Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSY0010 Introduction to Psych
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Ruth on Friday January 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY0010 Introduction to Psych at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Cousins in Fall2011. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/09/15
Study Guide Test 1 Terms and Concepts to Know from Chapters 1 2 3 4 sleep and 11 Ch1 1 The de nition of Psychologythe study of behavior and mental processes 2 4 primary goals of psychologydescription explanation prediction control 3 Wundt and objective introspectionexamining and measuring thoughts and mental activities 4 Titchener and structuralismfocuses on the structure of the mind 5 James and functionalismhow the mind allows someone to adapt live workplay 6 Wertheimer and gestaltwhole is greater than the sum of its parts 7 Freud and psychoanalysistheres an unconscious mind that we repress threatening desires and urges to 8 Pavlov and classical conditioninglearning through 9 Watson and behaviorism observable behaviorcan be seen and measured 10 Psychodynamic perspectivediscovery of motivation behind behavior 11 Humanistic perspectivepeople can control their own will 12 Cognitive perspectivehow people think remember store and use information 13 Sociocultural perspectivestudy of cultural norms and values and expectations 14 Biopsychosocial perspectivestudy of how biological processes affect behavior ie hormones tumors 15 The scienti c method 1perceiving the question 2form hypothesis 3test hypothesis 4come to conclusion 5record results 16 The descriptive methods a naturalistic observation observing in natural habitat real observer effect tendency of subject to act differently when being observed observer bias tendency of observers to see what they expect each environment is different b laboratory observation observation in a lab controls environment arti cial situation may result in arti cial solution allows use of equipment c case studies focus and study on one particular personsubject great detail rare disorders cannot apply to all d surveys representative sample of larger population data from large group study private info needs to be representative people aren t always truthful many just give socially acceptable answers 17 Correlations closest to 1 or 1 is strongest Neg corr inverse relationship Pos corr direct relationship Scattered resuts no corr 18 Components of experiments b independent variable manipulated by experimenter c dependent variable depends on the degree of independent variable d experimental group receives experimentation e control group group wo experimentation used for possibility that other factors might be effecting f random assignment random assignment of test subjects to mae sure chances are equal for everyone g placebo effect sugar pilla participant s expectations produce a certain outcome of experiment h experimenter effect experimenter looks for increase or decrease and says results are a certain way that they expect observer bias i singleblindsubjects don t know if they are experiemtnal or control group j doubleblind neither experimenter or subjects know theres a third party who knows k quasiexperimental designalternative designs that are not true bc of inability to randomly assign ie subjects being randomly assigned by ageno one can act or think like a different age than they are Ch2 19 Nervous system fral nerv Sys Peripheral nerv Sys brain Spinal Somatic Autonomic cord voluntary nvolunt agy mUSCIequot svmpatheitc arasympathet senso Motor ry neuro 20 Neuroscience deals with structure and function of brain 21 Structure of the neuron soma cell body axon tunnel that that messages travel down dendrites branches attached to soma that receive messages from other neurons synaptic knob dots at the end of dendrite where neurotransmitters release from synaptic vesiclecircles inside synaptic knob containing neurotransmitters 22 Glial cellscells in the neuron that manufacture nourish and clean UIO 23 Myelincoating around the axon protects axon speeds up neural messages 24 Transmitting neural impulses a Diffusionmolecules move from areas of high concentration to low concentration b Resting potentialneuron at rest sodium ions stuck outside cell c Action potentialenergy from change in charge in ow of sodium ions into cell d Allor noneeither res completely or doesn t at all e Know what happens at the synapse to transmit messages between cells iii Synapsesynaptic gapgap between receptor of one cell and synaptic knob of sending cell where neurotransmitters are sent when transferred between cells iv Receptor site v Presynaptic neuron ring neuron vi Postsynaptic neuronone receiving neural signal vii Excitatory synapse effect of neurotransmitter that causes the receiving cell to re viii Inhibitory synapse effect of neurotransmitter that causes the receiving cell to stop ring ix Neurotransmitters 100 Antagonistreduces effects of neurotransmitter 101 agonistmimics effects of neurotransmitter x Reuptake neurotransmitters taken back to vesicle xi Enzymatic degradationneurotransmitter is altered so it can no longer act on a receptor 25 Central nervous system brain and spinal cord 26 Spinal cord bundle of neurons message pipeline from brain to body and body to brain 27 Re ex arc and the types of neurons involved a afferentaccess to the brain takes messages up to the brain b efferentexits brain takes messages from brain to body c interneuronsconnects afferent and efferent neurons 28 Neuroplasticitybrain can change in order to accommodate for injury to brain 29 Peripheral nervous system a Somatic nervous system i Sensory pathway ii Motor pathway b Autonomic nervous system i Parasympathetic nervous system ii Sympathetic nervous system 30 Endocrine glandssecrete hormones directly into bloodstream and hormones pituitary glandmaster gland coordinates all glands activities pineal gland secretes melatonin for sleep thyroid glanddepression pancreascntrols blood sugar gonadssex hormones reproduction adrenal glandson top of kidneysregulates stress reactionssalt intake 31 Lesioning studiesdeep lesioning insert a wire with electric current into brainkills the surrounding brain cells 32 Types of brain stimulationdeep brain stimulation DBS insert pacemaker like device under collar bone amp rTMScopper wire in cortex amp tDCS scalp electrodes pass currents into brain changes the excitability of cortex neurons hrD goom 33 CT controlled x rays of the brain 34 MRIradio waves and magnetic eldimages of brain 35 EEGrecords electric activity of brain below skull areas 36 PETsugar injected in subjectthe computer codes color with brain activity 37 SPECT same as PET just not sugar different tracer 38 fMRlcomputer makes a movie of changes in brain activity regarding blood ow and oxygenation 39 Brain structures a medullaregulates heartbeat breathing body temp b ponsdreaming c reticularformation d cerebellum ne motor movementbalance e limbic systememotion memory motivation energy f thalamusrelay network for incoming info g olfactory bulbssmell sensors h hypothalamushunger thirst sex emotions ght ight i hippocampuslearning memory j amygdalamemory of unpleasant stimuli like fear k cingulate cortexemotion cognitive processes I cortex m cerebral hemispheres n corpus callosumconnects hemispheres o occipital lobescontrols vision p parietal lobesbody space balance awareness q temporal lobessound r frontal lobesdecision making speech production higher processing 5 motor cortexband of neurons located at the back of each lobe t Broca s area and aphasia production of speech aphasiadisorder where you cant produce speech Wernicke s area and aphasiaunderstanding language comprehending speech aphasia cant comprehend speech C 40 Splitbrain research left eye imageright side of brain right eye imageleft side of brain lf image is on right visual eld on left side of brain language verbalize images seen through right visual feild lf image is on left visual eld on right hemisphere side of brain t verbalize images seen on the left visual feild Ch3 41 Sensationreceptors in the sense organs are activated 5 senses 42 Transductionconverting outside stimulus into neural activity light 43 Sensory receptorsspecialized receptors sensitive to whatever sense they correspond to 44 Just noticeable smallest detectable difference that is detectable 50 of time 45 Absolute thresholdlowest level of stimulation a person can detect 50 of the time 46 Habituationbrain deals with unchanging information lose of feeling of bandaid after a while 47 Sensory adaptationtendency of receptor cells to become less responsive to unchanging stimuli 48 Photons quotwave packetsquot of light 49 Properties of light a brightnessamplitude higher or lower wave b colorlength of wave longerred shorterblue c saturationstrength of color mutednot muted 50 All the parts of the eye and how light travels from the eye to the brain gures 32 33 34 LlGHT CORNEA AQUEOUS HUMORPUPLinside irisLENSVITREOUS HUMORRETNA 51 Rodslightbrightness 52 Conescolor mutedness 53 Visual accommodationlens changes from thin to thick to accommodate moreless light 54 Blind spotganglion cells have no axons 55 Light and dark adaptation getting up for bathroomgoing back to bed from bathroom 56 Theories of color vision a trichromaticgreenredblue cones only b opponentprocess theoryproposes 4 primary colors red wgreen blue wyellow 57 Afterimageimage that continues even after you look away from an image 58 Properties of sound waves a wavelengthpitchhow low or high the sound is b amplitudevolumehow loud or soft the sound is d hertzunit of frequency waves per second 59 The structure of the ear and how sound travels from the ear to the brain gure 38 60 Pitch a place theoryhear low or high pitch depending on location of hair L s stimulated b frequency theoryspeed of vibrationslow or high pitch c volley principlewe can hear high pitches bc auditory neurons take turns ring 4000 Hz 4 neurons re for each 1000 Hz heard 61 Taste budsreceptor cells in mouth responsible for gestation 62 Gustationthe sense of taste 63 Papillaebumps on tongue containing taste buds 64 How taste gets from the tongue to the brain also know gure 310 Food goes into taste pore in large papillae Then to a taste hair inside the pore Then receptor cells inside the taste hair interprets the chemical info of the food Then it travels to a nerve ber at the end of the papillae and to the brain 65 The 5 basic tastes sweet salty bitter umami sour 66 Olfaction Ability to smell 67 Olfactory receptor cells like taste buds send chemical info of smell to the brain 68 Olfactory bulbswhere smell particles end up after being sniffed Also where their receptors send the information to higher cortical areas 69 How scent gets from the nose to the brain also know gure 311 Smelly particles travel to nose up through the olafactory epithelium attach to olfactory receptors and to the bulb where it sends it straight to brain 70 Somesthetic sensesbody senses a touchskinpain pacinian corpuscles feel pressure free nerve endings feel temp pressure and pain b pressure c temperature 71 Kinesthetic sensesense of self in relation to the ground You know where your body is in relation to the earth because of proprioreceptors tell you about joint or muscle movement 72 Vestibular sensesense of balance a otolith organssacs containing crystals that tell you when the head is moving around b semicircular canals3 circular tubes horizonta vertical when you spn around uid inside horizontal tube is still movingcauses you to be dizzy 73 Motion sickness and sensory con ict theory Motion sickness tendency to get nauseous when in irregular movement Sensory con ict theory disagreement between eyes telling you you are not moving and the uid in your semicircular canals still moving 74 Perception method in which the brains allows sensations to be interpreted into meaningful information 75 Size constancywe realize things are the same size in relation to their distance awaythings don t change size because they are farther away 76 Shape constancythings don t change shape because they are farther away 77 Brightness constancywe perceive an object s colorbrightness even when the light conditions change 78 All of the Gestalt principles Figure groundwe perceive images as with a background Proximitynearness Similaritythings that look similar are part of the same group Closure tendency to complete things that are incomplete Continuity tendency to perceive things as simpler than they really are Contiguity tendency to perceive two things happening at the same time as related 79 Depth perceptionability to see the world in 3d a all of the monocular cues linear perspectiveparallel lines appear to meet relative sizesmall things are expected to be farther away interpositionoverlapan object blocking another is closer aerial perspectivehazy means an image in the distance texture gradient things closer have a more distinct texture motion parallax close objects look like they are moving quicker than far objects accommodationlens shifts in response to objects being close or far away b all of the binocular cues binocular disparity because the eyes are not in the same spot images will always appear slightly different between eyes convergence convergence of eyes to focus on a single object Ch4 80 Circadian rhythms24 hour cycles of rhythm 81 Hypothalamus and pineal gland s roles in sleep Pineal gland secretes melatoninsleep hormone Hypothalamus contains internal clock that tells you when to fall asleepwake up Supernucleus tells pineal glands when to secretestop secreting melatonin 82 Mircosleeps if sleep deprived you will drift off when not even noticing 83 Sleep deprivationloss of sleep 84 The theories of sleep Adaptive theoryprey sleeps at night because they want to hide during predator s feeding time when we sleep Restorative body needs time to restore cell damage and replenish bodily chemicalswhy we sleep 85 All the stages of sleep the brain wave patterns associated with them their physiological features their order over the course of the night Alpha wavesrelaxationlight sleep theta early stages of sleep delta heavy sleep REMrapid eye movement active stage of sleep sight paralysis NREMdeep restorative sleep hard to awaken growth hormone CH11 86 Stressstressors cause 87 Distressbad stress 88 Eustressgood stressamount we need to be healthy 89 Catastrophesunpredictable large scale event creates much stress 90 Major life changes any big event in life such as marriage moving that creates stress 91 Hasslesdaily stresses of life 92 Pressurestress caused by urgent demands or expectations from an outside source 93 Uncontrollability not being able to control certain things increases stress 94 Frustration Steps of frustration persistencekeep trying aggressionactions meant to harmdestroy displaced aggressiontaking out anger on a scapegoat escapewithdrawalleave or do drugs or something to escape the pain 95 All the different types of con ict Approach approachwin win 2 good goal choices Avoidance avoidance lose losechoose bw 2 bad goals Approachavoidance one goal w good and bad features Double approachavoidance2 goals w good and bad features Multiple approach avoidanceover 2 goals with good and bad features goom 96 The stages and physiological features of the General Adaptation Syndrome Alarmresistance exhaustion 97 Hans Selye psychologist responsible for research concerning stress and its effects on the body 98 How the immune system responds to stress 99 Psychoneuroimmunology 100 How heart disease is related to stress while sympathetic nervouse system is aroused the liver cannot clear fat from arteries putting stress on heart 101 How diabetes is related to stressas the body grows pancreas insulin levels decrease 102 How cancer is related to stressstress reduces natural killers cells that help immune system suppress viruses and tumor cells 103 The relationship between healthy behaviors and stress 104 Lazarus and the cognitive appraisal approach a Primary appraisal estimate severity of stressor and identify it as a chaHenge b Secondary appraisal estimating amount of resources available to deal with the stressor Ex you feel much more stressed if you have not enough resources time to study to deal with your stressor upcoming exam 105 Personality types A C and how they respond to stress Aangry easily annoyed persistent heart disease Brelaxed easygoing not stressed Ckeep stress insideinternal cancer 106 Hardy personality and how it responds to stress Looks at stressors as challenges happy stressed 107 How optimists and pessimists respond to stress 108 Acculturative stress Integrationsomewhat joining culture Assimilation completely joining culture Separationnot joining culture Marginalization not choosing sides oating in the margins most stressful 109 Social support s effects on stress good knowing that people are there for you 110 Problemfocused coping active coping nding a solution 111 Emotionfocused copingpassive coping talking about stress to relieve anxiety 112 Generally know what meditation is you don t need to know all the types relaxation and achieve a transe like state refocus attention 113 The effects of meditation on stress video from class very happyyyy monk 114 The relationship between exercise and stress exercise relieves stress and helps ght the bad effects on body from stress
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