New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Midterm Review

by: Cailyn Notetaker

Midterm Review HIST 100

Cailyn Notetaker
History of Western Civilization

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

History of Western Civilization
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in History of Western Civilization

Popular in History

This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cailyn Notetaker on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 100 at George Mason University taught by Scala in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization in History at George Mason University.


Reviews for Midterm Review


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/19/15
Western Civilization Lecture Week 1 09012015 Primary source document or physical object created during the time under study 0 First hand accounts 0 No de nitive truth about the past 0 Historical knowledge gained by analyzing primary sources Secondary source documents written after an event has occurred 0 History textbooks Offer different perspectives analysis and conclusions The Roots of Western Civilization The Formation of Cities and the Emergence of Empires in the Ancient Near East 0 Characteristics of early civilization 0 O O O 0 Agricultural systems more stable food supplies Settled population not so migratory Social structures become more differentiated More elaborate political systems with rationale behind them usually involving religion System of written communication Taxation records etc Trade and commerce Creations of fundamental goods weaponry religious items etc Neolithic Revolution 100003000 BCE Transition period from pre history to history Begins in ancient Near East ends the Stone Age Transitions to a sedentary life permanent agricultural settlements Domestication of animals and plants Occupational and social differentiation Development of art and architecture O Towns and cities and more political associations The rise of Sumerian Civilization 3000 BCE 0 00000 0 First true cities in Sumer Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent Result of Neolithic Revolution Selfjustifying ruling class Link between religion polytheistic and politics Trade and handicrafts Warfare Large sale building projects Development of writing in ancient Mesopotamia O O O O O Pictographic to phonetic Sumerian cuneiform More efficient communication and trade In uences religious expression Important role in political administration and centralization The Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia 23502160 BCE O 0000 First true empire Founded in Sargon by unifying multiple city states Political centralization Imperial organization Religious uniformity to ease political administration Creates control religionpolitics Hammurabi and the old Babylonia Empire 0 O O Hammurabi transforms weak kingdom to powerful empire through smarts and not force Religionpolitics Hammurabi s code for uniform administration and law 0 Example of imperial organization for future empires 0 Pharagonic Egypt 3100 BCE O O O O Centered on Nile River Centralized administration Pharaoh represented all of Egypt Served as a key player of universal order and harmony Differences and similarities between Egyptian and Sumerian civilizations o The Bronze Age 30001200 BCE O O O O o The Empire becomes dominant form of political organization New Kingdom Egypt and the Hittite Empire are major imperial powers Chariot warfare for military technology Development of international diplomacy and trade Realize that no one empire is going to have complete control Make relations with other empires Active trade developed Very reliant on other powerscan cause issues quotSea Peoplesquot and the Bronze Age collapse 1200 BCE Arc of destruction from north to south Other empires and kingdoms fall due to international diplomacy Trade dwindles Civilization reboot All progress made has to be recovered Coincides with start of Iron Age 1300600 BCE Take away points 0 Learn history by doing history 0 Civilization emerges with citystates and creation of empires in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt 0 Development of international system in ancient Near East during the Late Bronze Age 0 Diplomacy international trade 0 The quotSea Peoplesquot and their destruction leads to the end of the Bronze Age and creates the start of the Iron Age and the rise of new empires 0 New empires learn from the past and do what worked and revise what didn t quotThe Book ofJeremiah Propheciesquot Brophy 96101 Tyrtaeus quotThe Spartan Creedquot Brophy 120121 quotThe Oracle of Trophonios at Lebadeiaquot httpwwwmircea eliadecomfromprimitivesto zen114html lsocrates quotPanegyricusquot Brophy 182187 History of Western Civ Lecture Wk 2 09082015 Rise of the West The Emergence of Hebrew Monotheism Democracy in the Greek Polls and Hellenism The Ancient Israelites and the Ancient Greeks Two key aspects of development of Western Civilization takes shape and makes it different from ancient Near East traditions Hebrew religion is transformed from typical Near Eastern religion into transcendent ethicsbased universalistic religion Ancient Greek society starts out having Near Eastern characteristics but because of geographic and political circumstances it emerges as something new and different The Twelve Tribes of Israel 12001050 BCE polytheistic developed agricultural system Philistia known for trading system but posed a threat 12 tribes form to be Israel in North and Judah in South 0 Rivalry between the two leaders 0 North wins David and becomes leader for national resistance against the Philistines Struggle to nd political and religious unity David chooses Jerusalem as politicalreligious capital of kingdom 0 Stores art of the covenant there Houses 10 commandments 0 Easy for David to have political and religious power Centralization of religion pushes Israelites more towards monotheism Solomon builds First Temple which houses the arc of the covenant o Becomes central point for Israelite religious worship 0 Pushes people toward monotheism 0 Solomon has very heavy handed rule over the people 0 Solomon dies and the uni ed kingdom revolts and splits back into North and South 0 Decentralization of religion and moves back further to polytheism Assyrian empire conquers Northern Israel Kingdom and Southern Judah Kingdom becomes dependent of Assyrian empire 0 Religious prophets stress that Israelites must go back to worshiping just Yahweh and be monotheistic and they were conquered for disobeying this and being polytheistic Judah s leader tries to purify Hebrew religion through more loyalty and stricter practices 0 The Babylonian Captivity 0 Once Israelites were properly worshiping Yahweh and ful lled the prophecy they would be released by the Babylonian captivity Changes in Hebrew Religion 0 After fall of Babylon Persian King exiled Israelites and return toJudah Practice religion freely o Israelites began as polytheistic and end up as a truly monotheistic state worshiping Yahweh Religion and politics become less intertwined 0 Moves from ritual oriented religion to transcendent ethics based universalistic religion within framework of Hebrew Religion 0 Development of Ancient Greece Mycenaean Greece 14001100 BCE o Wiped out by fall of Bronze Age 0 Dark age after fall of Mycenaean Greece 1150800 BCE 0 Cultural immobility o Societal stagnation 0 Regression in social structure 0 Lack of trade and relations 0 Setting for Greek epics Odyssey Archaic Greece 800480 BCE o Emergence of Polis Greek city states 0 Return of writing and literacy Increase in trading and more interaction with other people in Mediterranean Interaction with Phoenicians through sea trade Greece borrow Phoenician alphabet Growth in population Social and political change occupational differentiation More complex social structure As society becomes more complexlj need a more complex political system and organization Polis bans together Greek communities a Participation of citizenry in how the city state is run Different polis n Athens democracy trade a Sparta military powerhouse n Milatus commercial cultural and military powerhouse a Cultural and governmental differences but still remained uni ed as citystates through shared elements and values a Pan Hellenism Pan spreading across entire area Hellenism a Greek values and culture Greeks become known traders and seafarers n Establish colonies around Mediterranean a Run into hostile powersljcon ict with Persian empire Persian empire is quotbig dogquot at the time n Cyrus the Great I Empire spans entire ancient middle east n Skilled imperial administration a Strong centralized burocracy Ionian revolt of 499 BCE n Milatus citizens and other Greek s are going to continue to receive help against Persians n Persians attack Greek mainland 0 Greek warriors were ef cient against Persian warriors n Suspect Persians to try attacking by sea 0 Athens transformed into navy power of Greek world a Battle of Thermopolis Spartans against Persians killing off many Persians n Mainland Greece is no longer under direct threat of Persian empire Ushers in Golden Age of Classical Greece 0 Golden Age of Classical Greece 48OBCE o Flourish in arts philosophy culture etc that lead to development in western civilization 0 Political presided over by Pericles for most of period Promoted democracy Patron of arts science literature Politically unsuccessful with relations with other Greek citystates Triumph of Greek ideals identity human dignity and freedoms 0 Greek Parthenon is built along with other Greek architecture 0 Philosophical speculation vs traditional religious practices Sought explanations for what they saw in the world Formulate rational theories for a physical universe rather than of the Gods Remove supernatural element of how the world works Man is the measure of all thingsquot Socrates beliefs I Socratic questioning a Critical investigation a Humans ability to reason will lead to gure out what is right and what is wrong n Philosophical system based on absolute truth 0 Peloponnesian Wars Tensions between Greek citystates Athens is largely destroyed Sparta can t retain its power against Athens Collapse of Golden Age Emergence of Alexander the Great Macedon and leader Alexander the Great defeat Athens and takes over all of Greece Alexander most successful military leaders Alexander inaugurates new era of western civilization by spreading Greek culture 0 Battle of Gaugemella Alexander the Great vs Persian Empire Ends Persian empire 0 Alexander claims huge territory Doesn t establish centralized government When Alexander dies the lack of uni cation causes division of empire TAKE AWAY Ancient Israelite religion and ancient Greek society grow from Near Eastern roots but each becomes something fundamentally new and different 0 ln transition from wandering pastoralists to national kingdom to exile Israelite religion morphs into transcendent ethicsbased universalistic Hebrew monotheism Greek model takes shape encompassing republican form of government individual libery humanistic outlook invention of philosophy artistic innovation scienti c investigation Hellenistic Greekish period both a departure from golden age of classical Greece and a bridge to ancient Rome which will also serve as framework for continued development of Hebrew monotheism Livy I Iistery f Heme Beak 1quot fhtteffmeetismspesemuedufumfsh iwfliss l sell seetie s 13 K Flutereh Lives Emphy 161 166 Palyhius The Remen Meniple vs the Meeedeei Phalanx htt ffwwferdhemetlu lelsellisneie tfenl bins 2x i ilees39 K iedems Sieul us u Slavery in the Republicquot Emphy l I gallium Life in RDIIIE in the Lama Republicquot htt wwmfmdhamedu lalaal ancign sa u5135 Augustus The DueEds f l Divine Augus m l ii l i nt f ll tu f mhJ Cicem n the Laws lmphy 1691 Pliny the Elder The Gramdaur fane lttn Wwfnrdhamedu lalaal ancigntm ny natihigt mmaaa 7 S The G a iatmial Games fhttnffwwfnrdhmedufhalgallfanciem seneca latt r ma a Tacitus Gennanjaquot EMIth I39M 131 History 100 Week 3 Lecture Notes 09152015 Forti cation Expansion and Transformation of the Western Tradition The Roman Republic and the Roman Empire Ancient Rome 753 BCE476 CE 0 Divided into two broad periods Roman Republic and Roman Empire 0 Mixing own native cultural forms with Greek Hellenistic inheritance Sense of historical mission most successful empire to date Enables geographic extension of GrecoRoman civilization 0 Both key station and crucial turning point in development of Western Civilization 0 Identi able form of government republic o No formal legal document or constitution 0 Established conditions of practice 0 Roman councils elected for two year terms with executive and judicial authority 0 Roman senate control over public expenditures Politics dominated by aristocrats Aristocrats patricians 23 of the population Plebeians 9798 of population had little power Opportunity for popular in uence but more oligarchic with small in uential groups Large amount of discontent because small number of aristocratic families control all of the senate and the majority of the population is kept out 0 Expansion of the Early Roman Republic 0 Latin Rights political marriage legal rights for all that come under Roman control Net gain for those incorporated into a successful system 0 Military success due to Roman manipular formation More exible and ability to adapt to different types of terrain Large reserve of soldiers Reinforces agrarian military society of Roman culture 0 00 Very limited literature trade and commerce Focus of military and agriculture in society Religious system parallel to Greeks Little concern with the afterlife Religion strengthened state identity and vise versa Aristocrats rotated in and out of political positions and religious positions to keep Gods satis ed Rome comes into con ict with Carthage Carthage is dominant neighboring power in today s North Africa Fight series of wars that become de ning for Rome Punic Wars I 1 Carthage attempts to seize port in modern day Sicily Roman defeats them and Carthage is bitter n 2 Carthage wants to expand their rule into Spain Rome felt threatened Hannibal led army of Carthage led army over the Alps with success and causes damage on Italian peninsula Roman uses delay tactics to save country and then eventually defeat Hannibal near Carthage Still bitter RomeCato is obsessed with competitor n 3 Romans victorious and seize Carthage and enslave the people of Carthage In Rome will never be the same set on course for further expansion 0 Expand further around almost entire Mediterranean Spain Macedonia Asia Carthage ln ux in the number of slaves employed on agricultural estates run by large patrician families Creates wealth and social inequality Leave small opportunity for small independent farmers to have a successful career Rise of equestrian class involved with commerce had the wealth and in uence of senators but prohibited from partaking in politics because of their involvement in commerce Large reliance upon slaves leave the owners helpless as far as innovation goes Romans viewed as crude and unre ned when compared to the Greeks Romans begin to adopt Greek traditions such as alphabet Eastern mystery cults tribes that promised peace in the afterlife prominent in the lowerclass Foreshadow of Christianity to come quotConquered Greece took captive her savage conqueror and brought her arts into rustic Latiumquot 0 Expansion brings con ict turmoil and instability of the republic Multiple slave revolts uprising led by Spartacus Political system still functioning but very unstable corruption through the government Petition allows anyone to become a Roman soldier a Not good because the soldiers are very easy to manipulate which leads to corruption in the military and government a More and more military leaders in roman politics a Political system becomes dominated by power hungry individuals Caesar and Pompeii become rivals 52 CE Caesar had immense power and military success 49 CE Caesar led army into the Rubicon river to engage in the civil war with Pompeii over the development that had taken place a lntimidated senate into giving him massive political power a Caesar is eventually assassinated Roman republic becomes a thing of the past and the Roman Empire takes its place 0 Octavian Caesar s nephew becomes heir and is given full power and given title quotAugustusquot Emperor of Rome dealing with military and kept the Republic in check 0 PaxRomana quotRoman Peacequot Roman republic becomes Roman empire and the political system stabilizes very little turmoil 200 years Golden age of Roman civilization Emperors continue to rule No set successorsno diagnostic struggles Rights of citizenship extended to outsiders Emperors could be someone who was not inherently wealthy Romans were master engineers a aqueducts still exist today a extensive system of roads used for postal and military routes and transportation Rome s greatest achievements n Coliseum n Mosaics n Dome of Parthenon In Theatres n Sewer systems 0 Roman Law o Development and codi cation of law creation of judicial system of fair and just ideas o Early Roman Republic Law of the 12 Tables dealt with simple matters marked rst step towards creating a uniform law code Accumulation of more and more law codes over time Augustus demands justicebody of law Legal precedent becomes crucial Civil law Written and customary law applied to Roman citizens o Law of the peoples Law applied to all people of Rome regardless of Roman citizenship or nationality Ownership of property sales etc Supplemented civil law o Natural Law Conception of the universe that there is a rational law among human beings All men in nature are entitled to basic rights o Development and codi cation of law is one of Rome s greatest accomplishments Pays very important role in centuries to come 0 Crisis of the 3rd Century 235284 CE o PaxRomana comes to end Last emperors son not t to rule and is killed o Military directly involved in imperial politics dangerous mix o Period of instability Rome hadn t been used to for a long time o Series of 26 different emperors between 235284 Ambitious military leaders who tried to use position in military for power in politics a Vicious cycle 0 Economic crisis due to interrupted agriculture taxation problems external threats from Germanic peoples and Persian 0 Certain parts of empire form independent states for some time o Eventually is overcomeVery different Rome emerges TAKE AWAY POINTS Territorial expansion sets in motion fundamental changes to society culture and politics of early Roman Republic Roman Empire attains unparalleled success in imperial administration and assimilation of subject peoples GrecoRoman civilization spread to new areas esp northwestern Europe continues general westward shift of Western civilization s center of gravity Roman Empire creates structure that allows for rise and spread of Christianity Week 6 Notes 10062015 Europe on the Verge of Breakthrough Crisis Recovery and Expansion in the Late Middles Ages TODAY The Late Middle Ages and The Renaissance 13001500 Abrupt end to growth and relative prosperity of the High Middle Ages Europe wracked by famine disease and war Creative vitality amidst chaos Recovery from crisis sets stage for European takeoff of Early Modern Era The Late Middle Ages The Crisis Increased threat due to faminegrowth of population outpowers agriculture and therefore population suffers due to lack of food supply Winter of 1315 peasants ate seed 1005 of people died of starvation 13151316 one out of ten people died because of famine Prices for food soared due to the demand 1347 tradedv strikes the black death comes to Eur0pe o Began in Mongolia and carried by rats and eas o Spread along trade routes through Italy and central Europe o Plague kills 40 English 16 northern French 12 of European population dies o People ea to avoid plague adding to the agricultural decline The Hundred Years War France and England ght series of wars from 13371453 based on one central con ict 0 War takes place entirely in France adding to agricultural decline overlaps black plague o Peasant uprisings because of the exorbitant taxation o English captured the French Kingdemanding a ransom for the Kings release o French Peasants are taxed in order to pay ransom o 1381 peasant rose in England rebellion crushed by government however serfdom begins to fade away oArtisans and the urban poor rose in protest against hunger and upper classes against aristocrats who paid unfairly in order to maintain their wealth oRebellions didn t want to change the existing system expression of outrage and frustration and these inequities high taxation and exploitation or urban poor who were already experiencing hard times due to poverty and black plague Amidst crisis popular religious expressions o Conclude that god was passing judgment onto people for their gns o Engage in pilgrimages to hon sites in order to satisfy god o Punishing the esh in order to feed the soul known as agellants o Blamed the Jews for causing the plague burning them at the stakes They poisoned the well of Christian beliefs therefore they were believed to be the cause of the crises o Many thought they could communicate with god by withdrawing from society and the church wasn t approved by the church o Hersey in the church Teachings of English theologian John Wycliffe UGod has predestined some souls for damnation UReasoned that the churches were unnecessary nAfter death his followers took up teachings and denied the church UChurch prosecuted those that went against the Church 1303 King Philip accused pope of heresy and forced Pope to defend King s actions and live under the French Guard UBabyonian Captivity Pope becomes subservient to the French king isolated from political turmoil inIU y nFrench Crown paid highly in order to choose bishops 1388 College of Cardinals UChoose the pope UThe chose one based from Rome and but then go against their choice and try to appoint a new one nThis leads to the Great Schism now have two different popes in two different cities UDiscredits church in the eyes of followers The Recovery 14005 The plague periodically revisits Europe leading to population decHne o The worst was behind them Population slowly begins to stabilize Agricultural production begins to incline and ordinary people could afford to by grains o Falling price of grain encourages farmers to grow new products o Creates a consumer market o Regional specialization takes place Disasters help revive agriculture economy and expand commerce o 2 leading centers for trade were the Baltic Sea ports cities dominated trade in the north of German and the north ltalian cities dominated markets of spices etc Merchants in Italy and Germany created joint stock partnerships lnstabilitv continued for several more decades o Merchant in bohemia belonging to the German Empire Holy Roman empire Worldly corruption in Church Medieval Church only priest drank the communion wine Bohemian Czech king looked to help with great schism O O O o Rebellion in Bohemia o 1434 church and Hussites come to an agreement Hussites can drink the communion wine which was one of the main arguments o Council of Constance had been called to nd resolution to Great Schism o 14151417counci appointed new Pope Martin the 5thBrought end to Great Schism but didn t end con ict with the church hierarchy o 14171449 Papacy and church council had con ict as to whether the bishop council or the pope had sovereignty over church o 1449 Papacy came out on top Wordy authority Monarchy onto itself 0 During the decades when Church was trying to resolve con ict ongoing 100 years war was still happening o English scored a victory during one of the battles by using a military technique that overwhelmed their French armies o French eventually win over entire territorymodern day France o Aristocrats gave themselves to the English o What turns the tide is the loan of Arc who lead the French in Battle winning many signi cant battles Joan claimed god had spoken to her and gave her victory throughout all her battles 143O Aristocrats from burgundy area captured Joan English convicted her for being a witch and burned her at the stake o 1435 French joined forces with King Charles ultimately driving English forces back o 1453 end of war o French monarchy survived and grew stronger under Charles 7th after 100 years war o French nally driven out English and French monarchy will continue its path to royal absolutism o England s fortunes had declined steadily due to King Herne 7th who refused to recognize the aristocrats rights under the Magna Carta 0 Civil war erupted between King Henry 7th and his cousin o War of roses red rose signifying Lancaster white rose signifying the dukes o House of York wonKing Edward 4th o King Edward 4th s brother took over and killed kings Edward s sons o Henry 7th strengthened English monarchy and becomes even more powerful under Henry 8th 0 The Holy roman Empire German Empire had fragmented into a patchwork of principalities o 1450 two principalities emerge to be dominant 0 Florence Milan and Venice had evolved own models of urban govt 3 leading Italian cities all with different governments Long and pro table time of peace contributing to the artistic and creative abilities Iberian Peninsula modern day Spain and Portugal o Reconquista of peninsula to about the year 1000 Fuy complete in 1492 when Granada was captured 0 Uni ed Spanish monarchy comes about when Ferdinand 2nCI and Isabelle take leadership Mostly a Christian kingdom kicked everyone out or forced conversion to those who didn t share their religion Securing their power by maintaining one uniform religion o Spanish inquisition instituted to rid those who had falsely or super cially converted to Christianity o Ferdinand and Isabella were exploration advocates which eventually led Spain to discover the quotnew worldquot Ottoman Empire oTurkishslamic empire that was the most powerful Muslim empire Ottoman Turks destroyed Byzantium Romania Greece Hungary Bulgaria 0 Russia o Major rising power at the time o Rulers are orthodox Christiansmore in line with Byzantine religious and political context Age of Exploration Marco Polo s explorations 12711275 0 Made it all the way across central Asian to china 0 Notes of his travels became popular Christopher Columbus owned Marco Polo s travel logs Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator 13941460 o Sponsored many explorations to nd a way around Africa to get to the far east and India o These explorations were not successful however they are important steps for future explorations o Bartholomew Diaz from Portugal rst European explorer to round the tip of Africa 0 Varco Di Gama reached India rst by sea links Europe and Asia by sea Christopher Columbus 0 Convinced he could go westward to reach Asia and India 0 Ferdinand and Isabella sponsored his explorations o First voyage he reaches modern day Caribbean 0 First discovery of the quotNew Worldquot m o Sailing on behalf of the Spanish crown and found Mexico 15191521 0 Conquers Aztec Empire Francisco Carazo o Conquers Incan empire in northern South America 0 Spanish came with the idea to defeat and conquer empires that leads to brutality towards native people of the quotNew Worldquot New Cultural Trends 0 Development of vernacular and secular literature starts out High Middle Ages o Remarkable works came from Florence Boccaccio s quotDecameronquot Wasn t prose and colloquial everyday language o Referred to this style as naturalism emerged in sculpture and arts The Renaissance 13501550 0 Wideranging movement in European intellectual and artistic life Rebirth of classical culture Humanism o Begins and ourishes in Italy spreads to northern Europe Decisive role in replacing medieval worldview with modern worldview o Preconditions in northern Italy 0 Most urbanized region of Europe 0 Italian aristocrats settle in cities intermingle with urban bourgeoisie 0 Premium placed on education for occupational and social advancement Classical heritage everpresent Political fragmentation fosters civic concern 0 Immense wealth allows patronage of the arts 00 Renaissance Humanism 0 Program of study humanities in opposition to Scholasticism meant to produce virtuous citizens and capable of cials o Humanistic education as goal in and of itself not necessarily subordinated to higher religious goal 0 Positive view of human nature and innate human capacities oriented toward individual 0 Focus on ethics and practical concerns over detached philosophical speculation 0 Civic Humanism in Italy Petrarch Mirandola 0 Christian Humanism in northern Europe Desiderius Erasmus Sir Thomas More 0 Painting 0 Use of linear perspective 0 Chiaroscuro effects of light and shade 0 Both naturalism and mannerism 0 Extremely high level of technical pro ciency 0 Religious classical and secular motifs o More restrained introspective style in northern Europe Sculpture 0 Becomes independent area of artistic activity for rst time since Antiquity 0 Extremely high level of technical pro ciency o Mixing of Christian and classical motifs o Nudes o Naturalism and mannerism o Renaissance revival of sculpture largely limited to Italy 0 Architecture 0 Mixing of classical style with medieval architectural styles 0 Classical combined with Romanesque in Italy 0 Classical combined with Gothic in northern Europe particularly France 0 The Waning of the Renaissance starting 1500 o Incessant warfare in Italy 0 Italian economic prosperity declines o Reformation and CounterReformation set in across Europe create vastly different intellectual and artistic climate Renaissance Summary o Not a rebirth but rather a particular revival of classical heritage o Humanism as key feature of Renaissance o Crucial step in anthropocentric humancentered worldview replacing theocentric Godcentered worldview 0 Intellectual and artistic life of Europe in the process of moving from the medieval to early modern outlook TAKE AWAY Late Middle Ages as era of crisis bookend to entire Medieval period o In overcoming crisis European civilization proves its mettle and moves toward Early Modern takeoff Overseas expansion and onset of Renaissance signal start of new era when Medieval heritage will be preserved but in greatly modi ed form 0 Western Civilization on the threshold of its most dynamic period of development


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.