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Test 2 Study Guide!

by: Julia Marcinak

Test 2 Study Guide! PSY 4930

Julia Marcinak
GPA 3.5
Affective Neuroscience
Dr. Wen Li

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About this Document

I used my lecture notes and the power points to make this. I also tried to add some additional information to make everything more clear
Affective Neuroscience
Dr. Wen Li
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Marcinak on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 4930 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Wen Li in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Affective Neuroscience in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 10/19/15
Test 2 Study Guide Lectures 5B8A Lecture 5B 1 Primary Methodologies in Cognitive Neuroscience a Ablation Surgical removal of part of the brain i Lesion Traumatic brain injury or stroke ii Affects behavior personality sensory capacity cognitive and executive functions b Neural Stimulation i TMS Noninvasive electromagnetic stimulation ii Cortical BS iii DBS c Single Cell Recording i Very small electrode is implanted into an axon intracellular or outside an axon membrane extracellular ii Records neural activity but does not stimulate d Electrophysiological Recording i EEG Noninvasive electrical recording 1 Signal is averaged over many events and synchronized with a certain aspect or stimuli of the event The timing and amplitude of the peaks are a result of different aspects of the task Scalp and skull distort electrical potentials 3 Less expensive and Widely available 4 Detects deep and shallow dipoles activity in sulci and gyrus but has poor spatial resolution 5 Re ects intracranial currents 6 1875 Caton measured EPSP in dogs and monkeys 7 1929 Berger performed first EEG on person measured alpha and beta waves 8 1950 s Walter invented topographic EEG maps ii MEG Noninvasive magnetic recording 1 Sensitive to tangential sources so it is better for brain source localization Can pick up on neuronal activities directly through the skull 3 More sensitive to activities in sulci poor at detecting deep dipoles good spatial resolution 4 More expensive and limited C 5 Relationship between magnetic elds and electric current Electric current will be going perpendicular to magnetic eld 6 Right Hand Rule Point right thumb in the direction of the current the rest of the ngers will curve around the magnetic eld iii Both used in cognitive neuroscience 1 Analyzing brain oscillations and linking to cognitive function a Neurons tend to re in synchrony but at different frequencies b Different frequencies characterize different cognitive functions c Decreased alpha is linked to visual perception 7 12Hz Increased gamma is linked to higher order cognitive thinking 3 OHz 2 Measuring event related potentials and elds ERP a Exogenous Components related to the stimulus b Endogenous Components related to the task c Used to study the different aspects of facial recognition d Different peaks approximately re ect different stages of cognitive functioning Each peak is a sum of different electrical activities iv Mental Chromtomentry 1 Measuring the time of cognition to infer its structure 2 Measure a response time to a certain task stimuli and then measure changes across conditions Structure Scan i CT ii MRI 1 Used to be called NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance but was changed because there are negative connotations with nuclear 2 1946 Block and Purcell discover that atomic nuclei absorb and reemit radio frequency 1992 Ogawa takes rst functional images with BOLD signal sMRI Structural brain anatomy fMRI Functional brain function 995 Steps a Magnetic line up Apply magnetic eld to line up all the spins of the hydrogen atoms Normally nuclear dipoles are randomly dispersed and have a zero net magni cation DTI f Function Scan iii i ii 1 When an outside magnetic eld is applied the patient becomes polarized and has a net magni cation b Send waves Radio waves lift the spins of the hydrogen atoms in unison Atoms absorb energy as they lift c Measure Waves Turn off pulse relaxing hydrogen atoms emit waves and the receiver picks up this energy For sMRI measure how fast the spins return to normal because atoms in different tissues move at different rates For fMRI measure how fast the atoms give off energy as they move back down atoms in different tissues give off energy at different speeds PET Invasive hemodynamic recording fMRI NonInvasive hemodynamic recording Starts with blood because active areas need more oxygen so more blood ow goes to that area The body sends more oxygenated blood to activated areas so there will be a higher Oxydeoxy ratio Less oxydeoxy ratio less signal Blood loses energy at different rates depending on how much oxygen it has in it 4 BOLD signal Blood oxygen level dependent contrast imaging 5 Increased neuron activity results in a small decrease in oxyhemoglobin which can not be detected by the fMRI about 3 seconds later the capillaries dilate and the oxyhemoglobin dramatically increases g History i 1929 EEG ii 1963 ERP iii iv v vi 1951 Cognitive Revolution 1973 First CT camera 1975 First PET camera 1977 First MRI camera h Electrical Activity in the Cortex Action 1 i 2 3 4 Potential Presynaptic Not measurable by EEG or MEG Approx lOOmV for 1ms Axonal ii Postsynaptic Potential 1 EPSP 2 Approx lOmV for 10ms 3 Measurable by EEG and MEG 4 Dendritic 2 General Physics Behind the Methods 3 General Utilities and Functions 4 Unique Advantages and Disadvantages Lecture 6 1 Electrical Activities and Signals in the Brain a The brain is a computer and a neuron is the battery b All neurons have the same basic structure i Soma which has dendrites ii Hillock is the junction between the axon and terminal 1 If impulse is large enough an action potential will be summoned here iii Impulse travels down the axon and out the terminal buds away from the soma iv Dendrites receive electrical impulses and chemical signals v Axons carry electrical signals Action Potential away from the cell c Postsynaptic Potentials PSP i Action potential at synaptic junction gt Release of neurotransmitters gt Binding at receptors gt Ion channels activated gt De or hyperpolarization gt Chemical changes ii Resting Potential 70mV iii Hyperpolarization Decreased potential more negative Less excitable iv Depolarization Increased potential less negative More excitable d Chemical Signaling Neuromodulation i When the action potential reaches the axon terminal the electrical impulse will lead to a sequence of events leading to a release of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft ii Protein receptors in the dendritic membranes of the postsynaptic neurons bind to the neurotransmitters This creates a postsynaptic potential in the dendrites iii This can have inhibitory or excitatory effects 6 f Neurotransmitters Chemicals released by a neuron which act on the receptor of a postsynaptic cell to cause a biological effect i Noradrenaline system 1 Epinephrine 2 Norepinephrine 3 Arousal and rewards 4 Originates in the pons and midbrain ii Dopamine System 1 Dopamine 2 Motor system reward cognition nausea endocrine 3 Originates in limbicmidbrain iii Serotonin System 1 Serotonin 2 Increase introversion while decreasing nociception 3 Originates in midbrain iv Cholinergic System 1 Acetylcholine 2 Learning short term memory arousal reward 3 Originates in midbrainforebrainlimbic Excitation and Inhibition i GABA is inhibitory It activates Cl channels ii Glutamate and Acetylcholine are inhibitory Activates Na and Ca channels 2 Action Potentials and Underlying Mechanisms a Actions Potential A sudden change in the electrical properties of a neuron membrane in an axon They re in an all or none fashion and have distinct phases i Resting Potential 70mV ii Threshold of excitement 55mV Stimulus received by dendrites gt Na channels open gt If the summation is strong enough to bring the potential from 70mV to 55mV the process continues if it doesn t nothing else happens If the threshold is reached then more Na channels open and the cell becomes depolarized to 30 mV Next the Na channels close and the K channels open With the K channels open the cell begins to repolarize back to it39s resting potential Repolarization typically overshoots the resting potential to about 90mV This is hyperpolarization and it prevents the neuron from receiving another stimulus during this time unless it is really strong f g Hyperpolarization prevents another action potential in the opposite direction Hyperpolarization makes sure the action potential is preceding in one direction After Hyperpolarization NaK pump brings membrane back to resting potential 3 Electrical Neural Communication a b Cell body gt Axon gt dendrite of next cell Action Potential Frequency Modulated FM Fires in all or none fashion spike ring neuronal ring uniform shape and amplitude different in frequency Postsynaptic Potential Amplitude Modulated AM Graded sum of electrically charged ions Action potentials cause postsynaptic potentials because they signal release of neurotransmitters which bind to the membrane and cause postsynaptic potentials Neurons have high dimensionality each one receives input from thousands of synapses Neural Oscillations gt Not on Exam i Neural oscillations are the periodic variation in recording of neural activity ii The Emergence of oscillations and the frequencies of oscillations depend on the cellular pacemaker mechanisms and the neuronal network properties Neural Synchrony i When neural spiking or dendritic currents in disparate locations rise and fall in a xed relationships 4 Neuronal Coding a Week 7A 1 Amplitude of an action potential does not vary but the number of action potentials per second varies along a continuum The rate of responding relates to the information code being carried by that neuron This is called the spiking rate Some neurons have high spiking rates in some situations but not in others Neurons that respond to similar types of informations tend to be grouped together i Fire together wire together ii Regional functional specialization Different Kinds of Neural Codes i Local representations Only responding to one type of stimulus ii Fully distributed representation Multiple neurons weakly selective iii Sparse distributed representation Strongly selective few neurons Neural Circuitry of Reward a Liking PleasureConsuming Reward b Wanting IncentiveAttaining Reward c Reward i Establishes a value system for behavior ii Induces subjective feelings of pleasure liking which may lead to happiness iii It is a positive reinforcer of behavior and prevents extinction 2 Related Neurotransmitters a Monoamines i Amino Acid Precursors Single amine groups NH2 ii Catecholamines Catechol ring 1 Dopamine a Dopaminergic Brain structures or actions that facilitate dopamine production 2 Norepinephrine The main purpose is to mobilize the brain and body for action Treats low blood pressure and heart failure a Noradrenergic Neurons Involved in transmission of norepinephrine Areas that produce or are affected by norepinephrine are noradrenergic b Adrenergic Receptorsdrugs Nerve cells involved with norepinephrine or epinephrine 3 Epinephrine Adrenaline a Adrenergic iii Indoleamine Indole ring 1 Serotonin Acts as a mood stabilizer regulates sleep and appetite Also affects learning and memory a Serotonergic Uses serotonin in its effects iv Terminated by reuptake at presynaptic neuron MAO and COMT 3 Dopamine Pathways a Nigrostriatal Pathway i Dopamine pathways in the substantia nigra project to the dorsal striatum ii Specifically to caudate nucleus and putamen but also ventral striatum and nucleus accumbens iii Associated with motor control iv Parkinson39s disease b Mesocorticolimbic Projection i Mesolimbic Pathway 1 Transmits dopamine from VTA to limbic system via the nucleus accumbens 2 Subcortical 3 Agymdala ii Mesocortical Pathway 1 Transmits dopamine from the VTA to the frontal cortex 2 Cortical 3 ACC iii Dopamine neurons show short homogeneous phase activation when reward is detected iv Both are associated with ADHD schizophrenia and addiction c Dopamine functions in reward pleasure motor functioning compulsion and preservation d Medial Forebrain bundle Runs through LH it runs through many different nuclei and projects to many forebrain regions e Animals will work for a delivery of drugs that stimulate the dopaminergic signaling f Dopamine plays a crucial role in reward prediction dopamine neurons respond to unpredicted rewards i NAcc is crucial for reward prediction It encodes reward prediction error rather than reward 1 Enhanced by surprising rewards positive prediction error 2 No change by predicted rewards 3 Depressed by omission of predicted rewards negative prediction error ii Neuronal activity in primate striatum and OFC are also related to prediction of reward iii StriatumReward Expectation 1 Activity after a reward predicting stimuli but before reward delivery 2 Prediction error 3 OFC discriminates rewards based on their relative motivational value not their physical properties 4 Reward Wanting System a Dopaminergic pathways are bidirectional bottomup and topdown b Bottomup are from stimuli i Stimuli gt Reward detection gt Dopamine release gt OFC is excited c Topdown are from cortex i Integrated signals from cortex gt OFC is inhibited 5 The IncentiveSensitization Theory a Wanting is not liking the neural systems are separate b Dopamine and accumbens neurons become more active in anticipation of rewards then during the reward c DA antagonists do not reduce pleasure 6 Processes and Mechanisms of Drug Addiction a Drug addiction is when a person engages in a compulsive behavior i The behavior is pleasurable or rewarding ii Person loses intake control iii Wanting can be present without liking b Drugs act as a reward by mimicking dopamine release which makes more dopamine required to feel pleasure which leads to wanting more c Tolerance is built up so a higher dose is required to achieve the same feeling because the target neuron is less responsive d The organism eventually has a dependence where the drug is needed for the organism to function normally Drugs suppress the PFC which suppresses topdown regulation Addiction and dependence occur in separate regions of the brain Brain damage impairs our decision making and cognitive choices when Executive functions are impaired in addicts this affects evaluation of alternative outcomes and decisions This plays a large role in making bad choices Week 7B 1 Pleasure Circuits a Neurotransmitters i Opioids primarily used for treatment of pain they create a strong sense of euphoria They are highly addictive ii Endocannabinoids Crucial to bioregulation 1 Marijuana 2 Anandamide endogenous cannabis iii GABA released in nucleus accumbens iv These are all crucial for pleasurable feeling 1 Previously thought to be associated with the dopamine system 2 Dopamine Wanting 3 NAcc Pleasure b Striatum i NAcc l Opioids and endocannabinoids interact 2 Responsible for liking and disliking ii 3 Small ventral section is related to food Pallidum gt Thalamus gt Cortex gt Putamen gt Repeat in cycle 2 Distinction from Wanting a There are separate liking and wanting pathways b The brain divides the same reward into separate pathways C i Opioids make the person want more and make the like it These are pleasure hotspots NAcc and Ventral Pallidum have different roles in wanting and liking d Liking is pleasure There are Hedonic hotspots and pathways in our brains They are anatomically distributed but form a circuit 1 ii iii Nucleus Accumbens provides a sufficient cause if neural stimulation is sufficient to increase pleasure Ventral Pallidum provides a necessary cause Cooperative Hierarchy Activates rst If many hotspots are activated then even more are activated which leads to an increased liking response 3 Circuits of Emotion a Homeostasis Hypothalamus and Emotion b c 1 ii iii Homeostasis is the state of equilibrium homeostasis drives emotion Hypothalamus regulates autonomic emotional endocrine and somatic functions Stress stimuli gt Affects limbic brain stimuli hypothalamic nucleus muscles glands and lymph nodes gt Print Slide 10 Amygdala and Hypothalamus in reward i ii iii Hypothalamus ties reward with the internal homeostatic state Amygdala adds affective potency to the reward stimuli Allethesisa is a subjective response to external stimulus based on internal state d Brainstem Hedonic Hotspots C i ii iii iv Brainstem generates a basic and concrete representation of an event or function Which is sufficient enough for an affective reaction and response to a stimuli Multiple brain levels affect but brain stem is still important Animals with only a brainstem balance liking and disliking is everything above thalamus is removed then only disliking is present Animals with thalamus brainstem and subcorteX balance liking and disliking Cortical Pleasure i Code for pleasure evaluations including anticipation appraisal experience and memory of pleasurable stimuli ii Close anatomical links to the subcortical hedonic hotspots f False ideas about pleasure i Dopamine is the wanting transmitter not the pleasure transmitter ii LH only urges pleasure it doesn t create it g Anhedonia is the inability to feel pleasure i There is a link between pleasure and happiness ii Damage to ventral pallidum hedonic hotspots completely abolishes the capacity for positive hedonic responses 1 Liking fundamentals persist but are not acknowledged 4 The Neural Bias of Happiness a Happiness is a positive state of wellbeing de ned by pleasant emotions i Hedonia Pleasure 1 Liking without wanting ii Eudonia Meaning 1 Liking wanting iii Commitment 1 Too much wanting without liking gt Addiction b Three Pillars of Happiness i Pleasant Life A life that successfully pursues the positive emotions about the present past and future ii Good Life Using your signature strengths to obtain abundant gratification through activities we enjoy in the main realms of our life iii Meaningful Life Using your signature strengths and virtues in service of something much larger than you are c How to Measure Happiness i Pleasure has an objective component ii Neural imaging can be used iii Electrical selfstimulation iv Activity of single neurons d Wanting is motivation i Conscious incentives ii Incentive Salient e Pleasure is liking i Hedonic Impact ii Conscious Pleasure f Natural Happiness When we get what we want g Synthesis Happiness When we do not get what we want but we appreciate what we do have i Happiness depends on how we look at and face a situation Week 8A 1 Main Concepts of Information Processing and Emotions a Conceptualizing the mind as a multipurpose processing system b Mental Representation Abstraction relating to things in the external world c Processes i Memory ii Learning iii Perception d The information processing approach assumes there is competition in processing between streams of information and that there are limitations within the system which lead to selection and impaired processing e Emotion Modulation More resources are allocated to emotional information f Levels of processing i Partially automatic ii Fully autonomic iii Delebrite control by a supervisory attentional system 2 Emotion In uences in the Domains of Information Processing a Attention Focus concentration and allocation of limited cognitive resources to goal related stimuli i Three Stages 1 Orientation 2 Engagement 3 Disengagement ii Selective Divided Autonomic iii TopDown Goaldriven Dorsal Attention Network 1 Bilateral 2 Intraparietal Sulcus and superior parietal lobe iv BottomUp Stimulus driven Ventral Attention Network 1 Right hemisphere lateralization 2 Shows activity increase upon detection of salient targets in uneXpected locations 3 Left neglect b Conscious Awareness i Intransitive 1 State of vigilance keeping careful watch for danger ii Transitive 1 Awareness of XX 2 Unconscious preconscious conscious a Subliminal emotions affect judgment iii Binocular Rivalry 1 When different images are simultaneously presented to both eyes perception alternates between the two images we do not see a blend of two images c InterpretationReasoning i Anger enhances optimism fear enhances pessimism ii Emotions in uence reasoning 1 Depressive realism people who are mildly depressed are more realistic about the future


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