Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide REHSCI 1200
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Ruth on Friday January 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to REHSCI 1200 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Karthik Hariharan in Fall2013. Since its upload, it has received 208 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Rehabilitation at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/09/15
Functions of integumentary system 0 Vitamin d synthesis 0 Protection 0 Prevents dehydration Blood reservoir 0 Immunity Sensation Heat reg Skin cells and functions Keratinocytes produce keratin for waterproo ng skin Melanocytes produce melanin responsible for skin pigmentation Langerhans cells store bone marrow for immunity WBCs Merkel cells send sensory info to brain Layers of epidermis and functions Basale cell division Spinosum contains melanocytes Granulosum contains precursor to keratin in thicker skin Lucidum dead skin cells Corneum dead skin cells for waterproo ng shed away by deeper cells Skin glands and functions Ceruminous produce ear wax cerumin Sebaceous produces sebum oil to prevent dehydration of the skin and hair Apocrine produces body odor develops during puberty in pubic regionarmpit Sudiferous produces sweat Functions of skeletal system Suppo Energy storage Cell production Movement Mineral storage Steps in bone fracture healing 1 Hematoma forms on the bone from in ammationljextra blood brings macrophages new capillaries and phagocytes to wound 2 Fibrocartilaginous callus forms from the new capillaries 3 Bony callus formation spongy bone starts to replace brocartilage 4 Remodeling occurs and bone looks like it did originally takes about 1 year to complete the whole process Types of bone and functions 0 Long bones made up of cortical bone used for strength and as shock absorbers curved femur tibia bula etc 0 Short bones mostly spongy bone cubed in shape carpal and tarsal bones Flat bones skull hard and solid for protection Irregular bones bones that don39t fall into any other category facial bones vertebrae Types of cartilage and functions Fibrocartilage strength 0 Elastic maintain shape Hyaline cartilage soft smooth muscle attachment Types of muscle bone attachment 0 Origin where bone is stationary o lnsertion where bone is not stationary Fibrous joints Syndesmoses where ligaments connect Suture skull no movement tight t Gomphosis tooth and socket bones t into socket Synovial joints 0 Uniaxial hinge elbow and pivot ulna Biaxial condyloid wrist and saddle thumb o Triaxial ball and socket shoulderhip most movement least stability Nonaxial planegliding carpalstarsals Functions of muscular system amp types Skeletal cardiac smooth 0 Movement within body 0 Heat production 0 Stability Shock absorption Coverings of muscle components Muscle bers l fascicles l muscle Endomysium l perimysium l epimysium Types and functions of skeletal muscle 0 Slow twitch bers marathon runners aerobic process high myoglobin high 02 0 Intermediate twitch bers high myoglobin in between slow and fast 0 Fast twitch bers sprinter anaerobic low myoglobin low 02 content Levers 1st class lever F bw E and R see saw 2nCI class lever R bw F and E toe raise 3rd class lever E bw F and R Elbow exion Functions of the Nervous system 0 integration sensory o motion Coverings of the parts of the axon Nerve ber axon l fascicle l nerve Endoneurium l perineurium l epineurium Glial cells support and maintain chemical balance of uid that bathes the neuron astrocytes bloodbarrier regulation CaK conc gradients oligodendtritic cellsmyelin sheath in the CNS 0 microglia cells provide immunity for the CNS ependymal cells CSF neurolemmaschwann cells myelin sheath in the PNS satellite cells protective layer monosynaptic arc no integration needed sensory neuron straight to motor neuron polysynaptic arc integration needed travels throughout the PNS before being sent to motor neuron CNS brain and spinal cord PNS spinal nerves cranial nerves sensory receptors peripheral nerves Divisions of the PNS autonomicinvoluntary o sympathetic ght or ight o parasympathetic rest or regroup somatic voluntary skeletal muscles o enteric brain of the gut involuntary system of the GI tract helps with digestion and monitoring chemical changes in the GI tract osteoblasts responsible for building up bone collagen and calci cation osetocytes maintain the cell exchange of nutrients and waste and shit osteoclasts break down the bone cells with use of lysosomal enzymes CNSbrainspinal cord PNS sensory receptors peripheral nerves spinal nerves cranial nerves Review Session Questions amp Answers 1 different layers of the skin epidermis and dermis further epidermis basale spinosum granulosum lucidum corneum dermis papilarry region and reticular region 2 parts of a sarcomere thickthin laments actin is thin myosin is thick H zone middle of the sarcomere only thick laments A band thick and thin laments overlap band on either side of a bands thin laments only M line center line in H zone Z disc ends of the sarcomere E l MEFE39 3 i543 M line E iac a Myoiibril Thin lilament f Thick lament E 393 M line a l a v a v hi I Ii quotJ 1 Earwmem I Zone of I V Plane of overlap A A H mm overlap I hand I A band E I hand h Filaments Jehn Wiley 3 Sons Int 3 proteins responsible for skin pigmentations carotene hemoglobin melanin a everyone has the same number of melanocytes we differ in the amount of melanin produced geneticenvironment factors 4 types of muscle bers sow twitch high 02 high myoglobin marathon runner fast twitch low myoglobin low 02 sprinter intermediate twitch bers 5 structures that comprise a motor unit motor neuron and all its associated muscle bers it stimulates what is the contractile unit of a muscle ber sarcomere proteinsions that play a vital role in the sliding lament theory Ca troponin tropomyosin actin myosin 8 osteoblastsclasts gt101
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