Exam #2 Study Guide
Exam #2 Study Guide Music 170
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cynthia Bressler on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Music 170 at Kansas State University taught by Dr. Maxwell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 361 views.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
History of Rock amp Roll Exam 2 Study Guide Ricky Nelson Singing and performance style closely paralleled Elvis amp Gene Vincent Maintained a more cleancut image that put him more in line with the Everly Brothers California entered the picture in a big way with vocal and instrumental surf music Beach Boys 0 Three brothers a cousin and a high school friend Brian Wilson lLeader and eventually producer vocals bass and keyboards Carl Wilson lead guitar and vocals Dennis Wilson drums and vocals Mike Love vocals Al lardine guitar and vocals 0 Early songs were in uenced by Chuck Berry and white vocal groups like the Four Freshmen 0 Music that seemed devoted to teenage summer fun surf music 0 Signed with Capitol Records in 1962 and released twentyfour top 40 hits by 1967 0 Ten of those were in the top 10 and two were 1 o quotSurfer39 Safariquot Surfin USAquot 1962 0 They felt a strong sense of competition with the Beatles distributed in the US by Capitol records 0 Early songs relied on straightforward rock and roll melodies guitar sounds and chord progressions 0 Their strong point was exceptional vocal abilities and talent for blending their voices 0 Brian Wilson demanded to be Beach Boys producer from early in their career Used Spector s idea of sounds Emphasized innovation Eventually stopped being in band just to produce their songs Dick Dale amp the DelTones Most closely associated with the term instrumental surf m usic Misrilou 1972 Chapter 4 Sweet Soul Some black singers had been on the pop charts since mid 19505 but had deviated from that during the teen idol surf music Beach Boys stage Nat King Cole 0 Send for Mequot 1957 Looking Backquot 1958 Soul music merging of RampB and gospel music Ray Charles 1 Got a Womanquot 1954 inspired record labels to look for gospel artists to turn into rhythm and blues artists Also used pop amp country stylistic in uences in his songs 0 Georgia on My Mindquot 1960 Hit the Road Jack 1961 Sam Cooke Sang in a light pop style with noticeable elements of black music Cooke sang with the Soul Stirrers gospel group before he started singing pop music 0 Clear tenor voice frequent melodic embellishments New Black pop music arrived during the 1960s from new artists and other parts of the country Detroit Memphis Muscle Shoals AL Atlanta Motown Motown records was an independent label founded in Detroit Michigan 0 Had enormous commercial success that paralleled the Beatles success timeline in the early 1930s 0 Built the sound of the records around styles that appealed to a white audience Founded by Berry Gordy Jr in 1959 0 Original songwriting team included Berry Gordy William quotMickeyquot Stevenson amp William Smokey Robinson 0 Hits My Guyquot Mary Wells 0 Worked on artist s class dance moves manners and stage presence as well as their music amp production Producers From 19641967 Brian Holland Lamont Dozier and Eddie Holland created many hits for groups recording for the label HDH o Supremes Four Tops Martha amp the Vandellas 0 Recording were produced in two adjoining Detroit houses called Hitsville USA Funk Brothers played most of the recordings Ended up basically creating Motown sound The Temptations Formed in 1961 and were one of Motown s top acts from 19641972 Made up of members of two Detroit area groups the Distants and the Primes My Girlquot written by Smokey Robinson Supremes Best example of Motown sound from mid to late 1960s Formed in Detroit in1959 as a sister group to the Primes they were called the Primettes Diana Ross Mary Wilson Florence Ballard replaced by Cindy Birdsong in 67 Where did our love goquot Supremes amp HollandDozierHolland were one of the most successful writing and production teams in popular music The Four Tops Formed in 1954 and remained together for four decades Male counterparts to the Supremes from 1964 1967 Baby I need your lovingquot 1964 I can t help myself sugar pie honey bunchquot 1965 HollandDozierHolland arrangement characteristics frequently included classical references orchestral strings amp classical harmonic progressions Martha Reeves amp the Vandellas Formed in Detroit in 1962 Reeves and friends sang backup on Marvin Gaye s Stubborn Kind of Fellowquot 1962 Her sound didn t fit the normal pop sound of the time but rather more soulful amp powerful Sometimes too much for listeners so she wasn t a 1 hit artists Opened the door for many gospel singers in the late 60s Aretha Franklin Marvin Gaye One of the three artistproducers on the Motown label 0 Smokey Robinson amp Stevie Wonder were the others Pride amp Joyquot 1963 for Mickey Stevenson How Sweet it is to be Loved by Youquot 1965 Ain t That Peculiarquot 1965 for Smokey Robinson What s Going Onquot most important production was his 1971 concept album Went away from Motown sound More instrumental with jazz in uences Real 70s sound Addresses social and political issues Wrote and produced on his own Brought to Berry Gordy at Motown and he declines it Eventually Marvin convinces him and Gordy thinks it ll fail Died tragically Was shot and killed by his own father Stevie Wonder Known for playing harmonica but could play most instruments well Began producing his own records in 1970 Signed Sealed Delivered I m Yoursquot He produced his own album Where I m Coming From in 1971 His writing and production skills helped Motown evolve into the 1970s Atlantic Stax amp Southern Soul Atlantic began in 1960s as a highly successful rhythm and blues oriented label 0 Had incorporated Leiber amp Stoller Brill Building approach in song production 0 Sweet soul artists records were successful Drifters Coasters Ben E King Jerry Wexler KSU Grad Race records to RampB Died August 2008 Eventually joined up with Atlantic to look for the next big RampB artist Coined phrase rhythm amp bluesquot for charts 0 Worked with Ray Charles amp Big Joe Turner Discovered Aretha Franklin Wasn t getting to produce as much as he wanted to since Leiber amp Stoller had taken over much of the label s song production 0 Wexler s renewed enthusiasm led him to join Atlantic NYC amp Stax records Memphis together so he could work with southern soul music 0 Atlantic amp Stax set up leasing agreements for many songs during the early 1960s I Stax got house bands that were from Memphis Motown south soul Stax operation was more casual than the Motown and certainly more so than Atlantic Otis Redding One of the most important Stax artists who helped bring attention to the Stax soundquot These Arms of Minequot 1963 0 Vocal style drawn heavily from gospel singing style soulful expressive harddriving music accompaniment 1965 began getting crossover hits 0 Sittin on the Dock of the Bayquot 1968 hit 1 on RampB charts I Never got to see 1 hit died tragically in plane crash Dec 1967 0 First black artist to appear at the Monterey Pop Festival in the summer of 67 I Appearance helped acquaint the hippie audience to southern soul Atlantic Records amp connection to Fame Studios in Muscle Shoals AL 0 Wilson Pickett o Discovered by Jerry Wexler Wexler took Pickett to Memphis to record w Stax musicians in Stax style In the Midnight Hourquot 1965 0 When studio time was difficult to get at Stax Wexler moved to Fame studios 0 Land of 1000 dancesquot 1966 Mustang Sallyquot 1966 Funky Broadwayquot 67 o Wrote most of his own music wrote the song Respect that became Aretha Franklin s biggest hit Southern Soul in the Big Apple Aretha Franklin 0 Originally signed with Columbia in NY Wanted her to be a girl group singer and it didn t work so they dropped her 0 Jerry Wexler got her to sign with Atlantic in 1966 worked with her in Fame Studios in Muscle Shoals I Never Loved a Man The Way I Love Youquot 1967 A Decade of Stark Contrasts Great hope amp great turbulence IFK elected president in 1960 0 Presented a model for American youth giving them a new sense of cultural identity IFK gets assassinated on Nov 22 1963 brought on a multitude of changes in attitude 0 Conspiracy theories 0 Suspicion of gov social religious and economic institutions General attitudes of youth culture became magnified 0 Youth culture presented itself more forcefully than ever 0 Social movements became more vigorous more critical more violent America was divided by several major issues Vietnam War 0 Feminist movement began in 1963 0 Environmental Movement Entertainment Industry amp it s revolutionary changes Radio industry began in the 1960s with AM as the main source of popular music but by the end of the 1960s FM had evolved 0 Originally FM was reserved for programming other than commercial popular music classical music orchestras jazz music information o In 1967 it shifted to music appropriate for the new youth movement hippies America wins the race to the moon Changes Atlantic was sold to Warner Brothers Seven Arts Changes were occurring at Motown o HollandDozierHolland left Motown in 1967 so sound people were used to were gone 0 Gerry Gordy wanted to move Motown to Hollywood to pursue movie possibilities James Brown Unquestionably the most important black performer of the 19605 Known as Soul Brother 1quot Godfather of Soulquot amp The Hardest Working Man in Show Businessquot Started out in Famous Flames band Brown also substituted for Little Richard when his hit Tutti Fruttiquot led him away from Georgia Performed as Little Richard Went to prison for stealing cars and realized he didn t want that kind of life so he committed himself to music after getting out First success came with Please Please Please 0 Brown gained reputation for his active stage performance Created funk and opened the door for the kind of pop music and dance we are used to today Was committed to bringing black music to all communities 0 Brown and his manager Ben Bart released a live album in 1963 0 Live at the Apollo reached 2 on the pop charts 0 Good example of his energetic performance style 0 Brown took control of all aspects of his music career usually ends badly o Wrote amp produced his songs 0 King Records owner Sid Nathan amp manager Ben Bart died in 1968 After that Brown handled his own business affairs Musicians in his band were extremely talented rehearsed relentlessly amp were fined if they made mistakes during show 0 Brown In Boston 0 James Brown singlehandedly calmed rioting in several cities the night following the King assassination I Black Americans reacted violently to Dr Martin Luther King s assassination on April 4 1968 I Next night Brown gave a concert in Boston that was televised across the country Started the show by asking viewers to be calm and stay in to not destroy their community Reminded black viewer s about King s dedication to peaceful change Boston and several other cities were relatively quiet that night Folk music Collegeage young people needed something more substantial than mainstream pop 0 Some became interested in jazz blues or classical o The newest style to become popular on college campuses was folk music 0 Folk music had been somewhat popular throughout the 19405 Woody Guthrie Pete Seeger Almanac Singers 0 Queen of Folkquot Joan Baez toured with Bob Dylan amp performed at the first Newport Folk Festival in 1959 0 The Weavers o Included Pete Seeger during the early 19505 when they had some hits Before they were blacklisted Good Night Irenequot 1950 On Top of Old Smokyquot 195 1 0 Folk music and the artists singing it addressed issues that concerned less fortunate members of society Folk music had a noncommercial sound and character 0 It was music for regular people performed by regular people Not pretentious 0 Harry Belafonte 0 Had hits in 19505 with exotic sounding Caribbean calypso fold songs Jamaica Farwellquot 1957 Banana Boatquot 1957 0 Very outspoken for civil rights during the 605 Kingston Trio 0 From 19581965 this group had 10 top 40 pop hits with Capitol Records I Where Have All the Flowers Gonequot 1962 0 great success with album sales versus the single records that were selling before Peter Paul amp Mary 0 1961 included Peter Yarrow Paul Stockey amp Mary Travers 0 Hit song Blowin in the Windquot originally sang by Bob Dylan Folk Rock Begins with Bob Dylan 1964 o Dylan was a well known folk artist before 1964 but not known in pop circles 0 He wanted to use and experimented with electric instruments and was inspired by Byrds Mr Tambourine Manquot 1965 0 Newport Folk Festival 1965 I Dylan used electric instruments amp folk purists accused him of selling out to pop mainstream but it introduced folk rock to a new audience Popular music in the US at the beginning of the 60s Wide variety of styles 0 Teen idols love songs folk music girlgroup rockabilly surf music sweet soul None of the artists of any of these styles were considered to be the Next Elvisquot Music industry was desperately looking among these styles to find a similar phenomenon o On Feb 9 1964 The Beatles appeared on Ed Sullivan s Sunday evening show I Elvis had done the same thing eight years earlier I 73 million people watched it I Even the crime rate went down during the time period of the telecast British pop in the late 1950s and early 1960s 0 Radio 0 BBC amp Radio Luxembourg 0 British government owned BBC It only had three channels and only one played rock amp roll Rise of Skif e o UK s version of rockabilly Beatles Beginning 1957 a Liverpool teenager named John Lennon formed a skif e group called Quarryman Changed name multiple times amp had different members than the original 4 we know Loved Buddy Holly amp crickets that s where the name The Beatles came from Hamburg o Offered a job in a nightclub in Hamburg Germany in their red light district 0 Made a total of 5 trips to Hamburg from 19601962 0 The Hamburg experience provided the opportunity to develop their musical skills Their performance routines were grueling from 7PM to 2AM with 15 minutes breaks Brian Epstein met the band at the Cavern Club in Liverpool 0 Beatles began performing regularly here in Feb of 1961 0 Their musicianship was in top form amp they quickly established a reputation as a great band Both wrote their own songs amp did covers Epstein offered to manage them in Nov of 1961 o Cleaned up their appearance wore matching suits got them into bigger venues to make more money Epstein arranged a recording audition with Decca in their London studios on Ian 1 1962 Decca passed them up but let Beatles keep their demo Got rid of drummer amp then hired Ringo Star who they had met while in Hamburg o In June of 1962 an audition was arranged with George Martin at EMI Beatlemania in England 1963 British press coined term to describe the excitement generated by the band s live performances in 1963 Wrote their own songs that continually topped British charts 0 Please Please Mequot From Me to Youquot She Loves Youquot Big break was on the Sunday Night at the London Palladium TV show similar to Ed Sullivan show in US In early Nov they appeared on the Royal Variety Performance TV show attended only by British Royalty Queen approved therefore society could approve Philadelphia disc jockey had pilot friend bring him back a Beatles record from England Records were really difficult to get ahold of but there was a demand to hear them Beatlemania arrived in America in 1964 US debut album Meet the Beatles went 1 a week later and stayed there 3 months Beatles Second Album replaced the first album July 1964 release their fulllength feature movie A Hard Day s Night Flood of Beatles singles from that point forward Every album after reached 1 0 Can t Buy Me Lovequot 1964 In early 1966 they began bold new experiments in production of their Revolver album 0 Use of studio effects stylistic juxtapositions new timbral elements structural elements This approach is exemplified in Tomorrow Never Knowsquot o No chorus lyrics are from Tibetan book of the dead text from Timothy Leary s book The Psychedelic Experience accompanying music is a static single harmonic drone tape loops Development of greater stylistic range 0 Dylan s in uence is apparent on Lennon s You ve Got to Hide Your Love Awayquot 0 On the same album a classicalstyle string quartet accompaniment is used in I ll McCartney 5 Yesterdayquot McCartney suggested an album about an imaginary band during the Psychedelic Era This was the Lonely Hearts Club band album Only 3 songs stay with this concept on the album 0 The first title song The second song featuring Ringo Starr as imaginary singer Billy Shearsquot The reprise of the title song before the last song The rest of the songs are united by their introduction of a wide variety of styles 0 Classical arrangements amp Avantgarde techniques particularly in the aleatoric chance orchestral section of the last song A Day in the Lifequot utilizes an orchestral buildup of randomly executed pitches The Beatles after Sgt Pepper s Lonely Hearts Club Band The albums that followed were built around concepts 0 The 1967 project Magical Mystery Tour was built around a road trip I McCartney s idea was to rent a tourist bus amp travel the English countryside amp film it o In 1968 they went to India to study meditation with the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi In 1969 McCartney suggested a documentrayOstlye film on the Beatles in the creative process 0 Originally called Get Back 0 Much animosity between band members 0 George Martin walked out amp the project was shelved Band reunited with Martin in mid 1969 to produce their last studio album Abbey Road which some say was their best album 0 The film and music tracks from Get Back were salvaged and reassembled as Let It Be I Martin was not involved as producer so Phil Spector was brought in to finish the project 0 Paul McCartney was disappointed with Spector s arrangements of some songs I Spector added orchestral tracks amp choir tracks Apple Records Beatles manager Brian Epstein died in the summer of 1967 Group decided to handle their business affairs themselves by creating a company called Apple 0 It would promote other artists considered uncommercial The Beatles The End The band was ready to break up by late 1969 They made it official in 1970 Band members successfully continued on with 5010 careers The Rest of the British Invade Beatles opened the door for other British Invasion bands to follow them on to the US charts 0 These bands had a few things in common that create the British Invasion term I Long hair British accents Band members sand amp accompanied themselves on guitars and occasional keyboards 0 Rolling Stones 0 Next most significant British Invasion Band 0 Presented the opposite image of the Beatles I Sensual dangerous rude antiBeatles 0 Mick Jagger Keith Richards Brian Jones Bill Wyman Charlie Watts 0 British Invasion Bands ended up being categorized as either Beatlestype or Stonestype 0 Beatles type Gerry amp the Pacemakers o Stones type Yardbirds Animals 0 Others that didn t fit The Who the Kinks o Freddy amp the Dreamers used humor in their act by demonstrating a silly dance The Freddyquot Rolling Stones blues revival They conveyed a more radical side of the British Invasion concept 0 Brash nonconformist rebellious Not in uenced by softer American pop music styles as were the Beatles amp other Beatletype bands 0 Stones drew from the 19505 Chicago electric blues tradition 0 Delivery styles similar to Muddy Waters Stones took longer to catch on in the US 0 Rebellious image wasn t as well received as the cleaner Beatles groups Eventually their troublemaker image became better received by US teens 0 First number one hit was I Can t Get No Satisfactionquot in summer 1965 I quotdirtyquot guitar sound Other important British blues revival groups 0 The Yardbirds 0 Even more dedicated to the blues than the Stones I Eric Clapton was replaced by Jeff Beck who was subsequently replaced by Jimmy Page 0 They developed long improvisatory sections at the end of songs displaying members virtuosity 0 Beck quit and Page continued on with they band until they disbanded in 1968 Page formed a new band the New Yardbirds which eventually became Led Zeppelin The Animals 0 Came from Newcastle in North England 0 Early background Preceded the Stones amp Yardbirds with hits in the UK amp US Lead singer Eric Burton amp known for their wild stage presence Moved to London in 1964 0 Important break came with a chance to play on a Chuck Berry tour in UK I They played House of the Rising Sunquot a slow folkblues number 0 Original band disbanded and Burton continued as Eric Burton amp the Animals I Bassist Chas Chandler discovered amp managed Iimi Hendrix The Kinks amp The Who had ties to both general categories 0 Like Beatles both groups had strong songwriting members 0 Like Stones both groups used raw power amp rhythmic drive The Kinks o Formed in 1963 Brother Ray 7 Dave Davies on guitar 7 vocal You Really Got Mequot covered by Van Halen in 1978 I Had sound that wasn t popular until mid 705 The Who 0 Formed in 62 but weren t popular in US until late 605 o Built act around captivating stage performance Songs were written by Pete Townsend Singer Roger Daltry fronted the band Iohn Entwistle bass Keith Moon drummer o Regularly on charts in UK My Generationquot 1965 0 Had 705 sound too early on to be popular when they first appeared What is Psychedelia The Doors of Perception Aldous Huxley 0 Use of mescaline peyotecactus exploring new ways to experience the world 19605 young adults thought that the 19505 was too focused on normalcy They challenged middleclass values with alternative lifestyles 19605 young adults became suspicious of American institutions gov schools churches big business the military the police Reasons for this increased suspicion civil rights movement amp Vietnam war resistance Young people began to believe that everything they heard from the establishment was a lie Drugs were added into youth culture during the 19605 0 They were a means of attaining a new perspective on the world I Marijuana amp LSD o LSD was developed in 1943 I Discovered working on a cure for migraine headaches I CIAmescaline amp LSD as a truth serum Two prominent adults figures advocated the use of LSD as a means of rejecting establishment values 0 ExHarvard professor Dr Timothy Leary amp Author Ken Kesey One Flew over the Cuckoo s Nest 0 They proposed taking hallucinogenic drugs unlocked the doors of perceptionquot I Leary advised people to turn on tune in and drop outquot Two psychedelic approaches to music Music in a secondary role to drugs music helps experience Music itself as a trip Essential in both cases are the trip amp quest for a higher consciousness Musicians became more experimental and ambitious about writing performing amp recording Psychedelia 0 Summer of Love luneAugust 1967 0 Several events signaled the breakthrough of psychedelia into mainstream popular culture I Emerging hippie culture amp ower power in San Francisco I Beatles released Sgt Pepper s Lonely Hearts Club Band Most in uential album by that band 0 Iimi Hendrix performed a virtuosic show at the Monterey Pop Festival 0 Stunning musical performance 0 Set his guitar on fire at the end of set 0 Iimi Hendrix Experience w Mitch Mitchell amp Noel Redding I Hey Joequot Purple Hazequot Third Stone from the Sunquot 1967 I On album Are You Experienced Uses spoken poetry backwards tapes Dylanesque talking bluesquot and guitarproduced sound effects 0 Origins are in and underground movement centered in both London amp San Francisco 0 Only people in those areas knew about it Bands Clubs Shops amp Newspapers Acid Rock music associated usually with the San Francisco Bay Area in the 1960s that encompasses a wide variety of stylistic approaches often with free from improvisations and heavy in uences from the blues amp folk music 0 Jefferson Airplane Grateful Dead Big Brother amp the Holding CompanyJanis Ioplin Country Joe amp the Fish LA s Sunset Strip heart of live music full of clubs amp recording studios The Doors got their name from Huxley s book Doors of Perception 0 One of the top bands from late 67 through much of 1968 0 Jim Morrison Break on Throughquot 1967 from album The Doors Woodstock amp The Era of the Rock Music Festival 0 First was Monterey International Pop Festival in June 1967 Drew an audience of 30K Landmark event of the era was the Moodstock Music amp Arts Fair in August of 1969 0 Some Performers Creedence Clearwater Revival Arlo Guthrie Grateful Dead Iimi Hendrix Janis Joplin Jefferson Airplane The Who 0 Eric Clapton Cream 0 Had become one of rock s premier guitarists while performing in a variety of different groups amp settings 0 Started rock trio Cream with Jack Bruce amp Ginger Baker 0 Became very popular in both US amp UK First album Fresh Cream didn t make the charts but second album Disraeli Gears went to 4 Sunshine of Your Lovequot 1968 Brian Wilson s Smile amp Smiley Smile The 1967 followup to Pet Sounds was Wilson s most ambitious project yet titled Smile It was never released Portions of it were released as Smiley Smile In 2005 the album was rerecorded and released by Wilson Wilson was obviously caught up in drugs during the production of this album amp it shows through the music Beach Boys reacted against Wilson s new songs They argued that it wouldn t be popular with their fans During subsequent years they worked at simplifying their sound Overall the psychedelic era had a negative effect on the Beach Boys career San Francisco Scene amp HaightAshbury The emergence of hippie culture in San Francisco 0 The psychedelic scene had been developing since mid 1965 in San Fran area 0 A bohemian scene celebrating the poetry of Allen Ginsberg amp the prose of Jack Kerouac Ken Kesey amp the Acid Tests 0 During the same time period novelist Ken Kesey was organizing the acid testquot I Kesey celevrated the liberating effects of LSD I He wanted to share the drug as broadly as he could o Kesey s first acid test was in Santa Crus in Nov 1965 the cost to enter the acid test one dollar Really fed into the whole Doors of Perception idea Concerts news the Psychedelic Shop amp FM radio Psychedelic evenings of LSD amp rock music were a regular feature in the Bay Area 0 Local band rented houses in HaightAshbury district for rehearsal spaces 0 Rolling Stone Magazine published its first issue in Nov 1967 The Grateful Deadformerly the Warlocks House band for the Kesey acid tests the band changed it s name to Grateful Dead Jerry Garcia guitar informal leader As the Warlocks the band played a lot of Rolling Stones style American electric blues When playing at the acid tests they began developing an improvisational style 0 Some songs were extremely long amp could last over an hour 0 Released an album of short songs 0 Dark Starquot exemplifies their sound Later albums shorter songs more country amp folkoriented tracks Grateful Dead were one of the most successful live American bands in the 70s amp 805 In the Dark 1987 Touch of Grayquot
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