Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSY0010 Introduction to Psych
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Ruth on Friday January 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY0010 Introduction to Psych at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Cousins in Fall2011. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 01/09/15
Exam 2 Study Guide For each item know the conceptshow things work not just de nitions 1 De nition of learning permanent change in behavior due to experience or practice 2 Classical conditioning learning occurs one thing with another a lvan Pavlovdog studies b Unconditioned stimulus food c Conditioned stimulusbell after dogs learned it meant food was coming d Unconditioned response salivation due to presence of food e Conditioned response salivation occurred once bell was rung signaling the food was coming 3 Stimulus generalizationsnapping of ngers sounds like bell so salivation occurs for a while when bell is replaced with snapping ngers 4 Stimulus discrimination after a while dogs can tell between ngers and bell 5 Extinction after the presence of the bell was taken away for a while the dogs start to lose tendency to salivate to a bell 6 Spontaneous recovery after a while without the presence of the CS bell and spontaneous presence occurs the subject will respond with the CR salivation 7 Higherorder conditioning 8 John Watson conditioned emotional response little Albert 9 The Little Albert experiment baby cried when loud noise occurred us paired with rabbit UR cryingfear CS presence of rabbit alone CR cryingfearamygdala 10 Conditioning of phobias 11 Vicarious conditioning watching an emotional response of another and learning that re ex or emotion through watching them vicariouswatching as if other person was you 12 Conditioned taste aversion tendency to get nauseous when smelling tasting food that once caused nausea 13 Biological preparedness animals instinctively avoid foods that once made them sick in order to not eat food that could kill them later on 14 Stimulus substitutionPavlov s theory that learning occurs because the CS became a for the US by being paired together 15 The cognitive perspective of why classical conditioning works modern approach in which we learn to associate the CS with the US from after the 2 have been paired together Operant conditioning learning through action of the subject Edward Thorndike Puzzle box experimentscats push lever to get to food they repeatedly pushed the lever in order to get to food c Thorndike s law of effect if action is followed by a pleasant stimulus it will be repeated and vise versa effect of behaviorwill will not repeat behavior BF Skinnerskinner boxrats e Reinforcement increases the probability that the action will be done again f Skinner box rats through maze g Primary and secondary reinforcers Primary food water touch basic needs Secondary associated with food water touch ex money h Positive and negative reinforcement Positive adding a pleasurable stimulus Negative taking away an unpleasurable stimulus i Know the various schedules of reinforcement Fixed interval set amount of time recieveing ex pay check Variable interval different amt of time receiving ex rats getting pellets at random times Fixed ratio set number of numbers ex every 10 punches of cardfree ice cream from razzy freshfixed ratio Variable ratio no set amt of numbers lottery tickets j Punishment i Application adding unpleasant ii Removalremoving pleasant iii Problems with and effective use of punishment cause fear cause avoiding of punisher cause lying can cause aggression k Shaping reinforcement of small steps to increase pleasurable behavior or decrease bad behavior I Successive approximation small steps that lead to desired behavior m Behavior modification use of operant conditioning to bring about desired behavior i Timeoutremoving subject from the environment in order to get them to stop unpleasant behavior ii Token economy given rewards fake coins a b D iii Applied behavior analysis variety of behavioral techniques to mold a desired behavior n Biofeedback biological processes are shown such as heartbeat or blood pressure to promote good behavior relaxation o Neurofeedback brain activity is shown to patients to increase good behavior relaxation p Article we read Melissa M Angelsea Hannah Hoch and Bridget A Taylor Reducing rapid eating in teenagers with autism Use of a pager prompt 41 107111 17 Know about Tolman s research with rats and latent learning second group of rats gured out the right path to get food without realizing itatent learning learning being done that is hidden until the application is necessary TOLMANLATENT LEARNING SECOND GROUP OF RATSUNCONSCOUS LEARNING OF MAZE TO FIND FOOD 18 Know about Kohler s primate research trialanderror learning and insight monkey insight trial and error 19 Know about Seligman s research with dogs and learned helplessness dogs gave up in the shock box after realizing that both sides of the box gave a shock 20 Know about Bandura s Bobo doll research a Observational learning learning through observation b 4 key elements of observational learning amim attention memory imitation motivation Attention Memory Imitation Motivation 21 De nition of memory active system in brain that receives info stores info and is able to recall info from storage 22 Encoding gathering information 23 Storagekeeping it in brain 24 Retrieval being able to access that info later 25 Information processing model stages of memory a Sensory memory i Iconicimages ii Echoichearing longer than iconic iii Eidetic imagery photographic memory b Short term memory quotdeskquot of memory can remember average of 7 item in STM between 59 chunking helps us remember info more aka phone numbers c Long term memory i Procedural LEARNED UNCONSCIOUSLY 1 Implicit memory remembers skills habts ii Declarative LEARNED CONSCIOUSLY 1 Semantic remembers general knowledge 2 Episodicremembers personal eventsactivities 3 Explicit memory iii Semantic network brain organizes facts closer to eachother if they are closely related canary bird closer than canaryanimal 26 3 stage process of memory encodingstoringretrieving 27 Paralleldistributedprocessingwe store memory over a large neural network at same time 28 Levels of processing model we assume that relating meaning to memory allows u to process memory more deeply 29 Retrieval cuesgetting a hint to help remember something ex what did I have for dinner last nightsomeone mentions chinese food and you remember you had chinese 30 Maintenance and elaborative rehearsal Maintenance repetition to remember Elaborative associating meaning with info to remember 31 Encoding speci city and state dependent learning if surroundings or state is similar to when learning was done remembering is increased Ipeci city Iurroundings lame 32 Recall memory is pulled from memory without many cues a Tip of the tongue recall fails b Serial effecttendency to remember info at either the beginning or the end of a list of information c Primacy remember info at the beginning d Recency remember info at the end 33 Recognition memory is with info or stimulus to a stored image or fact a False positive thinking you remember but you dont b Constructive processing altering or changing memory after hearing new info c Hindsight bias after hearing new info saying that we knew all along what was going to happen d Misinformation effect witnesses can discuss opposite ideas and will think new things about the crime e False memory syndromewhen someone tells us about something about us and we believe them even though its not true ex someone tells us we spent a summer in Romewe believe them just think we forgot usually during hypnosishas to be plausible 34 Flash bulb memory and automatic encoding 35 Forgetting curve remember immediately after knowing know 60 after 20 minutes remember nothing after 30 days 36 The various reasons why we forget 37 Proactive and retroactive interference Proactive old interferes with new new phone number is hard to remember Iroactive new interferes with oldex remembering new Ihone number Retroactive new interferes with old mac asked to go back to PC 38 The brain regions where various types of memories are stored Frontal amp temporal Amygdalafearunpleasant memories Thalamus emotions memory 39 The types of brain changes that form memories eg change in number of receptor sites Change of neuronsproteins Change of dendrites Change of efficiency of neurons Change in receptor sites 40 HM 27 year old man who got temporal lobes removed anterograde amnesia lost ability to form new memories reread magazines 41 Anterograde and retrograde amnesia Retrograde amnesia inability to remember memories prior to injury concussions 42 De nition of thinkingcognition process of when we are trying to something or c with others 43 lmage mental images are formed 44 The different types of concepts superordinatefruit basic level type apple subordinate granny smth formal concept my pet skippy with brown fur weighing 23 lbs 45 Prototypesapple is a prototype of fruit 46 Problem solving a Trialanderror b Algorithms formaulas will come to a solution always c Heuristiceducated guess 47 Q 739 corhrbgp i Representative any object with similar characteristics of a group is in that group ii Availability estimating frequency based on how easy it is to recall info or to recall related examples Insight aha moment Meansend analysis heuristic in which steps to be followed to reach the goal are determined and broken down Functional xedness typical functions are only used for certain things screw driver for screw could use other objects Mental set tendency to use problem solving techniques they used before Con rmation bias tendency to use techniques that t with beliefs and not use those that don39t t beliefs con rmation biasbeliefs functiona xednessonly usethings for what they are meant to be used for mental set use things that have worked in the past Creativity Divergent thinking starts with one point and comes up with additional ideas based on that Convergent thinking type of thinking in which a problem has 1 solution and all lines of thinking will reach that one solution CONVERGENCE all ideas lead to ONE main solution DEVERGENT starts with one solution then come up with additional tries after that one main solution is formed Intelligence Spearman s theory2 g factor and 5 factor Gardner s theory9 TriarchticSternberg s theory 3 anaytica creative practical Binet s mental ability test StanfordBinet and Louis Terman i IQ intelligence quotient The Wechsler tests Reliability how consistent test is in results when a person or group takes it multiple times Validity how effective a test measures what its supposed to measure drivers test i Ecological validity Why is the standardization of tests important so that they can be taken around the world Norms i Normal curve most of scored are averaged and average is center of graph hump ii Mean set to value of 100 on graph 48 iii Standard deviation usually 15 iv Deviation IQ scores m Cultural biasjapanese person will think differently than American due to way they were raied culturally Uses of IQ testing Intellectual disabilitydevelopmental delaymental retardation under70lQ Mild iq of 5570 Moderate iq of 4055 Severe iq of 2540 Profound iq of below 25 Gifted and Genius Gifted iq of 130 or above Genius 140145 experiment myth that geniuses are socially inept Heritability of IQ and the effects of nurtureenvironment 5050 De nition of language set of symbols put together in order for us to communicate a b rhme Ipisodic personal Iventsactivities Grammar rules for structure and use of language Syntax rules for placement of words and phrases to make correct sentence Morphemessmallest unit of meaning playing l 1 Play 2 ing Semantics rules determining meaning of sentences Phonemes units of sound in a language th sh au Pragmatics social niceties ex use of tu or vous in French depending on who you are speaking to 49 Long Term Memory Declarative conscious Procedural I procedures habits certain skillsl Semantic general
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