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Study Guide - Exam 3 - Cultural Anthropology

by: Ricardo Rauseo

Study Guide - Exam 3 - Cultural Anthropology ANT2410

Marketplace > University of Florida > ANT2410 > Study Guide Exam 3 Cultural Anthropology
Ricardo Rauseo
GPA 3.8
Cultural Anthropology
Crystal Felima

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About this Document

These notes cover what is going to be in the next exam; excepting for Monday's Lecture (Part 2 on Mar 25). This includes Environment and Food Gathering, Marriage and Kinship, Sex and Gender.
Cultural Anthropology
Crystal Felima
Study Guide
Cultural Anthropology
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ricardo Rauseo on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT2410 at University of Florida taught by Crystal Felima in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.


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Date Created: 03/23/16
Subsistence Major Food Gathering Strategies 1 2 Food foragingcollection collecting vegetation hunting animals and shing Horticulture Simplest type of farming Involves use of basic hand tools rather than plows or machinery driven by animals or engines 0 Small plots of land 0 Relied on human power Slash and Burn Pastoralism Keeping domesticated herd animals 0 Found in areas of the world that cannot support agriculture because of inadequate terrain soils or rainfall Uses animals product as major food source 0 Associated with geographic mobility Movement patterns Transhumance and Nomadism Cattle is important Intensive Agriculture Horticulture using animal or mechanical power and some form of irrigation and fertilizers Associated with permanent settlements cities and high levels of labor specialization Industrialization Agriculture production of food through complex machinery Uses more powerful sources of energy Requires 0 High levels of technology such as tractors and combines 0 Mobile labor force 0 Complex system of markets Human Adaptation lhumans change the natural environment and vice versa Humans adapt to climates 1 Culturally dietary patterns levels of activities 2 Biologically changes in the body Characteristics 0F Food Collecting Societies Low population densities Usually nomadic or seminomadic rather than sedentary Basic social unit is the family of band Carry capacity Contemporary foodcollecting peoples occupy the remote and marginally useful areas of the earth Neolithic Revolution Food Producing Societies Transition from food collection to food production 10000 years ago Humans began to cultivate crops and keep herds of animals Humans were able to produce food rather than rely only on what nature produced Changes Resulting from Food Production Increased population Population became more sedentary Greater division of labor Decline in overall health reduced the life expectancy because Foragers had a more balanced diet plant and animal proteins Farmers ran the risk of malnutrition or starvation if the crops failed Increased population brought people into greater contact everyone more susceptible to diseases l Foragers l Horticulture Pastoralist Intensive agriculture Population S ma l La rg e Size Permanency of Nomadic or Permanent settlement semi Surpluses Moderate Usual Trade Moderate Very important Labor Minimal Highest degree specialization Class Moderate Highest degree differences Economics Focus on Economics 0 Production 0 Distribution 0 Consumption Economic Anthropology Look crossculturally at a society s way of producing food and goods 0 Gather data and categorize society according to their mode of production 0 These categories blend and overlap Examine how a society s economic system affects that societies perceptions of quotculturequot and nature Crosscultural Examination of Economic Systems 0 Regulation of resources 0 Production 0 Exchange Allocation of Resources Example Individual property rights are strongly valued and protected in the US but in some parts of the world they are more loosely de ned Production 0 Process whereby goods are obtained from the natural environment and altered to become consumable good for society Division of Labor 0 Deciding which types of people will perform which categories of work 0 Every society distinguishes between the work appropriate for men vs women and adults vs children Labor Specialization Emile Durkheim outlined two theories to explain how social order and solidarity are established and maintained Solidarity describes connections between individuals that allows them to form a cohesive social unity Mechanical Solidarity Subsistence SocietiesCollective consciousness Organic Solidarity Industrialized societies Interdependence Modes of Distribution Reciprocity The exchange of goods and services of roughly equal value between parties WITHOUT the use of money 0 Generalized Giving a gift without expecting one in return Parents to child 0 Balanced Expectations that the values will be returned 0 Negative Redistribution o Goods and services are given to a central authority and reallocated to the people according to a new pattern Taxes 0 Redistribution involves two distinct stages inward ow outward dispersal Market exchange Involves the use of standardized currencies to buy and sell goods and services 0 Goods and services are bought and sold and their value determined by supply and demand 0 Exchange is based on standardized currency money or barter Globalizationl 19805 Tariffs are lowered and trading occurs Informal Economy 0 James Ferguson Surplus populationpeople left out of the rural agricultural production systems and not incorporated into urban industrial working class excluded from any signi cant role in the system of production now engaged as quotengineersquot of distribution of goods Improvisation under conditions of adversity at times can be seen as survivalist enterprises rather than microenterprises Marriage and the Family De nition of Family 0 Social unit characterized by 0 Economic cooperation Management of reproduction Child rearing Common Residence Recognition of rights and responsibilities Socially approved sexual relationship OOOOO Tradition view of marriage Heteronormative Marriage De ned o as a series of customs formalizing the relationship between adults within the family regulates the sexual and economic rights and obligation between a married couple 0 usually involves an explicit contract or understanding and is entered into with the assumption that it will be permanent Nonethnocentric view of Marriage 0 A relationship between one or more men male or female and one or more women female or male who are recognized by society as having a continuing claim to the right of sexual access to one another 0 This recognized that gender is culturally de ned 0 Not all married couples live together 0 Multiple spouses are accepted in many societies 0 In no society do all marriages endure until death Social Functions of Marriage Creates relationships between partners that regulate mating and reproduction 0 Provides a mechanism for regulating the sexual division of labor Creates a set of family relationships that provides for the material educational and emotional needs of children Mate selection Who is Out of Bounds Incest Taboos Theories Inbreeding biological consequences 0 Family Disruption negative social consequences 0 Expanding Social Alliances incest avoidance Mate selection Whom Should You Marry Exogamy marriage outside of one s own social or kinship group Endogamy marriage within a speci ed social or kinship group 0 Race class ethnicity religion Marriage Transfer of Rights 0 Rights of sexual access 0 Legal rights to children 0 Rights of spouses to each other s economic goods and services Economical Transactions of Marriage Bridewealth Goods or money of some type that will be give from the broom to the family s bride Bride service In case the bride doesn t have the money for the wedding Dowry Bride to broom Reciprocal exchange Both partners exchange goods Mate Selection Levirate a man marrying the widow of a deceased brother Sororate a woman marrying the husband of her deceased sister Number of Spouses Monogamy Marital practice with only one spouse Polygyny Marriage of a man to two or more women Polyandry Marriage of a woman to two or more men Family Structure 0 Nuclear family consists of a married couple and their children 0 Extended family consists of a larger social unit comprising relatives from three or more generations Kinship De ned o Kinship o the social relationships that people are born into or create later in life and are expressed through but not limited to family member terms 0 Can be visualized as a quotnetwork of relatednessquot that radiates from each individual 0 Recognition of a relationship between persons based on descent or marriage Consanguines blood relatives Af nal relatives by marriage Perspective of Kinship Relationships Fictive Kinship The sociallv recodnized relationship between people in a culture who are held to be biologically related or who are given the status of relatives by designation or ritual Function of Kinship Systems 0 Vertical function provides social continuity by binding together a number of successive generations 0 Horizontal function solidify or tie together a society across a single generation through marriage Principles of Kinship Classi cation 0 Generation 0 Gender 0 Lineality vs Collaterality Consanguineal vs Af nal Kin Relative age 0 Sex of the connecting Descendant groups A descendent group is a social unit whose members claim common ancestry 0 Unilateral 0 Trace their ancestry through mother s line matrilineal or father s lineal patrilineal but not both 0 Cognatic Multilineal descent 0 Includes double descent ambilineal descent and bilateral descent Unilineal Descent Groups 0 Lineage a unilineal descent group of up to approximately ten generations can trace ancestry back stepbystep to a common founden o Clan A group of kin usually comprising more than ten generations consisting of members who claim a common ancestry even though they cannot trace stepbystep Cognatic or Multilineal Descent Groups 0 A form of descent traced through both females and males 0 Types 0 Double descent responsibilities from both sides 0 Ambilineal descent you can choose the most important to you 0 Bilateral descent egalitarian Family Tree Marital Residence Patterns ocalplace o Patrilocal Live with the husband s family 0 Matrilocal Live with wife s family Avunculocal Live close or near their husband s mother s brother Uncle Almbilocal They choose Neolocal The couple is independent Sex amp Gender Development of the study of Gender in Anthropology 0 Anthropology of Women 0 Anthropology of Gender 0 Feminist Anthropology Sexl biologically determined category 0 Male or female Gender socioculturally constructed category Refers to the physical behavioral and personality traits linked to sex IntesexA person is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that do not t typical binary notions of male or female bodies Gender Roles expected ways of behaving based on a society s de nition of masculinity and femininity Explanations for the gender division of labor 0 The strength theory men s work typically involves tasks like hunting and lumbering requiring greater strength 0 The compatibility with childcare theory women tend to assigned work activities that are compatible with caring for infants and young children Expendability theory the loss of men is less disadvantageous reproductively than the loss of women 0 The economy of effort o It may be advantageous for a gender to do tasks that follow in a production sequence o It may also be advantageous for one gender to perform tasks that are located near each other Human Sexuality Sexual practices of humans usually varying from culture to culture 0 Includes sexual thoughts feelings and behaviors Sexuality in Anthropological Research Sexual culture the system of cultural meanings about sexuality and the social practices of sexuality Sexual identity an element of some sexual cultures the intentional sense of having a sexual desire around which your social identity is built Sexual life way A culturally constructed expression of sexuality and gender roles Gender Ideology A system of thoughts and values that legitimizes gender roles statuses and customary behavior


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