Exam 2 Study Bundle
Exam 2 Study Bundle ISS 215
Popular in Social Difference and Inequality
Popular in Social Sciences
This 37 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Vance on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISS 215 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Kelly in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Social Difference and Inequality in Social Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Lecture 1 Sex and Gender Sex vs Gender sex the biological differences between males and females gender the social and cultural patterns attached to men and women Biological Bases of Sex chromosomal and reproductive differences hormones biological differences between the sexes are only averages considerable overlap external factors culture class and race influence a person s sex Gender as a Social Construct gender is not a natural thing society creates it and classifies Social Bases of Gender gender is a social construction masquerading as a biological imperative femininity and masculinity vary across culture across time over the life course by race class and sexuality a spectrum not binary not black or white crosscultural evidence shows a wide variation of behaviors for the sexes division of labor Gender Inequality gender stratification the hierarchical distribution of social and economic resources according to genders women are usually given invisible roles unequal access to power resources and opportunity women as tokens watched closely when given positions of authority under great pressure to perform Gender and Power institutions are structured around gender male dominance beliefs meanings and placement that value men over women patriarchy social organizations in which men are dominant over women What Causes Gender Inequality gender roles approach socialization of gender gender structure approach external social structures rewarded when act like your gender Gender Role Approach Learning Gender Gender Socialization in the home fathers are more likely to reinforce gender stereotyping than mothers Androgyny the combination of feminine and masculine characteristics more common among girlswomen than boysmen higher levels of selfesteem and selfworth improved health and wellbeing better relationships with their parents Gender Socialization during play boys are more likely to play outdoors in larger groups in mixedage groups competitive games games that last longer boys are less likely to play in games dominated by girls m boys toys exploration invention competition and aggression girls toys Gender Socialization formal education curriculum textbooks teacherstudent interactions spons Title IX 1972 outlawed gender roles in schools gender based classes female role models Compulsory Heteronormativity heteronormativity a system of thought whereby heterosexuality is viewed as the normal and correct sexual orientation and all other orientations are seen as deviant and thus marginalized deviance behavior that does not conform to social expectations Gender Structure Approach Reinforcing llale Dominance language derogatory terms universal terms usually exclude women interpersonal behavior verbal and nonverbal differences doing gender gender in a system of action the Law not on exam 1920 the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote 1963 Equal Pay Act aimed to close the gender pay act 1972 Educational Amendments Act 1973 Roe v Wade 1978 Pregnancy Discrimination Act Politics underrespresentation of women 2012 17 of US Congress Gender and Sport competitive sports have traditionally been viewed as masculine activities reinforces society s views that mean are to be dominant and aggressive females are to be passive supporters Microinequities microinequities are ways that individuals are overlooked ignored singled out discounted on the basis of unchangeable characteristics Structured Gender Inequality The Workplace Occupational Distribution dramatic increase in women in labor force rates of participation and status vary by race typically wage earners not salaried sales secretaries and cashiers gender segregation men and women are stated in different jobs throughout the labor force Why does the Earnings Gap Persist women are concentrated in lowerpaying occupations enter the labor face at different and lowerpaying levels than men lower levels of education and less experience overall less overtime hours simple discrimination gender discrimination is the largest reason for the wage gap Gender in the Global Economy most global assembly workers are young migrant women either internal or transnational 19852000 more than half of the electronics production workforce Book Notes of Lecture 1 Sexual Orientation Gender Identity and Inequality how one defines oneself sexual varies according to historical situational and cultural circumstances and can be affected by one s race and class the meaning of sexuality intersects with cultural images of gender race and class gt this intersection helps to reinforce stereotypes and justify oppression and inequality the meanings of masculinity femininity and sexuality in general vary within one s race and class The Complexity of Sexuality and Gender most Westerners think of man and women as mutually exclusive categories countries around the world recognize more than two sexes sexualities and genders intersexed anatomies Intersex refers to a condition in which a person is born with reproductive or sexual characteristics that do not fit neatly into either the female or male category Transgendered individuals have the anatomy of one sex but feel like another not fully accepted and are stigmatized by many ordinary homosexuals transgendered and bisexuals are often relegated to a position of low status within a community that is stigmatized by the larger heterosexual society knowledge of samesex relations goes far back in history homosexuality was considered abnormal and a disease up until 1972 homosexuality was listed by the American Psychiatric Association APA as a mental illness recent studies show that homosexuality itself is not a mental illness some psychoanalysts and Christian counselors continue to view homosexuality as a pathological condition Public Opinions on Homosexuality some religious groups see homosexuality as sinful until the early decades of the 20th century in the US gay networks tried to hide from the public eye gays and lesbians were specifically excluded from laws and policies regulating fair employment practices housing discrimination rights of child custody immigration inheritance security clearances public accommodations and police protection the public s attitudes about the morality of homosexuality have become more positive in recent years Republicans White evangelical Protestants lesseducated and older adults are more likely than other groups to see the trend of homosexuality in a negative light 2011 samesex couples could receive marriage licenses in only 5 states Massachusetts Connecticut lowa New Hampshire New York Vermont and Washington DC samesex couples are denied a variety of rights that are given to married couples right to hospital visitation if the partner is seriously injured social security pension benefits for a surviving partner employer health insurance family leave if the partner is sick about 23 of the population considered a gay couple with children to be a family 9 out of 10 adults believe that homosexuals should have the same job opportunities as everyone else men appear to be heterosexist than women they are more hostile toward homosexuals as individuals especially when this involves gays rather than lesbians homosexual behavior civil rights for gays in traditionally masculine roles such as service in the military gay marriage people who have homophobia are usually less educated and the majority are 65 years old and older Blacks are more likely to be against homosexuality on moral groups but they are more supportive than White of protecting the civil rights of homosexuals the greater hostility of homosexuality in the Black community most has to do with their high degree of religiousness gay men are more likely than lesbians to be seen as mentally ill as potential child predators and are less likely to make good parents stereotypes about gay men viewed as being feminine emotional securityseeking neat interested in fine arts creative and have highpitched voices stereotypes of lesbians independent independently minded open and loud stubborn and not good for children since 1990 lesbian immigrants could be refused entry into the US and conscious attempts were made by border agents to identify lesbians Gay and Lesbians as Status Groups gays and lesbians are seen as sticking together and being mutually supportive of each other there are informal networks among gays and lesbians but also in the developments of neighborhoods with high concentrations of lesbians and gays separate institutions catering to a homosexual clientele and politicalrights organizations gays and lesbians are marked as a negatively defined status groups due to the fear of contamination and contact on the part of outsiders concerns about purity on the part of traditionalists 1960 s gay and lesbian parents who sought custody of their children were frequently denied it because court opinions were dominated by the beliefs that gay men and lesbian women were more likely than heterosexual parents to molest their children and pass on their sexual orientation to their children these opinions eroded by the mid19803 and court opinions were shifting children that grow up with gay or lesbian parents are not likely to be abused by them and that most child sexual abuse is done in homes by heterosexual men Discrimination Legal Confusion and Sexual Orientation the fate of proposed legislation on sexual orientation is strongly tied to the extent to which it is seen as supporting or undermining traditional values and social order how effectively and in what manner the issue is framed by proponents and opponents to the legislation the DOMA bill defines and protects the institution of marriage where it has been understood under federal law for over 200 years that marriage is the legal union between a man and a women or the opposite sex over 3 million people are in samesex relationships and several million children are being raised by them citizenship concerns the structures of acknowledgment that define the class of persons eligible for those rights offices and duties acknowledgement means recognition and respect for a group s lifestyle and for being who one is social status is about being something in this case being homosexual does not afford the same recognition as being heterosexual courts often confuse sex gender and sexual orientation and confuse them in a way that results in denying the rights of gays lesbians and people who do not present themselves or act in a manner traditionally expected of their sex Title VII does not cover discrimination based on sexual orientation 1979 case involving a female employee who was having a sexchange operation 1964 Smith v Liberty Mutual Insurance Co men who exhibit gender behaviors traditionally associated with females are more likely to face defeat in court than women who act in masculine ways even tho legal protection for those with nontraditional sexual orientations have been weak at the federal level local and state governments have passed laws granting protection A Socioeconomic Profile of Gays and Lesbians the invisibility of lesbians and gays in society is a key feature differentiating this group from groups based on gender and race national survey says that 24 of men and 13 of women consider themselves homosexual or bisexual have samesex partners are attracted to homosexuality greater percentage of lesbians and gay men have higher degrees than other individuals the poverty rate among single and coupled lesbians is higher than the rates among heterosexuals lesbians have a higher earning rate than heterosexual women more likely to have less traditional female job and major in college invest more in human capital to prepare them for a career since they don39t have a traditional marriage average more hours a week than heterosexual females gay men have a slightly higher poverty rate than heterosexuals gay men have lower earnings than heterosexual men more likely to have a femaledominated job and major in college tend to work fewer hours a week than employed heterosexual males earnings of both heterosexuals and homosexuals are higher in places with the presence of state or local laws prohibiting discrimination against homosexuals gay men are more likely to be selfemployed compared to heterosexual men gay men are not as broadly distributed along the full range of occupations as are heterosexual men the concentration of gay men in whitecollar jobs is high within broad whitecollar occupations there are concentrations of gay men in specific occupations artists hairdressers librarians architects entertainers and fashion designers underrepresented in male occupations such as business law and sports the US Military is a masculine institution but a significant amount of gays and lesbians serve homosexuals change their gender performances to make them consistent with what is expected of they biological sex ex he will do the gender that is expected of him by his heterosexual colleagues even though it is inconsistent with the gender with which he identifies Lecture 2 social inequality and difference for LGBT people what is gender its how you feel think act clothing hairstyle talk likes and dislikes Gender binary the expectation role and script enforcement for males and females the distinct categorization of masculine and feminine as opposite and concrete expressions Whats wrong with that The gender binary is often the excuse for violence and bullying to enforce gender roles it is the leading cause of suicide homelessness hate crimes and legal discrimination against the LGBTQ community The basics cisgender aligns with the gender assigned at birth transgender gender identity does not align with the gender assigned at birth diagnosed at birth what s at risk 4x more likely to have a household income under 10000 unemployment rate is double that of the rest of population 90 report workplace harassment 1 in 4 have lost their job due to bias 41 report attempting suicide 1 in 4 report harassment 1 in 2 feel uncomfortable going to police for help 1 in 5 have been homeless at some point 1 in 4 have been sexually assaulted 1 in 5 have been refused care by a doctor How can i be an ally to transgender people you cannot tell if someone is trans by looking at them dont make assumptions about their sexual orientation if you don39t know their pronouns listen first never ask real name never out them respect the terminology the person uses challenge antitrans jokes or comments and avoid backhanded compliments intersex Ambiguous genitalia and reproductive systems andor contradictory secondary sex characteristics you cannot be identified by doctors as male or female it can also manifest as chromosomal imbalance and not just as physical sex characteristics it is different from gender identity and sexual orientation sometimes forced to undergo corrective surgery by doctors as an infant This is most often only cosmetic it is now believed that there are 46 different sexes rather than just 2 sexual orientation who are we attracted to mono sexism only be attracted to one gender at one time this limits a polysexual s identity to whoever they are partnered with and can erase their queer experience bisexual an attraction to two or more genders this can include your own gender often used as an umbrella term for all polysexualities these are often referred to as the middle sexualities pansexual omnisexual demisexual queer stigma and discrimination legal discrimination workplace discrimination in hiring process salary harassment job security housing discrimination in evictions refusal limited to no access to homeless shelters limitations on changing gender identity on official documents birth certificates Hcense social stigmatization schools 65 heard homophobic remarks like fag and dyke frequently or often 30 missed at least one day of school in the past month because they felt unsafe or uncomfortable 85 were verbally harassed in the past year 26 of LGBT youth state that their biggest problems are not being accepted by family bullying and a fear of being out 22 of non LGBT youth say their biggest problems are troubles w classes exams grades Violence 53 of antiLGBT homicides are transgender women 73 of all antiLGBT homicides are POC LGBT persons are the most at risk Additional Book Notes all notes contributed to Charles E Hurst Sex and Gender Inequality The Status of Women in the Early United States cultural norms of the time women should be good wives and mothers women should be involved in raising livestock weaving gardening and running businesses unmarried and widowed women were hired domestic workers women made valuable contributions to local economies but were deprived of many politicallegal economic and personal rights accorded men a women s identity was defined by her relationship to her husband and children wife beating was common women contributed to the development of the first significant industrial organizations in the US the first textile factories were built in 1800 in Rhode Island and Massachusetts recruited unmarried women from New England to work in the factories Factory Conditions bad conditions average 13 hour work days 73 hours of work a week including 8 hours on Saturdays women mill workers were paid 1 85300 per week with 125 being deducted for room and board female workers were only paid half what men were jobs in early factories were sex segregated men held supervisory positions jobs in the mill yard watch force and repair shop women were restricted to jobs operating equipment such as looms and dressing machines men were concerned about the entrance of women into the labor market because they were worried about their wages being cut down 1830 s amp 1840 s women held strikes to protest reductions in their wages speedups inn work page and increased amount of hours between the Civil War and the 1900 s the percentage of females in the workforce increased 1900 women housekeepers stewards nurses midwives dress makers milliners seamstresses teachers women composed over 70 of teachers and college professors black females were more likely to be wage earners white females dominated the higher status professions lawyers and professors white females made up less than 30 of servants tailors launderers and textile mill positions men agriculture common labor bookkeeping clerkcopyist watch and shoemaker printer dye works and photography positions Balancing Work and Home 2009 Black Hispanic and White women all participated in the labor force at roughly equal rates increased participation of women in the labor force has been influenced by shift toward a service and information based economy increased possibilities for flexibility in work schedule lower marital stability a greater need for dualearner families in workingclass and lowclass families the income brought into households by women is necessary in middleclass families a collegeeducated wife is likely to work because her education allows her to receive a good salary 2007 wives accounted for 36 if their families incomes over 26 earned more than their husbands it s women who are most responsible for cooking cleaning shopping and child care in dualcareer professional families when the husband works increasingly long hours the chances of his wife quitting her job increases as well the traditional gender roles of men at work and women at home are usually reinforced women s contribution to housework does decrease as they earn more and the housework done by the husbands increases women are expected to contribute to the role as caregiver and care for their children and their elderly parents mothers who work fulltime value motherhood less than those who do not work which could be due to the unfriendly conditions that working mothers encounter in the workplace Sex Segregation in Occupations how occupational inequalities between men and women in the workplace are distributed across broad occupational categories among detailed occupations among specific occupations within specific organizational contexts women tend to be concentrated in whitecollar and service occupations while men are more spread out throughout the occupational spectrum white women are more likely to be managers or professionals Black and Hispanic women are more likely to be found in service and bluecollar production positions a decline in occupational segregation has occurred in broad occupational categories because of shifts in technology and organizational structure as far back as 1870 women dominated in servant clothing certain kinds of teaching and nursing occupations feminine or motherly characteristics include being able to work directly with people and to take care of others men s characteristics include labor or physical attributes often contain an element of danger involved work with a product rather than a person and demand technical or scientific skill many of the occupations dominated by women do not have the protections given by most positions ex nanniesmaids get low pay work long hours have few legal protections and often get harassed within specific organizational contexts in the private economy occupational segregation is magnified women tend to have less authority and different job titles and make less money than men do it is difficult for women to obtain positions of authority but if they do a variety of genderrelated pressures make it hard for them to retain or want to stay in the position this results in women moving to lessprestigious lessauthoritative and lower earning positions in smaller firms women are more likely to be found in the peripheral sector than in the core sector of the economy the peripheral sector is made up of small less stable local non humanized organizations that lack a clear career ladder the core sector is made up of larger stable multi market unionized organizations with career systems when women are put in unusual positions of authority they are watched closely and under great pressure to perform because they are seen as tokens the number of businesses owned by women has increases significantly since the 1970 s and so have their revenues 77 million businesses are owned by women 2006 cultural values have encouraged men and women into certain kinds of occupations choices women make about jobs and their work at home are conditioned by broader labormarket discrimination labormarket opportunities affect the role and amount of time spent in home labor by men and women barriers that have prevented women from obtaining more wellpaying occupations less access to training and apprenticeship appointment to perceived genderrelated tasks patrimonial relationships with males in authority positions less access to information about job openings less fully developed job and contact network seniority systems that limit women protective laws inhibiting women from pursing certain positions and restricting the number of hours and time of day they could work pressure on women to take on the bulk of family obligations tendency for coworkers or clients to prefer employees of matching sex stereotyping discrimination and the consequent crowding of women into certain kinds of positions lack of internal mobility ladder for many socalled female occupations within organizations prevalence of informal recruitment practices factors that limit the number of women in highlevel supervisory or executive posMons social capital of men and women is different women receive most of their information about job openings from other women gt women don t have access to as much information as men about highlevel positions women who occupy executive or high authority positions feel pressure to be extra tough about letting other women move up so they can show they have what it takes to make hard decisions they have to adapt to masculine tendencies to maintain credibility among their male colleagues women usually don t receive support from the opposite sex when in male dominated positions the development of new forms of work resulting from broad economic changes and whitecollar service employment loosens the grip of sex segregation Earnings and Gender in occupational distribution there are significant earning differences between men and women post 1970s decline in the wage gender gap gender differences in wages vary by race and ethnicity increase in earnings among White women have been much higher in the last 20 years than those for minority women greater occupational specialization among Whites has been suggested as one possible reason for this difference differences in human capital experiences skills may continue to account partly for the earnings gap domestic work especially child care negatively affects women s earnings significantly more than men s earnings tend to be lower in those jobs in which the sexes are most segregated within occupational categories women are less likely to be in positions of authority and to be given distinct kinds of tasks most of the differences in compensation that existed between male and female executives were due not only to women being in smaller firms but also to the fact that they were less likely than highranking male executives to be heads of their companies a factor in accounting for the earnings gap the crowding of women into specific kinds of jobs femaledominant jobs yield lower earnings even when men are in those jobs occupational job and organizational factors play significant roles in explaining earnings discrepancies salary and wage levels are based in part on subjective assessments of job performance how bosses interpret worker behavior important factor in determining the earnings workers receive a slightly smaller percentage of employed women than employed men belong to unions and union members consistently have had higher median earnings than nonunion workers the gender gap has been declining in size in recent years Immediate factors that have increased annual earnings among women in working class occupations are an increase in the number of wives who work and an increase in the number of hours worked by women since 2000 slower wage growth rate for men due to declines in the economic power of unions along with declines in and movement abroad of manufacturing and other jobs Microinequities in the Treatment of Women sexual harassment on the job is one of the areas that demonstrates this inequitable treatment microinequities ways in which individuals are either singled out or overlooked ignored or otherwise discounted on the basis of unchangeable characteristics such as sex race or age microinequities usually take the form of different kinds of language treatment or behavior exhibited toward women on a regular basis inequities are often deeply rooted and seemingly unconscious ex young boys rarely think about the everyday difficulties of being a woman and are not fully aware of the consequences that flow from their often unique expenences sexism can sometimes be unnoticed and unintentional as in instances when a person uses sexist language and does not know she when describing nurses he when describing doctors unintentional gender stereotypes women who marry have been expected to give up their surnames and take on that of their new husbands styles of speaking and communication are often different between the genders reflecting their social positions in society United States continue to associate particular characteristics with women rather than men consistent with media images women are much more likely than men to be viewed as emotional affectionate talkative patient and creative within schools sex and gender biases remain significant women s activities in education have not been taken as seriously as men s is evident in the history of women s athletics ambitious women are still not accepted at the top and no matter what their achievements they still have to endure the worst personal insults and struggle without end against virtually insuperable obstacles to their having real power problems that women face in US society chivalry treats women in an overly protective manner and encourages the image of them as nonadults encouraging women to be ambitious and active but then creating blockages that make it difficult for them to perform effectively forms of humor and suggestion on the surface may appear as innocuous but they are actually demeaning and embarrassing treating women as objects as sex symbols or as status objects devaluating the talents and abilities of women and focusing on stereotypical or superficial characteristics to honor them overloading or overburdening women in their tasks or jobs under the guise of allowing them full participation or equality with men benevolent exploitation in which women are exploited in an often unnoticed manner showcasing token women using their talents and then not giving them appropriate credit portraying dominant males as considerate and concerned with the welfare of women socially and physically isolating women in professional settings Lecture 3 ood Justice Social Justice an equitable distribution of fundamental resources and respect for human dignity and diversity such that no minority group s life interests and struggles are undermined and that forms of political interaction enable all groups to voice their concerns for change grocery stores are moving out of low income areasurban areas gt leading to making them eat out of convenience stores Food Justice a food justice framework ensures that the benefits and risks of how food is grown and processed transported distributed and consumed are shared equally if you live in inner city Detroit you should have access to fresh local produce called food desert Lack of Social Justice in the American Food System obesity in lowincome populations hunger in lowincome populations exploitation of farm workers animals we are a humancentered world The Jungle 1906 by Sinclare the book is the center of the food movement industrial revolution shifted from agricultural to industrial and rural to urban novel about the American meat packing industry diseased and dead animals made into food Lithuanian comes to America and works in a filthy Chicago meat packing plant workers that are ill or injured get replaced death conditions in slottering house immigrant workers and the animals were both being oppressed An Intersection of Gender Class and Migrant Workers employment in slaughter houses can have an impact on increased crime in the area workers are usually immigrant men who kill and tear apart animal bodies all day oppressing women through domestic abuse and sexual assault oppressing workers oppressing women The intersection of animal welfare health environmental and socioeconomic injustices connections between environmental sustainability animal welfare and social injustice Factory Farming a system of largescale industrialized and intensive agriculture that is focused on profit with animals kept indoors and restricted in mobility AKA confined animal feeding operations CAFOs Animal Injustices vegan no consumption of animal products animals are put in pens so tight and close that they can barely move meat from factory farms is the most affordable meat in the market right now industirialization of livestock production 1950s cattle and poultry 1930s pigs swines move from small scale traditional farms to industrialized livestock operations this causes a large problem on the land which holds these animals Enviornmental Degredation manure impacts the environment negatively land pollution livestock production takes up 30 of the land surface of the planet 20 of the total terrestrial animal biomass 70 of all agricultural land pesticide residecontamination responsible for 55 of soil and sediment erosion water quality the pollution through these CAFOS effect the water chemicals pollute the water energy to produce the feed water shortage 420 gallons of water to produce one pound of grain fed chicken climate change fossil fuels usage future will hold more meat eating Impact of food animals on the environment environmental degradation finite fossil fuels needed to grow the food contribution to climate change pollution of water a finite resource Health Concerns obesity in lowincome populations eat more fast food because cheap bad chemicals in produced food causes people to be obese chemicals produce use pesticides on crops pesticides with long and intense exposure can lead to cancer antibiotics livestock in livestock and you are eating them hormones livestock in livestock and you are eating them Hunger and Obesity both systems of inequality Farmworker Exploitation research illustrates public concern for foodsystem workers economic conditionspoverty difficult and dangerous working conditions lack health care organic farmers charge more so their workers can make a fair wage Improving the US Food System Book Fast Food Nation brought notice to the food industry post WWllAmerica meat and potatoes 39 Book Fat Land increasing the amount and sizings of American diet tells about how obesity is a result of our fast food culture Book the Omnivore s Dilemma use to eat from the Earth now use preservatives to preserve any food that you would like Resolving food and agricultural problems solving justice problems in food and agriculture begins with recognizing that problems are created by people and thus resolvable by people The Role of Consumption community supported agriculture CSA pay farmer at the beginning of the season and he gives you a box of fresh vegetables each week people are willing to pay more for farmers markets and local fresh produce bring quality food farmers markets to lowincome areas gt brings equality Ethical and Social Justice Criteria organic USDA organic fair trade free range certified humane improve the lives of farm animals product have to come from facilities that have humanne animal treatment The Critiques affluent vs low income populations affluent can afford the proper food for their health Allen street market is not in an affluent area and they still have healthy and organic food Alternative Food Systems Michigan Farm School MSU involved bring healthy food choices to the children at school Why Meatless Mondays human health sustainability animal welfare Additional Book Notes Food Inequality Setting the Stage for Good Food good food Healthy providing nourishment and enabling all people to thrive green produced in a manner that is environmentally sustainable fair no one along the food chain is exploited in its creation affordable all people have access to it Building a Commodity Based Food System Agricultural Adjustment Act AAA of 1933 provided safety for commodity farmers corn rice wheat soybeans sugar allowed commodities to be purchased at a low price these commodities are used as primary or secondary ingredients in food especially corn and wheat commodities are primary feed for livestock which led to a dramatic sizeup for livestock through the 1970 s and 1980 s the health of our natural resources has been affected by an agricultural production system that relies on chemicals and continuous cropping of commodities impacts our water quality contributes to climate change crop and livestock opperations produce greenhouse gases agriculture is responsible for 8086 of total global food system emissions The Food System s Broad Tent low income families living in urban and rural communities were affected by the loss of smaller farms and food businesses and consolidation in the food retail industry now have to depend of nearby fast food outlets and corner convince stores which lack healthy items 29 million Americans lack access to healthy foods mostly in low income communities of color and rural areas leads to 22 rise in adult obesity rates nonHispanic Blacks have the highest obesity rates 1941 US and Mexico started the Braceo Program sent thousands of Mexicans north to the US used for manual laborers planting cultivating and harvesting fruits vegetables and other crops between 19421964 there was 64 Braceros legally admitted into the US Braceo faced discrimination due to race low wages worked under extremely harsh conditions with exposure to toxic pesticides people of color make up most of farm and food service workers earn low wages at or below poverty level Lecture 4 Environment The 11th Hour explains our ecological crisis produced and narrated by Leonardo DiCaprio Liberating the Natural World according to Pellow inequality and difference across humans animals and ecosystems Radical Ecological Movement 1 Because of use and love 2 Because we need the natural world to survive 3 Because some groups are frustrated with mainstream politics and want immediate change both want change our reality in the social world is grey not black or white with contradictory themes Earth First founded in 1979 in US David Forman cofounded inspired by the books Silent Spring the Monkey Wrench Gang The Monkey Wrench Gang 1975 radical ecoactivists aka ecoterroists anticapitalism destroying industry that was harming environment Environmental Regulations reasons why many antiradical groups were formed in 1960 s and 70 s weak lack of enforcement resistance from probusiness antiregulatory organizations and institutions Mainstream vs Radical Groups aggressive wings of the movements allow mainstream organizations to demand more Direct action tree sits people are there to protect forest so trees can t be cut down if they are in them people who join these movements think their direct action makes change Tactics sabotage deliberate action aimed at weakening a corporation wolf hunt historically done by Luddites and Slaves during Labor Movements shut down factories slaves rebelled against masters normal for liberation groups fighting for equality Anthropocene scientists have termed the age we live in the Anthropocene as a way to conceptualize the geological epoch in which humans are the primary driver of rapid changes across the globe s ecosystems is literally defined as humancenteredness only human beings have intrinsic value all other natural beings and things have only instrumental value and human interests thus always trump the interests of nonhumans and the environment Non anthropocentric Approaches those who value the Earth and its living systems Biocentrism mostly discussed by Pellow all life matters not only humanlife total liberation framework Ecocentrism Biocentrism means lifecenteredness it indicates a central concern for and prioritization of the biotic community as a locus of value it is nonhierarchical promotes interspecies equality it is most closely associated with the fields of environmental ethics and environmental thosophy Moving Beyond Wilderness Preservation change in discourse around social difference and social justice within EC environmentalism without critique of human oppression was not revolutionary the result articulated a world view that was anticapitalist and anarchists Ecological Liberation Front 1992 a group of individuals broke from EF to form Earth Liberation Front ELF more radicalextreme tactics ecological resistance movement that embraces ecofeminism animal earth and human liberation Fairness and Justice among human animal and ecological liberation uniting forms of oppression ex Seattle Lesbian Avengers mostly anti patriarchy queer Environmental Justice The intersection of ecosystem and human inequalities usually includes working class people people of color women immigrants indigenous persons these groups usually face health risks as a result Keweenaw Bay Indian Community UP in Michigan Indian Reserve DNR refused to lease them their land due to concern about religious performances but sold it to a mining company a couple years later 2012 lawsuit to try to stop the mining on the land common environmental justice issues that we deal with usually affect indigenous people Brownfield Sites land that has been severely polluted about 17000 properties Superfund Sites have more pollution than Brownfield Sites Lecture 5 Pellow s Total Liberation Frame socioecological inequality inclusive of animals and ecosystems replaces the term social inequality unites forms of oppression Seattle Lesbian Avengers antipatriarchy queer vegan and their women Radical Animal Movement differences result in inequalities interface of loveuse and differencesameness results in tension ex fishing as a use and fishing as a love isn t agreed upon frustration with mainstream politics want transformative change and want it now Human and Non human Animals cartesian ideology considered humans as rational being which they expressed through language has separated humans from nonhuman animals helped determine new understanding about animals during the 19th and 20th centuries animal advocacy emerged urbanization and industrialization has removed animals other than pets from people s everyday lives moved to cities away from farm life contemporary scholars reject the notion of nonhuman animals as simple providing evidence of nonhuman animals as social with consciousness a form of language a culture ex Goodall s research on chimpanzees and Alger and Alger s research on cats and dogs Animals in Society food companion animalspets science spon entertainment 39 nature Companion Animals servants or family members role in personal identity formation the economy and attitudes towards animals dogs and cats are the majority of pets in the United States globally other species are kept as pets exotic animal trade is a serious threat to wild animals destroying wild populations and endangering the lives of both animals and humans Breeding creates Overpopulation of Dogs and Cats the problem of breeding kill by lethal injections or gas chambers mostly used in poor areas in the south breeding is an easy and cheap way to make money petfindercom will turn up animals of almost any age and breed looking for second chances spray and neutering animals breeding drives the population of companion animals spay and neuter programs at discounted rates such as Capital Area Humane Society in Lansing MI and lngham County Animal Control in MI Cats cats are considered a nuisance animal a feral cat is a descendant of a domesticated cat that has returned to the wildborn in the wild it is distinguished from a stray cat which is a pet that has been lost or abandoned Dogs and Cats there are approximately 782 million dogs there are approximately 82 million cats Animals in Science scientific inquiry to justify animal cruelty result technology medication and knowledge that benefits humans and animals ethics Bentham s classical piece asks the question is not can they reason Nor can they talk But can they suffer historically science has used a variety of nonconsenting Others to further progress people of the Holocaust were used for science Animal Welfare Act and Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act Animals as Entertainment Roman Colosseum dog gh ng bullfighting cock gh ng bull baiting Animal Rights Movement Welfarists accept most human uses of nonhuman animals but work to minimize pain and su enng most wellfunded and visible least controversial and most compromising tactice public education Pragmatist approve of humans using nonhuman animals but only when the benefits outweigh the pain and suffering tactics legal action public protest and negotiation Fundamentalist aka liberationists abolitionists and radicals believe that humans should never use nonhuman animals for their own interests or pleasures regardless of any benefit most contriversial and least comprimising vandalizing harassment and property destruction
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