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Psych Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Marie Fong

Psych Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 1001 - General Psychology

Marie Fong
University of Memphis
GPA 4.0
General Psychology

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About this Document

This study guide breaks down what Ms. Studaway said would be on the next exam (which will be next Tuesday, 04/29) including material from the brain, personalities, psychological disorders, and more.
General Psychology
Study Guide
Psychology, General Psychology, brain, personality, psychological disorders
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marie Fong on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1001 - General Psychology at University of Memphis taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 03/23/16
o Neuron individual nerve cell composed of dendrites soma axon and axon terminals Dendrites receives messages from other neurons Soma receives and sends messages cell body Axon thin ber that carries information away from the 000 soma o Axon terminals end of axons form synapses with dendrites and somas of other neurons 0 Threshold for nerve impulse to re 50mv resting potential is 70mv 0 During action potential ion channels open sodium ions rush in action potential travels down axon all or nothing event nerve impulse occurs completely or not at all Figure 25 on page 64 in bookslide 4 in study slide power point is very helpful 0 Negative afterpotential occurs because potassium ions ow out of the neuron while the membrane gates are open 0 Neurotransmitters chemicals in the brain released when action potential reaches tips of axon terminals 0 Receptor site areas on the neuron s surface and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters o Dopamine excitatory neurotransmitter muscle control cocaine structure is similar 0 Acetylcholine excitatory neurotransmitter activates muscles 0 Serotonin inhibitory neurotransmitter mood and appetite control 0 Neuropeptides do not carry messages directly regulate activities of other neurons 0 Endorphins released by pituitary gland helps to relieve pain o Neuroplasticity capacity of the brain to change in response to new experience new synapses form unused synapses pruned brain can changeadaptheal itself 0 Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord 0 Peripheral Nervous System PNS the nervous system beyond the CNS contains neurilemma tunnels used by damaged bers for repair Figure 21 on pg 60 in book side 11 in study slide power point is very helpful 0 Somatic System links spinal cord with body and sense organs controls voluntary behavior 0 Autonomic System serves internal organs and glands controls autonomic functions such as heart rate and blood pressure 0 Sympathetic Nervous System arouses body emergency system 0 Parasympathetic Nervous System quiets body most active after an emotional event In vasive techniques 0 Electrical Stimulation of the Brain ESB electrode is used to activate target areas in the brain 0 Ablation surgical removal of tissue 0 Deep lesioning a thin wire electrode is lowered into a speci c are inside the brain electrical current destroys a small amount of brain tissue Nonin vasive techniques 0 Electroencephalodraph EEG detects ampli es and records electrical activity in the brain 0 Positron emission tomography PET imaging technique that results in a computergenerated image of brain activity based on glucose consumption in the brain 0 Functional MRI fMRI uses MRI technology to make brain activity visible 0 O 0 Right and left halves of cortex Connected by corpus caosum Contralateral left hemisphere controls right side of the body and right hemisphere controls left side of the body Left hemisphere analysis sequential processing small details 95 used for language math judging time and rhythm coordinating order of complex movements Right hemisphere synthesis simultaneous processing holistic largely nonverbal perceptual skills completing puzzles drawing express emotions detect emotions in others 00 Frontal lobe front of brain sense of self motor control higher mental abilities such as reasoning and planning Parietal lobe middle of brain sensation such as touch temperature and pressure Temporal lobe near temples hearing and language Occipital lobe back of brain EYES IN THE BACK OF YOUR HEAD vision Cerebellum bottom of brain approaching neck posture coordination muscle tone and memory of skills and habits O Broca s area speech center damage causes motor aphasia great difficulty in speaking or writing knows what heshe wants to say but cannot uently utter the words 0 Endocrine system glands that pour hormones directly into the bloodstream or lymph system affect internal activities and visible behavior activate cells in the body o Regulates growth via growth hormone AKA quotmaster glandquot too little dwar sm too much giantism o Adrenal glands secretes hormones that arouse the body help with adjustment to stress regulate salt imbalance affect sexual functioning 0 Character personal characteristics that have been judgedevaluated 0 Personality a person s unique and relatively stable behavior patterns consistency of who you are have been and will become 0 Personality type a group of people with several traits in common 0 Carl Jung said introverts shy selfcentered person whose attention is focused inward and extroverts bold outgoing person whose attention is directed outward are two main types o Selfconcept yourideas perceptions and feelings about who you are mental picture you have of yourself can affect behavior 0 Selfesteem based on selfappraisal of strengths and weaknesses how you regard yourself as a worthwhile person success based 0 High selfesteem con dent proud selfrespecting 0 Low selfesteem insecure lacking con dence selfcritical o Trait theories psychodynamic theories behavioristic and social learning theories humanistic theories 0 Trait stable disposition a person shows in most conditions biological dispositions a heridtary readiness of humans to behave in particular ways o Trait approach attempts to analyze classify and interrelate traits 0 Gordon Allport identi ed common traits shared by most members of a culture and individual traits describe a person s unique qualities Divided those into cardinal traits so basic that all activities can be traced back to these few people have central traits core qualities of a personality and secondary traits inconsistent or super cial aspects of a person Reduced 16 factors into Big 5 personality factors extroversion agreeableness conscientious neuroticism openness to experience pros and cons with each 0 Psychodynamic theories study personality to learn what drives con icts and energies motivate us believes that actions based on unconscious thoughts needs and emotions m made up of innate biological instincts and urges works on pleasure principle wishes to have its desires satis ed instantly selfserving irrational and totally unconscious provides energy for the entire psyche o Libido comes from life instincts eros underlies efforts to survive sexual desires pleasure seeking o Thanatos comes from death instincts produces aggressive and destructive urges Ego executive directs energies supplied by Id partially unconscious partially conscious works on reality principle delays action until practical or O O appropriate system of thinking planning problem solving and deciding Superego judge for thoughts and actions of ego acts as internalized parent 2 parts conscience re ects actions for which a person has been punished source of guilt ego ideal re ects behavior one s parents approved of or rewarded source of pride Oral stage 01 most of infant s pleasure comes from stimulations of the mouth if a child is overfed or frustrated oral traits will develop Oral dependent personality gullible passive needs lots of attention Oralaggressive personality adults who like to argueexploit others Expressions nail biting gum chewing smoking kissing overeating alchoholism Anal stage 13 attention turns to process of elimination child can gain approval or express aggression by letting go or holding on Anal retentive personality harsh toilet training stubborn stingy orderly compulsively clean Anal expulsive personality lenient toilet training disorderly messy destructive cruel Phallic stage 36 adult traits vanity exhibitionism sensitive pride narcissism child notices and is physically attracted to opposite sex parent Oedipus con ict for boys only boy feels rivalry with father for mother s attention to resolve boy must identify with father become more like him Electra con ict girls only girl loves father and competes with mother girl identi es with mother more slowly because she already feels castrated widely rejected o Latency stage 6puberty psychosexual development is dormant same sex friendships and play occur 0 Genital stage pubertyon sexual urges reawaken realization of full adult sexuality occurs here ends with mature capacity for love 0 Erogenous zone area on body capable of producing pleasure o Behavioral personalitv theorv model of personality that emphasizes learning and observable behavior acquired through conditioning principles 0 Learning theorists believe that learning shapes our behavior and explains personality personality comprises learned responses emphasize situational determinants external conditions that in uence behaviors 0 Behavior is a product of prior learning and situations 0 Personality predicts we will respond fairly consistently to certain types of situations 0 Miller and Dollard claim rst 6 years of life are critical urgent drives rewards punishments frustrations social reinforcement 4 critical childhood situations feeding toilet or cleanliness training sex training learning to express anger or aggression 0 At birth children are labeled boy or girl and encouraged to learn sexappropriate behavior Identi cation child s emotional conncection to admired adults especially to those providing love and care Imitation desire to act like admired person with whom one identifies BoysZMales encouraged to engage in goaloriented behaviors to be aggressive and hide emotions prepare for work world GirlsFemales encouraged to engage in emotion oriented behaviors socialized for indirect aggression prepare for motherhood Androgyny having masculine independent and assertive related to high selfesteem and feminine nurturing and interpersonally oriented seek and receive social support traits in a single person more exible in dif cult situations more balanced more satis ed with their lives 0 Approach that focuses on human experience problems potentials and ideals 0 Reaction to rigidity of traits pessimism of psychoanalytic theory mechanical nature of learning theory 0 Emphasis on view that human nature is inherently good free choice ability to choose that is NOT controlled by genetics learning or unconscious forces subjective experience rather than prior learning 0 Abraham Maslow interested in selfactualization process of fully developing personal potentials continuous search for personal ful llment HHPWFP P FWF Characteristics of selfactualizers Ef cient perceptions of reality Comfortable acceptance of self others nature Spontaneity Task centering Autonomy Continued freshness of appreciation Fellowship with humanity Profound interpersonal relationships Comfortable with solitude Nonhostile sense of humor Peak experiences o The Interview facetoface meeting designed to gain info about personality current psychological state or personal history Unstructured interview informal conversation topics discussed as they arise Structured interview follows prearranged plan using series of planned question Bene ts can observe body language Limitations preconceptions might sway interviewers interviewer s personality or gender may in uence client s behavior people may try to be deceptive halo effect Overall good rst step should be supplemented by other measures 0 Direct observation amp rating scales more careful quotpeople watchingquot Limitations misperceptions and rating scales are used to objectify behaviors o Behavioral Assortment recording frequency of speci c behaviors observers record actions not the traits they think someone has 0 Situational testing real life situations are simulated so that someone s spontaneous reactions can be recorded eg Reality TV shows 0 Questionnaires paperandpencil test consisting of questions that reveal personality aspects more objective than interview or observations have standardized scores unaffected by bias Reliability same score each time given to same person Validity measure what it claims to measure o Projective tests psychological tests that use ambiguous or unstructured stimuli person needs to describe ambiguous stimuli or make up stories about them Limitations popular but validity is lowest of the tests objectivity and reliability are low for different users of TAT and Rorschach of value if used as a part of a larger battery 0 Learning relatively permanent change in behavior due to expenence o Associative learning occurs when a person or animal forms a simple association between various stimuli andor responses classical and operant conditioning Reinforcement any event that increases probability a response will occur Response identi able behavior internal faster heartbeat observable blinking eating scratching Classical conditioning lvan Pavlov used dogs to study salivation with food saw dogs salivate before food placed in mouth saw dogs salivate when he entered Pa vov s experiment Unconditioned Stimulus UCSUS stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response meat powder Re ex automatic nonlearned innate response to a stimulus eyeblink or re ex salivation Unconditioned Response UCRUR innate re ex response elicited by unconditioned stimulus US re ex salivation 0 Cognitive learning refers to understanding knowing anticipating or otherwise making use of informationrich higher mental processes o Unconditioned stimulus stimulus innater capable of eliciting a response 0 Unconditioned response innate re ex response elicited by US 0 Conditioned stimulus stimulus that evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with US 0 Conditioned response learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus 0 Higher order conditioning conditioned stimulus is used to reinforce further learning CS is used as if UCS o Extinction weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement may take several extinction sessions to reverse conditioning o Spontaneous recoverv reappearance of a learned response following apparent extinction o Stimulus generalization tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar but not identical to a conditioned stimulus o Stimulus discrimination the learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuli o Phobia intense unrealistic irrational fear of a speci c situation or object o Vicarious classical conditioning learning to respond emotionally to a stimulus by observing another s emotional reactions explains how we develop attitudes to world around us 0 Motivation dynamics of behavior that initiate sustain terminate and direct our actions 0 Need internal de ciency causes 0 Drive energized motivational state eg hunger thirst 0 Response action or series of actions 0 Goal target or motivated behavior 0 lncentive reward to entice an action O O Incentive value pull of a goal goal s appeal beyond its ability to ll a need Primary motives biological innate motives based on biological needs we must meet to survive Stimulus motives innate needs for stimulation and information Secondary motives learned based on learned needs drives and goals Circadian rhythm cyclical changes in bodily function and arousal levels vary on approx 24 hour schedule most noticeable after changes in schedules shift work jet lag quotcollege lifestylequot0 OOOO Sex drive motivation to behave in sexual behavior necessary for group survival nonhomeostatic controlled by hormones Masters and johnson s 4 phases Excitatory initial signs of sexual arousal Plateau physical arousal intensi es Orgasm climax and release of sexual excitement Resolution return to lower levels of sexual tension and arousal r 0 Social motives speci c to society and culture learned by socialization Abraham Mas0W and hierarchy of needs pyramid slide 94 on study slides power point Based on presumed strength or potency some more powerful than others and thus will in uence behavior to a greater degree Basic needs esteem and selfesteem love and belonging safety and security physiological needs Growth needs selfactualization as expressed through metaneeds O O Metaneeds wholeness perfection completion justice richness simplicity aliveness beauty goodness uniqueness playfulness truth autonomy meaningfulness lntrinsic motivation motivation coming from within not from external rewards based on personal enjoyment of a task increases creativity and work quality Extrinsic motivation based on obvious external rewards obligations or similar grades pay etc excessive can decrease intrinsic motivation and spontaneous interest can lose interest if people are required to do something they typically enjoy work tends to be based on extrinsic rewa rds O O Emotions characterized by physiological arousal and changes in facial expressions gestures posture and subjective feelings motivate behavior linked to adaptive behaviors aid our attemps to survive and adjust to changing conditions attacking eeing seeking comfort helping reproducing living in groups raising children defending one another may have negative effects Physiological changes regulated by sympathetic nervous system include changes in heart rate blood pressure perspiration and other involuntary bodily responses Emotional expression outward signs of what a person is feeHng Emotional feelings private emotional experience ANS and emotion sympathetic system activates emergency action and parasympathetic system quiets body 1 Fear 2 Surprise 3 Sadness Disgust Anger Anticipation Joy Acceptance trust 0 Negative emotions from right hemisphere 0 Positive emotions from left hemisphere o Amygdyla signi cance amygdala specializes in producing fear bypasses cortex and receives info directly and quickly damage to amygdyla unable to feel fear or to read other s emotional expressions 0 Emotional expressions evolved to communicate feelings to others survival aid clues to what people will do next 0 Facial expressions can be recognized universally fear anger disgust sadness surprise happiness even blind children make expressions Three basic facial expression dimensions PleasantnessUnpleasantness degree to which a person is experiencing pleasure or displeasure AttentionRejection degree of attention given to a person or object Activation degree of arousal a person is experiencing o JamesLange Theory after bodily arousal and behavior occur you can feel your pounding heart rapid breathing ushed face and sweating this is what makes up the experience of emotion Stimulus l ANS arousalbehavior l emotional feelings fear o CannonBard Theory emotional arousal behavior and experience are released by the thalamus and are nearly simultaneous Stimulus l thalamus l ANS arousal behavior run emotional feelings fear 0 Schachter s Cognitive Theory arousal alone does not produce emotion arousal must be labeled or interpreted Stimulus l arousal plus label I am afraid l emotional feelings fear and behavior run 0 Richard Lazarus says emotions are in uenced by how you think of an event in the rst place 0 Emotional appraisal refers to evaluating the personal meaning of a stimulu 0 Some people are good at suppressing outward signs of emotion Increases activity in sympathetic nervous system requires lots of effort impairs thinking and memory as energy goes to selfcontrol people are more at risk for depression People who express emotions experience better emotional and physical health 0 Psychopathology scienti c study of mental emotional and behavioral disorders also refers to abnormal or maladaptive behavior Psychopathology characterized by Social nonconformity disobeying societal standards for normal conduct usually leads to destructive or selfdestructive behavior use caution in separating unhealthy nonconformity from creative or eccentric lifestyles strictly following social norms is not necessarily healthy Situational context social situation behavioral setting or general circumstances in which behavior takes place 0 Maladaptive behavior behavior that makes it difficult to function to adapt to the environment and to meet everyday demands loss of ability to control thoughts behaviors or feelings adequately 0 Social conditions poverty stressful living conditions homelessness overcrowding 0 Family factors parents who are immature mentally ill abusive or criminal severe marital or relationship problems poor child discipline disordered family communication patterns 0 Psychological factors low intelligence stress learning disorders 0 Biological factors genetic defects inherited vulnerabilities poor prenatal care low birth weight chronic physical illness or disability exposure to toxins or drugs head injuries 0 Delusions false beliefs that individuals insist are true regardless of overwhelming evidence against them 0 Common types of delusions grandeur persecution depressive o Hallucinations imaginary sensations most common is hearing voices 0 Most common is paranoid psychosis sufferers believe they are being cheated or spied on followed poisoned harassed or plotted against intensely suspicious difficult to treat hard to convince person she needs help o Schizophrenia psychosis characterized by hallucinations delusions apathy thinking abnormalities and split between thoughts and emotions does NOT refer to splitmultiple personalities Emotions may become blunted or very inappropriate Withdrawal from contact with others Loss of interest in external activities Breakdown of personal habits Inability to deal with daily events 0 Paranoid schizophrenia preoccupation with delusions of persecution also involves hallucinations that are related to a single theme especially grandeur or persecution most common 0 Stressvulnerability hypothesis psychotic disorders result from combination of environmental stress and inherited susceptibility o Depressive disorders sadness or despondency are prolonged exaggerated or unreasonable signs dejection hopelessness inability to feel pleasure or take interest in anything symptoms fatigue disturbed sleep and eating patterns feelings of worthlessness neative selfimage suicidal thoughts 0 Bipolar disorders involve depress and mania or hypmania l extreme mania amp ll mostly depression with some shortlived mania episodes 0 Dysthymic disorder moderate depression that lasts for at least two year 0 Cyclothymic disorder moderate manic and depressive behavior that lasts for at least two years 0 Biological brain chemicals and transmitters o Psychological explanations repressed anger is displaced and turned inward as selfblame and selfhate psychoanaltyics theory learned helplessness behavioral selfcriticism negative selfdefeating distorted thoughts cognitive certain types are more vulnerable to stress and depression personality 0 Gender and depression women are twice as likely as men to experience depressions due to social con icts work and parenting other factors marital strife sexual and physical abuse poverty


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