Ecology Exam 2 Study Guide
Ecology Exam 2 Study Guide EFB 320
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabrielle Donnelly on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EFB 320 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Tom Horton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 160 views. For similar materials see General Ecology in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Ecology Exam 2 Review Sheet Important themesfacts to know Disclaimer this is not an allencompassing review guide so please look over your notes as well as gure numbers CHAPTERS 10 11 12 15 1639 COMPETITION Competitors can coexist if they are NOT using all of the same resources Competitive exclusion principle complete competitors competitors using all of the same resources from different species cannot exist unless they are of the same species Exploitative competition when an organism take all of a certain resource for itself ex Plant canopy cover a plant will grow outwards when it is the only plant in the area which will keep other plants from receiving any light Interference competition organisms inhibit other organisms access to a resource ex Alleopathy in plants walnuts secrete compound to inhibit other plant s growth 0 Kid and candy example If you were to dump a pile of candy onto the ground and tell kids quotthere are no rules Take as much as you wantquot Every kid would scoop up as much as they could exploitative competition 0 If you were to tell the kids they could take as much as they want but also keep others from taking some candy they could slap other kids hands away interference competition lntraspeci c competition competition within 1 species which affects an individual more than interspeci c species because individuals are competing for all of the same resources Density dependent limiting factors resources competition diseases Density independent abiotic factors like weather happens regardless of size lnterspeci c competition competition between 2 species which compete for only a few of the same resources PREDATORPREY CYCLES EXPERIMENTS Georgy Gause proposed the competitive exclusion principle 0 Performed an experiment using two species of Paramecium Paureia and Pcaudatum in which the caudatum populations were decreased by aurelia s used of exploitative competition Gause arti cially increased caudatum competition by adding food and hiding spaces This showed that the principle works if ecological factors are constant 0 Carl B Huffaker mite experiment 0 Two mite species were used Eotetranychus sexmacuatus as the prey species that can y and 73ph0dr0mus occidentals as the predatory species that can only walk Oranges were used as a food source that was sealed off with paraffin wax and damp paper in various places Oranges were also sometimes replaced with rubber balls in order to cause quotpatchinessquot He wanted an environment where the predator population wouldn t cause the prey population to extinct o This experiment resulted in a single population oscillation for the predator and prey species which both went extinct after the rst oscillation O Predators would hunt the prey into extinction and then die without the food source A more importantrelevant study because it was most similar to how nature truly behaves outside of a laboratory Be able to identify what the variables in the different equations stand for and what equations would be used to measure O 0000 Know what equations would look like in a graph LotkaVolterra predator growth rate over time dPdt acVPdP c constant of predation efficiency a coefficient of conversion of food to growth VP of victims prey consumed by the predator dPdeath of predators this is the only factor that decreases the number of predators in the population dVdt rVcVP cVP predation and of victims consumed by the predator decreasing factor N is the birth rategrowth rate of the prey population increasing factor OSCILLATION PA39ITERNS amp TIME DELAYS Fig 1210 is helpful Examine r or rt for understanding the changing values change patterns r growth rate of population rttime delay between birthing events small r value rlt1 low birthrate not all individuals are giving birth slow growth rate of population r1 each individual is giving birth to 1 offspring 1ltrlt2 graph uctuates above and below k damped oscillations rgt2 unstable population boom 0 density dependent factors have a strong effect here because high densities of individuals will decrease survival as competition for resources increases Time delays how long it takes for organisms to reproduce 0 Ex Some organisms produce offspring every year whereas organisms that invest a lot of energy into their offspring typically have offspring less frequently think humans Resources available may affect when organisms can reproduce storage of foods rt O organisms reproduce frequently levels off like the rlt1 rt1 stable damped oscillation cycle rt2 limit chaotic cycles Question if you have chaotic cycles what rt or r value would you expect 32 POWER LAW Relates to biomass of plants and population density The larger the organisms biomass the fewer organisms there will be in the area There are a lesser number of large organisms in an area because there are not enough resources to accommodate them Ex Blue whaleselephants are few in numbers 0 There are more smaller organisms in an area because there are enough resources to accommodate them 0 This is a selfthinning curve M ETAPO PU LATIONS Fig 108 is helpful it increases is complexity towards the right 0 1st picture shows flow of organisms to different areas in search of resources 2nOI picture shows organisms moving from high quality sources areas to lower quality areas sinks after the high quality areas are depleted of good quality resources 3rOI picture corresponds to both models but shows geographic barriers that affect how organisms move to different sites in search for resources 0 The most affective model because it shows all possibilities for organism migration and is the most natural 0 Fig 12141215 see more of certain animal that stays in one area due to inability to migrate shrews cannot y to move long distances like owls can move 0 Fig 1217 over time the more time a population has to grow the more likely it is to experience a cataclysmic event ECOLOGY PAPERS be able to answer these questions 0 What needed a better explanationpresentation o What was the most interesting point made by the authors in this paper 0 What rubbed you the wrong way 0 What did the authors get right and what did they get wrong in this paper
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