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Exam 2 Study Guide

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by: Morgan Turturici

Exam 2 Study Guide Astronomy 110

Morgan Turturici
Gonzaga University

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About this Document

Covers information from Chapters 7-11
John Benham
Study Guide
Science, astronomy
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Turturici on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Astronomy 110 at Gonzaga University taught by John Benham in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Astronomy in Science at Gonzaga University.

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Date Created: 03/23/16
Chapter 7- The Sun  Sun's Temperatures: o surface: 5,800 K o Core: 15,000,000 K  Sunspots: o These are dark spots that are on the sun's photosphere o Break on the photosphere where the magnetic waves come out and return in pairs (polarized) o Sun sports are cooler than the rest of the sun, about 4,240 K  Magnetics Cycle: differential rotation o Created more sunspots with more activity o 22 year cycle  Helioseismology: the study of the interior of the sun by the analysis of its modes of vibration o long wavelength o M photosphere o Period 3-20 mm o Covers the temperature, density and rate of rotation  Granulations: the fine structure visible on the solar surface caused by rising current of hot gas and sinking currents of cool gas below the surface.  Prominence: eruption on the solar surface; visible during total solar eclipses  Coronal Mass Ejections: gas trapped in the sun's magnetic field—cause the Aurora Borealis Chapter 8: The Family of Stars  How do stars vary? o Vary in size, energy, brightness  Luminosity: the total amount of energy a star radiates in 1 second  Stellar Parallax: a measure of stellar distance. o Parallax is the apparent change in the position of an object due to a change in the location of the observer. Astronomical parallax is measured in seconds of arc.  Giant: large, cool, highly luminous star in the upper right of the H-R Diagram, typically 10 to 100 times the diameter of the sun. o Red giant: cooler o Blue giant: hotter Main Sequence Star: An example of a main sequence star would be that of our own sun. It is a star that has reached a balance between the nuclear fusion acting within the star, and the force of gravity that is trying to collapse it. There is always a battle going in within a star. Nuclear fusion reactions of the hydrogen atoms are creating a force pushing FROM the center of the star outward. Gravity is always trying to crush the star back to it's core. The density of the core of the star is relative to the balance that the start has achieved. Roughly speaking, the smaller the star, the more dense the center is. A star is considered "Main sequence" when it has reached a stable, relatively long term balance between the competing forces (fusion and gravity), and has enough energy to sustain the balance.  Red dwarf: cool, low mass star on the lower main sequence  White dwarf: the remains of a dying star that has collapsed to the size of Earth and is slowly cooling off; at lower left of the H-R Diagram. Chapter 9: The Formation of Stars  Birth of Stars: o 1) shock wave approaches an interstellar gas cloud o 2) the show wave passes through and compresses the cloud o 3) Motions in the cloud continue after the shock wave passes o 4) The densest parts of the cloud become gravitationally unstable o 5) Contracting regions of gas give birth to the stars  Nuclear Fusion: reaction that joins the nuclei of atoms to form more massive nuceli.  Nebula: a cloud of gas and dust in space o 1) emission nebula:  Hot star excited the gas and dust  Red 2) reflection nebula:  Starlight scatters within the gas and dust  blue 3) Dark nebula:  Not scattered or emitted  Light is blocked or absorbed  Pressure- Temperature Thermostat: o More fusion leads to o Extra energy expands the star which leads to o Decreased inner core density which leads to o Lower core temperature which leads to o Less fusion o Star contracts o Contraction leads to increase in inner star core density o Increases the core temperature o More fusion  4 Laws of Stellar Structure: o 1) conservation of mass: total mass of the star must equal the sum of its shells o 2) conservation of energy: amount of energy flowing out of lower layer must equal the amount of energy flowing into the next upper layer o 3) Hydrostative Equilibrium:  nearer to a star's surface: lower pressure, lower temp, lower density  Nearer to a star's core: higher pressure, higher temp, higher density o 4) Energy transport:  1) conduction  2) convection- distributes the heat energy to the photosphere  3) radiation- infrared photons are 1 million years from the core- photosphere Chapter 10: Death of Stars  Death of Stars Sheet  Order of Nulcear Fusion in Stars:  Binary star system, balance: the orbits of two stars in a binary system always lie in a single plane. o The larger mass star has a smaller radius and the smaller mass star has the larger radius in order to balance each other Chapter 11: Neutron Stars and Black Holes  Neutron star: o A star left over by a Type II Supernova o 1-3 solar masses- compressed to 10km diameter o Composition dense neutrons behave like a fluid o Density: 10^14 g/cm3 o Produces a large magnetic field o Rotates on its own axis 10-100x/sec  Pulsar with planet o A neutron star magnetic axis is offset from rotational axis o Spins o If the orientation of "one" beam is toward earth's we will detect the radiation o Analogy -> lighthouse  Karl Schwarzschild used math to describe black holes o When an object compresses on itself then that gravity increases  Warped Space: black hole punctures space and time outside of it and warps the space/time fabric 


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