants Occupational and social differentiation Development of art and architecture O Towns and cities and more political associations The rise of Sumerian Civilization 3000 BCE 0 00000 0 First true cities in Sumer Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent Result of Neolithic Revolution Selfjustifying ruling class Link between religion polytheistic and politics Trade and handicrafts Warfare Large sale building projects Development of writing in ancient Mesopotamia O O O O O Pictographic to phonetic Sumerian cuneiform More efficient communication and trade In uences religious expression Important role in political administration and centralization The Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia 23502160 BCE O 0000 First true empire Founded in Sargon by unifying multiple city states Political centralization Imperial organization Religious uniformity to ease political administration Creates control religionpolitics Hammurabi and the old Babylonia Empire 0 O O Hammurabi transforms weak kingdom to powerful empire through smarts and not force Religionpolitics Hammurabi s code for uniform administration and law 0 Example of imperial organization for future empires 0 Pharagonic Egypt 3100 BCE O O O O Centered on Nile River Centralized administration Pharaoh represented all of Egypt Served as a key player of universal order and harmony Differences and similarities between Egyptian and Sumerian civilizations o The Bronze Age 30001200 BCE O O O O o The Empire becomes dominant form of political organization New Kingdom Egypt and the Hittite Empire are major imperial powers Chariot warfare for military technology Development of international diplomacy and trade Realize that no one empire is going to have complete control Make relations with other empires Active trade developed Very reliant on other powerscan cause issues quotSea Peoplesquot and the Bronze Age collapse 1200 BCE Arc of destruction from north to south Other empires and kingdoms fall due to international diplomacy Trade dwindles Civilization reboot All progress made has to be recovered Coincides with start of Iron Age 1300600 BCE Take away points 0 Learn history by doing history 0 Civilization emerges with citystates and creation of empires in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt 0 Development of international system in ancient Near East during the Late Bronze Age 0 Diplomacy international trade 0 The quotSea Peoplesquot and their destruction leads to the end of the Bronze Age and creates the start of the Iron Age and the rise of new empires 0 New empires learn from the past and do what worked and revise what didn t quotThe Book ofJeremiah Propheciesquot Brophy 96101 Tyrtaeus quotThe Spartan Creedquot Brophy 120121 quotThe Oracle of Trophonios at Lebadeiaquot httpwwwmircea eliadecomfromprimitivesto zen114html lsocrates quotPanegyricusquot Brophy 182187 History of Western Civ Lecture Wk 2 09082015 Rise of the West The Emergence of Hebrew Monotheism Democracy in the Greek Polls and Hellenism The Ancient Israelites and the Ancient Greeks Two key aspects of development of Western Civilization takes shape and makes it different from ancient Near East traditions Hebrew religion is transformed from typical Near Eastern religion into transcendent ethicsbased universalistic religion Ancient Greek society starts out having Near Eastern characteristics but because of geographic and political circumstances it emerges as something new and different The Twelve Tribes of Israel 12001050 BCE polytheistic developed agricultural system Philistia known for trading system but posed a threat 12 tribes form to be Israel in North and Judah in South 0 Rivalry between the two leaders 0 North wins David and becomes leader for national resistance against the Philistines Struggle to nd political and religious unity David chooses Jerusalem as politicalreligious capital of kingdom 0 Stores art of the covenant there Houses 10 commandments 0 Easy for David to have political and religious power Centralization of religion pushes Israelites more towards monotheism Solomon builds First Temple which houses the arc of the covenant o Becomes central point for Israelite religious worship 0 Pushes people toward monotheism 0 Solomon has very heavy handed rule over the people 0 Solomon dies and the uni ed kingdom revolts and splits back into North and South 0 Decentralization of religion and moves back further to polytheism Assyrian empire conquers Northern Israel Kingdom and Southern Judah Kingdom becomes dependent of Assyrian empire 0 Religious prophets stress that Israelites must go back to worshiping just Yahweh and be monotheistic and they were conquered for disobeying this and being polytheistic Judah s leader tries to purify Hebrew religion through more loyalty and stricter practices 0 The Babylonian Captivity 0 Once Israelites were properly worshiping Yahweh and ful lled the prophecy they would be released by the Babylonian captivity Changes in Hebrew Religion 0 After fall of Babylon Persian King exiled Israelites and return toJudah Practice religion freely o Israelites began as polytheistic and end up as a truly monotheistic state worshiping Yahweh Religion and politics become less intertwined 0 Moves from ritual oriented religion to transcendent ethics based universalistic religion within framework of Hebrew Religion 0 Development of Ancient Greece Mycenaean Greece 14001100 BCE o Wiped out by fall of Bronze Age 0 Dark age after fall of Mycenaean Greece 1150800 BCE 0 Cultural immobility o Societal stagnation 0 Regression in social structure 0 Lack of trade and relations 0 Setting for Greek epics Odyssey Archaic Greece 800480 BCE o Emergence of Polis Greek city states 0 Return of writing and literacy Increase in trading and more interaction with other people in Mediterranean Interaction with Phoenicians through sea trade Greece borrow Phoenician alphabet Growth in population Social and political change occupational differentiation More complex social structure As society becomes more complexlj need a more complex political system and organization Polis bans together Greek communities a Participation of citizenry in how the city state is run Different polis n Athens democracy trade a Sparta military powerhouse n Milatus commercial cultural and military powerhouse a Cultural and governmental differences but still remained uni ed as citystates through shared elements and values a Pan Hellenism Pan spreading across entire area Hellenism a Greek values and culture Greeks become known traders and seafarers n Establish colonies around Mediterranean a Run into hostile powersljcon ict with Persian empire Persian empire is quotbig dogquot at the time n Cyrus the Great I Empire spans entire ancient middle east n Skilled imperial administration a Strong centralized burocracy Ionian revolt of 499 BCE n Milatus citizens and other Greek s are going to continue to receive help against Persians n Persians attack Greek mainland 0 Greek warriors were ef cient against Persian warriors n Suspect Persians to try attacking by sea 0 Athens transformed into navy power of Greek world a Battle of Thermopolis Spartans against Persians killing off many Persians n Mainland Greece is no longer under direct threat of Persian empire Ushers in Golden Age of Classical Greece 0 Golden Age of Classical Greece 48OBCE o Flourish in arts philosophy culture etc that lead to development in western civilization 0 Political presided over by Pericles for most of period Promoted democracy Patron of arts science literature Politically unsuccessful with relations with other Greek citystates Triumph of Greek ideals identity human dignity and freedoms 0 Greek Parthenon is built along with other Greek architecture 0 Philosophical speculation vs traditional religious practices Sought explanations for what they saw in the world Formulate rational theories for a physical universe rather than of the Gods Remove supernatural element of how the world works Man is the measure of all thingsquot Socrates beliefs I Socratic questioning a Critical investigation a Humans ability to reason will lead to gure out what is right and what is wrong n Philosophical system based on absolute truth 0 Peloponnesian Wars Tensions between Greek citystates Athens is largely destroyed Sparta can t retain its power against Athens Collapse of Golden Age Emergence of Alexander the Great Macedon and leader Alexander the Great defeat Athens and takes over all of Greece Alexander most successful military leaders Alexander inaugurates new era of western civilization by spreading Greek culture 0 Battle of Gaugemella Alexander the Great vs Persian Empire Ends Persian empire 0 Alexander claims huge territory Doesn t establish centralized government When Alexander dies the lack of uni cation causes division of empire TAKE AWAY Ancient Israelite religion and ancient Greek society grow from Near Eastern roots but each becomes something fundamentally new and different 0 ln transition from wandering pastoralists to national kingdom to exile Israelite religion morphs into transcendent ethicsbased universalistic Hebrew monotheism Greek model takes shape encompassing republican form of government individual libery humanistic outlook invention of philosophy artistic innovation scienti c investigation Hellenistic Greekish period both a departure from golden age of classical Greece and a bridge to ancient Rome which will also serve as framework for continued development of Hebrew monotheism Livy I Iistery f Heme Beak 1quot fhtteffmeetismspesemuedufumfsh iwfliss l sell seetie s 13 K Flutereh Lives Emphy 161 166 Palyhius The Remen Meniple vs the Meeedeei Phalanx htt ffwwferdhemetlu lelsellisneie tfenl bins 2x i ilees39 K iedems Sieul us u Slavery in the Republicquot Emphy l I gallium Life in RDIIIE in the Lama Republicquot htt wwmfmdhamedu lalaal ancign sa u5135 Augustus The DueEds f l Divine Augus m l ii l i nt f ll tu f mhJ Cicem n the Laws lmphy 1691 Pliny the Elder The Gramdaur fane lttn Wwfnrdhamedu lalaal ancigntm ny natihigt mmaaa 7 S The G a iatmial Games fhttnffwwfnrdhmedufhalgallfanciem seneca latt r ma a Tacitus Gennanjaquot EMIth I39M 131 History 100 Week 3 Lecture Notes 09152015 Forti cation Expansion and Transformation of the Western Tradition The Roman Republic and the Roman Empire Ancient Rome 753 BCE476 CE 0 Divided into two broad periods Roman Republic and Roman Empire 0 Mixing own native cultural forms with Greek Hellenistic inheritance Sense of historical mission most successful empire to date Enables geographic extension of GrecoRoman civilization 0 Both key station and crucial turning point in development of Western Civilization 0 Identi able form of government republic o No formal legal document or constitution 0 Established conditions of practice 0 Roman councils elected for two year terms with executive and judicial authority 0 Roman senate control over public expenditures Politics dominated by aristocrats Aristocrats patricians 23 of the population Plebeians 9798 of population had little power Opportunity for popular in uence but more oligarchic with small in uential groups Large amount of discontent because small number of aristocratic families control all of the senate and the majority of the population is kept out 0 Expansion of the Early Roman Republic 0 Latin Rights political marriage legal rights for all that come under Roman control Net gain for those incorporated into a successful system 0 Military success due to Roman manipular formation More exible and ability to adapt to different types of terrain Large reserve of soldiers Reinforces agrarian military society of Roman culture 0 00 Very limited literature trade and commerce Focus of military and agriculture in society Religious system parallel to Greeks Little concern with the afterlife Religion strengthened state identity and vise versa Aristocrats rotated in and out of political positions and religious positions to keep Gods satis ed Rome comes into con ict with Carthage Carthage is dominant neighboring power in today s North Africa Fight series of wars that become de ning for Rome Punic Wars I 1 Carthage attempts to seize port in modern day Sicily Roman defeats them and Carthage is bitter n 2 Carthage wants to expand their rule into Spain Rome felt threatened Hannibal led army of Carthage led army over the Alps with success and causes damage on Italian peninsula Roman uses delay tactics to save country and then eventually defeat Hannibal near Carthage Still bitter RomeCato is obsessed with competitor n 3 Romans victorious and seize Carthage and enslave the people of Carthage In Rome will never be the same set on course for further expansion 0 Expand further around almost entire Mediterranean Spain Macedonia Asia Carthage ln ux in the number of slaves employed on agricultural estates run by large patrician families Creates wealth and social inequality Leave small opportunity for small independent farmers to have a successful career Rise of equestrian class involved with commerce had the wealth and in uence of senators but prohibited from partaking in politics because of their involvement in commerce Large reliance upon slaves leave the owners helpless as far as innovation goes Romans viewed as crude and unre ned when compared to the Greeks Romans begin to adopt Greek traditions such as alphabet Eastern mystery cults tribes that promised peace in the afterlife prominent in the lowerclass Foreshadow of Christianity to come quotConquered Greece took captive her savage conqueror and brought her arts into rustic Latiumquot 0 Expansion brings con ict turmoil and instability of the republic Multiple slave revolts uprising led by Spartacus Political system still functioning but very unstable corruption through the government Petition allows anyone to become a Roman soldier a Not good because the soldiers are very easy to manipulate which leads to corruption in the military and government a More and more military leaders in roman politics a Political system becomes dominated by power hungry individuals Caesar and Pompeii become rivals 52 CE Caesar had immense power and military success 49 CE Caesar led army into the Rubicon river to engage in the civil war with Pompeii over the development that had taken place a lntimidated senate into giving him massive political power a Caesar is eventually assassinated Roman republic becomes a thing of the past and the Roman Empire takes its place 0 Octavian Caesar s nephew becomes heir and is given full power and given title quotAugustusquot Emperor of Rome dealing with military and kept the Republic in check 0 PaxRomana quotRoman Peacequot Roman republic becomes Roman empire and the political system stabilizes very little turmoil 200 years Golden age of Roman civilization Emperors continue to rule No set successorsno diagnostic struggles Rights of citizenship extended to outsiders Emperors could be someone who was not inherently wealthy Romans were master engineers a aqueducts still exist today a extensive system of roads used for postal and military routes and transportation Rome s greatest achievements n Coliseum n Mosaics n Dome of Parthenon In Theatres n Sewer systems 0 Roman Law o Development and codi cation of law creation of judicial system of fair and just ideas o Early Roman Republic Law of the 12 Tables dealt with simple matters marked rst step towards creating a uniform law code Accumulation of more and more law codes over time Augustus demands justicebody of law Legal precedent becomes crucial Civil law Written and customary law applied to Roman citizens o Law of the peoples Law applied to all people of Rome regardless of Roman citizenship or nationality Ownership of property sales etc Supplemented civil law o Natural Law Conception of the universe that there is a rational law among human beings All men in nature are entitled to basic rights o Development and codi cation of law is one of Rome s greatest accomplishments Pays very important role in centuries to come 0 Crisis of the 3rd Century 235284 CE o PaxRomana comes to end Last emperors son not t to rule and is killed o Military directly involved in imperial politics dangerous mix o Period of instability Rome hadn t been used to for a long time o Series of 26 different emperors between 235284 Ambitious military leaders who tried to use position in military for power in politics a Vicious cycle 0 Economic crisis due to interrupted agriculture taxation problems external threats from Germanic peoples and Persian 0 Certain parts of empire form independent states for some time o Eventually is overcomeVery different Rome emerges TAKE AWAY POINTS Territorial expansion sets in motion fundamental changes to society culture and politics of early Roman Republic Roman Empire attains unparalleled success in imperial administration and assimilation of subject peoples GrecoRoman civilization spread to new areas esp northwestern Europe continues general westward shift of Western civilization s center of gravity Roman Empire creates structure that allows for rise and spread of Christianity Week 5 Notes 09292015 Medieval Europe in Bloom The High Middle Ages 10001300 Overcoming the disorder and backwardness of the Early Middle Ages Agricultural boom and growth in urban life increasingly complex and specialized social structure The Church s power at a highpoint Emergence of national monarchies Flourishing of culture and art Viking Era 8001000 establishing settlements coming down from Scandinavia raiding Christianized Europe from the North population at the mercy of Viking leaders no political power or supremacy to protect country lowest point of early middle ages AngloSaxon Ruler Alfred the Great 0 established united kingdom in late 8005 based on Charlemagne s model Feudalism and Serfdom Serfs weren t slaves but they were xed to the land of the aristocratic land owners 0 serfdom was also hereditary aristocrats used serfdom to squeeze payments out of the peasants who were out of their control 0 required peasants to work on their land without pay and to make them serfs so they couldn t leave aristocrats had legal power over the commoners on their land serfdom became dominant power of labor on agricultural land Feudalism O O O O pyramidhierarchical system of authority between the relationship to the higher lords to the lower vassals vassals would give military service to lords in return for land socioeconomic foundation highly personalized form of rule based on relationships between a lord and his vassals highpoint of knights mounted cavalry playing military role lord in charge of a large manner aristocratic landowners manipulated peasants to become serfs Controlled various aspects of serfs lives through their own implemented law lord held legal and economic power over the serfs to demand labor and or payments 0 Manorialism leads to large uptake in agricultural development 0 O O O 0 Better weather invention of plows for harvest increased use of iron for tools better technology grain mill powered by water or wind makes it cheaper to bring grain to markets and increases pro t three eld system rotating crops lead to more productivity and more balanced diet for rural residents became very common for aristocratic estates 0 lords used middlemen to do these tasks middle class emerges Towns and Cities start Booming centers of trade and shipping church administration learning centers centers of government administration increasing complexity of urban social structure majority of population were peasants provided most of urban un scaled labor many towns and cities granted charters by government that gave them privileges o protection from nobility o levy certain taxes 0 charter of liberties artisans skilled laborers owned shops 0 charters gave guild members exclusive authority to sell their products who could enter the guild what the wages would be and what the costs wereessentially a private monopoly Uni ed market economy developed in Europe by 1000 0 Growing trade in luxury goods 0 trade of wool opened up many trade ports 0 expanding trade networks 0 venture capital and bookkeeping lead to expansion of market force growth of commercial and middle class The Dark Ages for the Church 90039s 0 Corruption misuse abuse 0 large reform movement addresses these types of abuses o revitalization began with reform focusing on Clooney monastery in France 0 became models for monastic reforms in other countries 0 reached highest levels of papacy when Leo 9th became pope imposed reforms banned marriages re ected feudal organization of secular power ruled church like monarch ruled state important hierarchal structure emergence of greater veneration for the virgin Mary became popular among clerics and the laity a through her people could appeal for their salvation to Jesus confronted new challenges to dogma n Catharism heretics because they argued there were two gods god of good and god of evil n Waldensianism heretics for believing they could preach the gospels church saw nonChristians as a threat a tolerated popular antiJewish methodologies Rise of Feudal National Monarchies 0 two forms of governments that emerge 0 City States established systems of selfgovernment fell within territory of some feudal lord or church but granted charters of liberty had elected councils of mayors Almost entirely independent from aristocratic rule 0 Decentralized Feudal Monarchial Rule power lay with aristocrats who ruled over serfs and functioned as virtual autonomic states King s brought end of aristocratic authority using feudal political system England I grew out of Norman conquest lead by William the Conqueror u not decentralized u made use of centralized state institutions a strengthened powers of central monarchial government a Magna Carta issued recognized basic liberties of English aristocracy n provided England very strong centralized govt France a Hugh Capet inherited very weak monarchy I 10001300 Capetian kings build centralized monarchy in Paris a new institutions to centralize power 0 Phillip creates States General a Aristocracy doesn t gain any liberties similar to those granted by the Magna Carta in England u Had a parliament that recognized rights royal absolutism O n Henry no longer has right to empirical crown Leads to uprisings n Henry begs for pope s forgiveness in 1077 0 Gregory revokes his excommunication a German empire greatly weakened El Spain El El El 11521190 emperor strove to unify manorial feudal authority 0 real authority rested with princes counts and dukes that ruled their own territories independenUy German reuni cation doesn t come until 1871 Muslims ruled most of the Iberian peninsula reconquest of Christians proceeded in stages over next few centuries 1071 Muslims put Byzantine leaders under duress leader turns to pope Urban 2 d s assistance 0 Council of 1075 Christianites of Byzantine Empire form together against the Muslim Turks which leads to the First Crusade to recapture the holy land First Crusade Leads to mass killings and force conversions of essentially all nonChristians on their journey to the crusade Take control overJerusalem after defeating Islamic and Muslim forces 0 Establish series of Crusader Kingdoms in the Holy Land 2nCI and 3rd Crusade fail 4th Crusade launched in 1201 0 fails to liberate Jerusalem take over Constantinople bloody warfare becomes more about controlling trade routes Failure of the crusades helped to launch age of exploration in centuries to come Religious and Intellectual Life of High Middle Ages Rediscovering classic texts of Greek Latin and roman arts Most of Europe s knowledge came through contact with the same Jews and Arabs that were being murdered by the crusaders of Spain Translations into Latin gave access to math and literature Universities became centers for the classics and religious studies as well as theologyscience Scholasticism God gives man the ability to understand human reason and observation 0 Peter from France suggests Bible should be studies through the means of classical studies and logic 0 becomes method of analysis used in universities 0 most important gure Dominican priest St Thomas Aquinas drew heavily on Aristotle and St Augustine God s truths lay in the Bible but also through nature and human reasoning natural world best studies using logic sought to marry philosophy with theology Literature becomes written in local language of the country instead of the language of the church Latin 0 National literature emerges o Genres of romantic love chivalry courtly romance 0 Dante s Divine Commentary most important literary work of the period central themes of scholasticism TAKE AWAY POINTS 0 High Middle Ages following instability and disorder of Early Middle Ages initiates a period of pronounced growth and relative prosperity Feudalism and manorialism Agricultural increase emergence of cities Papal power reaches its apogee 0 National monarchies or lack thereof enduring political forms and trends established 0 Synthesis of Roman Christian and Germanic traditions completedcrystallization of distinct Medieval European Civilization Week 6 Notes 10062015 Europe on the Verge of Breakthrough Crisis Recovery and Expansion in the Late Middles Ages TODAY The Late Middle Ages and The Renaissance 13001500 Abrupt end to growth and relative prosperity of the High Middle Ages Europe wracked by famine disease and war Creative vitality amidst chaos Recovery from crisis sets stage for European takeoff of Early Modern Era The Late Middle Ages The Crisis Increased threat due to faminegrowth of population outpowers agriculture and therefore population suffers due to lack of food supply Winter of 1315 peasants ate seed 1005 of people died of starvation 13151316 one out of ten people died because of famine Prices for food soared due to the demand 1347 tradedv strikes the black death comes to Eur0pe o Began in Mongolia and carried by rats and eas o Spread along trade routes through Italy and central Europe o Plague kills 40 English 16 northern French 12 of European population dies o People ea to avoid plague adding to the agricultural decline The Hundred Years War France and England ght series of wars from 13371453 based on one central con ict 0 War takes place entirely in France adding to agricultural decline overlaps black plague o Peasant uprisings because of the exorbitant taxation o English captured the French Kingdemanding a ransom for the Kings release o French Peasants are taxed in order to pay ransom o 1381 peasant rose in England rebellion crushed by government however serfdom begins to fade away oArtisans and the urban poor rose in protest against hunger and upper classes against aristocrats who paid unfairly in order to maintain their wealth oRebellions didn t want to change the existing system expression of outrage and frustration and these inequities high taxation and exploitation or urban poor who were already experiencing hard times due to poverty and black plague Amidst crisis popular religious expressions o Conclude that god was passing judgment onto people for their gns o Engage in pilgrimages to hon sites in order to satisfy god o Punishing the esh in order to feed the soul known as agellants o Blamed the Jews for causing the plague burning them at the stakes They poisoned the well of Christian beliefs therefore they were believed to be the cause of the crises o Many thought they could communicate with god by withdrawing from society and the church wasn t approved by the church o Hersey in the church Teachings of English theologian John Wycliffe UGod has predestined some souls for damnation UReasoned that the churches were unnecessary nAfter death his followers took up teachings and denied the church UChurch prosecuted those that went against the Church 1303 King Philip accused pope of heresy and forced Pope to defend King s actions and live under the French Guard UBabyonian Captivity Pope becomes subservient to the French king isolated from political turmoil inIU y nFrench Crown paid highly in order to choose bishops 1388 College of Cardinals UChoose the pope UThe chose one based from Rome and but then go against their choice and try to appoint a new one nThis leads to the Great Schism now have two different popes in two different cities UDiscredits church in the eyes of followers The Recovery 14005 The plague periodically revisits Europe leading to population decHne o The worst was behind them Population slowly begins to stabilize Agricultural production begins to incline and ordinary people could afford to by grains o Falling price of grain encourages farmers to grow new products o Creates a consumer market o Regional specialization takes place Disasters help revive agriculture economy and expand commerce o 2 leading centers for trade were the Baltic Sea ports cities dominated trade in the north of German and the north ltalian cities dominated markets of spices etc Merchants in Italy and Germany created joint stock partnerships lnstabilitv continued for several more decades o Merchant in bohemia belonging to the German Empire Holy Roman empire Worldly corruption in Church Medieval Church only priest drank the communion wine Bohemian Czech king looked to help with great schism O O O o Rebellion in Bohemia o 1434 church and Hussites come to an agreement Hussites can drink the communion wine which was one of the main arguments o Council of Constance had been called to nd resolution to Great Schism o 14151417counci appointed new Pope Martin the 5thBrought end to Great Schism but didn t end con ict with the church hierarchy o 14171449 Papacy and church council had con ict as to whether the bishop council or the pope had sovereignty over church o 1449 Papacy came out on top Wordy authority Monarchy onto itself 0 During the decades when Church was trying to resolve con ict ongoing 100 years war was still happening o English scored a victory during one of the battles by using a military technique that overwhelmed their French armies o French eventually win over entire territorymodern day France o Aristocrats gave themselves to the English o What turns the tide is the loan of Arc who lead the French in Battle winning many signi cant battles Joan claimed god had spoken to her and gave her victory throughout all her battles 143O Aristocrats from burgundy area captured Joan English convicted her for being a witch and burned her at the stake o 1435 French joined forces with King Charles ultimately driving English forces back o 1453 end of war o French monarchy survived and grew stronger under Charles 7th after 100 years war o French nally driven out English and French monarchy will continue its path to royal absolutism o England s fortunes had declined steadily due to King Herne 7th who refused to recognize the aristocrats rights under the Magna Carta 0 Civil war erupted between King Henry 7th and his cousin o War of roses red rose signifying Lancaster white rose signifying the dukes o House of York wonKing Edward 4th o King Edward 4th s brother took over and killed kings Edward s sons o Henry 7th strengthened English monarchy and becomes even more powerful under Henry 8th 0 The Holy roman Empire German Empire had fragmented into a patchwork of principalities o 1450 two principalities emerge to be dominant 0 Florence Milan and Venice had evolved own models of urban govt 3 leading Italian cities all with different governments Long and pro table time of peace contributing to the artistic and creative abilities Iberian Peninsula modern day Spain and Portugal o Reconquista of peninsula to about the year 1000 Fuy complete in 1492 when Granada was captured 0 Uni ed Spanish monarchy comes about when Ferdinand 2nCI and Isabelle take leadership Mostly a Christian kingdom kicked everyone out or forced conversion to those who didn t share their religion Securing their power by maintaining one uniform religion o Spanish inquisition instituted to rid those who had falsely or super cially converted to Christianity o Ferdinand and Isabella were exploration advocates which eventually led Spain to discover the quotnew worldquot Ottoman Empire oTurkishslamic empire that was the most powerful Muslim empire Ottoman Turks destroyed Byzantium Romania Greece Hungary Bulgaria 0 Russia o Major rising power at the time o Rulers are orthodox Christiansmore in line with Byzantine religious and political context Age of Exploration Marco Polo s explorations 12711275 0 Made it all the way across central Asian to china 0 Notes of his travels became popular Christopher Columbus owned Marco Polo s travel logs Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator 13941460 o Sponsored many explorations to nd a way around Africa to get to the far east and India o These explorations were not successful however they are important steps for future explorations o Bartholomew Diaz from Portugal rst European explorer to round the tip of Africa 0 Varco Di Gama reached India rst by sea links Europe and Asia by sea Christopher Columbus 0 Convinced he could go westward to reach Asia and India 0 Ferdinand and Isabella sponsored his explorations o First voyage he reaches modern day Caribbean 0 First discovery of the quotNew Worldquot m o Sailing on behalf of the Spanish crown and found Mexico 15191521 0 Conquers Aztec Empire Francisco Carazo o Conquers Incan empire in northern South America 0 Spanish came with the idea to defeat and conquer empires that leads to brutality towards native people of the quotNew Worldquot New Cultural Trends 0 Development of vernacular and secular literature starts out High Middle Ages o Remarkable works came from Florence Boccaccio s quotDecameronquot Wasn t prose and colloquial everyday language o Referred to this style as naturalism emerged in sculpture and arts The Renaissance 13501550 0 Wideranging movement in European intellectual and artistic life Rebirth of classical culture Humanism o Begins and ourishes in Italy spreads to northern Europe Decisive role in replacing medieval worldview with modern worldview o Preconditions in northern Italy 0 Most urbanized region of Europe 0 Italian aristocrats settle in cities intermingle with urban bourgeoisie 0 Premium placed on education for occupational and social advancement Classical heritage everpresent Political fragmentation fosters civic concern 0 Immense wealth allows patronage of the arts 00 Renaissance Humanism 0 Program of study humanities in opposition to Scholasticism meant to produce virtuous citizens and capable of cials o Humanistic education as goal in and of itself not necessarily subordinated to higher religious goal 0 Positive view of human nature and innate human capacities oriented toward individual 0 Focus on ethics and practical concerns over detached philosophical speculation 0 Civic Humanism in Italy Petrarch Mirandola 0 Christian Humanism in northern Europe Desiderius Erasmus Sir Thomas More 0 Painting 0 Use of linear perspective 0 Chiaroscuro effects of light and shade 0 Both naturalism and mannerism 0 Extremely high level of technical pro ciency 0 Religious classical and secular motifs o More restrained introspective style in northern Europe Sculpture 0 Becomes independent area of artistic activity for rst time since Antiquity 0 Extremely high level of technical pro ciency o Mixing of Christian and classical motifs o Nudes o Naturalism and mannerism o Renaissance revival of sculpture largely limited to Italy 0 Architecture 0 Mixing of classical style with medieval architectural styles 0 Classical combined with Romanesque in Italy 0 Classical combined with Gothic in northern Europe particularly France 0 The Waning of the Renaissance starting 1500 o Incessant warfare in Italy 0 Italian economic prosperity declines o Reformation and CounterReformation set in across Europe create vastly different intellectual and artistic climate Renaissance Summary o Not a rebirth but rather a particular revival of classical heritage o Humanism as key feature of Renaissance o Crucial step in anthropocentric humancentered worldview replacing theocentric Godcentered worldview 0 Intellectual and artistic life of Europe in the process of moving from the medieval to early modern outlook TAKE AWAY Late Middle Ages as era of crisis bookend to entire Medieval period o In overcoming crisis European civilization proves its mettle and moves toward Early Modern takeoff Overseas expansion and onset of Renaissance signal start of new era when Medieval heritage will be preserved but in greatly modi ed form 0 Western Civilization on the threshold of its most dynamic period of development
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