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Exam 2 Study guide

by: Aimee Castillon

Exam 2 Study guide PSYC317

Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Cognitive Psychology

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About this Document

Contains all my lecture notes from Chapters 4-7.
Cognitive Psychology
Study Guide
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC317 at George Mason University taught by Wiese in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 10/19/15
Study Guide for Test 2 Chapter 4Attention Selective attention ability to attend to one feature and ignore others competing features dichotic listening task One message is presented to the left ear and another message to the right ear Participants are instructed to pay attention to one message ignore the other one and repeat the attended message Shadowing is used to ensure that the participants focus attention on attended message Unattended message can not be repeated cocktail party phenomenon ability to attend to one message and ignore other messages How is selection achieved infermation passes through severai stages before it is perceived Sensory Messages memnw ill b P Filter I Detector 39 To memory i Attended j m ESEEQE four stages of information processing sensory memory holds all of the incoming information for a fraction of a second filter identifies attended message based on physical characteristics only attended message passes through the next stage filtering is done based on physical characteristics detector determines higherlevel characteristics of the message short term memory holds information for 1015 seconds and transfers information into longterm memory Early selection model Broadbent1958 Filtering occurs before information is analyzed to determine its meaning 34553968 39 d 339 39Ii 39i 91 1 Traps coarse grains Stops unattended message based on Fine sand Attended physical characteristics only message 01 voice Only Filtering is done based on physical characteristics SplitaScan Experiment Maw HEP Order of presentation F Milieu 2 Gonmt lnn 1 Repeat each pain as switching FIB in an mu39m 39 order no switching DearaAuntaJane Experiment Is information really ltered based on physical features N th We V Left ear 1 M39 Order of presentation U Participants report Dear Annt Jane Intermediate selection modlel Treisman 1964 Selection occurs at two stages Attenuation determination of message Attended message Messages 39 Attenuator Dm ig w gt To memory Unattended messages Filter is replaced by attenuator two stages a enua on Analysis in terms of physical characteristics language and meaning Language and meaning used to separate messages Message only analyzed as far as necessary to identify message Both attended and unattended messages pass the attenuator determination Final message is analyzed by dictionary unit which contains words Each word has threshold for being activated Even messages with low threshold signal strength can be detected Important words have low threshold and can be detected easily Late selection modlel Deutsch et a1 1963 Norman 1968 Selection does not occur before meaning has been analyzed money river They were throwing stones at the bank E Word presented in the passive ear loiases participants to understand the sentence in a certain way which model is correct evidence for early and late selection model time points at which selection task place is determined by task load high task load early selection uses most of person s resources and leaves no capacity for other tasks low task load late selection uses few resources and leaves capacity for other tasks Flanker compatibility task used to measure effects of task load on attentional selection n SIDE is E mg E El 3933 Ev DE Egg mg Ls E a E iii J it E f a ti Talia as fll iEtllty Task load influences whether distractor is processed or not lf task load is low resources are available and distractor is processed lf task load is high no resources are available and distractor is not processed Divided attention ability to distribute attention to two or more tasks practice and task difficulty determine divided attention abilities automatic processing occurs with practice with a task makes it possible to distribute attention to more than one task occurs without intention consumes with only very few cognitive resources was target present in one of the frames After 600 trials task was executed automatically varied mapping Schneider and Shiffrin 1977 Pauli F H r a i i 39i39 h F WI T quotWI T I rm 2 5 iquot 4 H i F a controlled processing automatic processing becomes impossible as task difficulty increases stroop task Stroop 1935 reading of words has become so automatized that it is difficult to NOT read the words Visual attention directing visual attention with the eyes attention can be shifted overtly or covertly overt shifts of attention are accompanied by eye movements for covert shifts of attention no eye movements are necessary when looking at a scene saccades and fixations occur Saccades are rapid eye movements from one location to another Fixations are short pauses on points of interest Eye movements are studied using eye tracking F a xnr an l39imuairr 77 anginai scene schema knowledge about what is contained in typical scene what determines where we fixate in a scene saliency bottomup ie color intensitycontrast orientation task demands override saliency eye movements precede actions and reveal action goals goals topdown ie task demands internal states scene schema Saliency map ElL ZiEv39lly Perscn Attention can be shifted without eye movements 3 4 A 39 Participant I I sees A l Inattention triali Recognition test Participant s Indicate longer anni Which arm is Which object task horizontai or vertical longer did you see Inattentiona blindness paradigm Mack 82 Rock 1998 Looking at something but not paying attention to it covert shifts of attention spatial cueing Posner 1980 attention is shifted to spatial location without moving the eyes a f tillil ms T i lial all nnlillll HitHI Mil I Efip ll 1WD H15 shifts of attention are executed in parietal lobe social attention following the eye gaze of others People with autism do not fixate on others eyes and cannot follow their gaze Chapter 5 Working Memory Modal Model of Memory Atkinson amp Shiffrin 1968 f Rehearsal t sontroi pruness l Short Long n Us g4 term b term p F IngmarF memory 4 memory E i Output Different stages are called structural features of the model structural features sensory memory is an initial stage that holds all incoming information for seconds or fractions of a second shortterm memory STM holds 57 items for about 1530 seconds longterm memory LTM can hold a large amount of information for years or even decades control processes active processes that can be controlled by the person may differ from one task to another example rehearsal repeat information over and over again memory strategies make stimulus more memorable attention strategies focus attention on what to remember Purpose of sensory memory Collecting information to be processed Holding information briefly during initial processing Filling the blanks when stimulation is intermittent persistence of vision seeing the progression of still images as movement Sperling measuring the visual icon 1960 IF n1 Vic I Array of letters ashed for 50 I Report as many letter as possible I 445 out of l2 reported a M I Array of letters flashed for 50 ms i l L T I Tone signaled which row to report 395 393 I F39 I 33 out of 4 reported lmn tmn n I39ll Pn lnl Impnd TorteImam B I Array of letters ashed for 50 ms I h mm B I Tone signaled was delayed Medum 7 39 I n z r La a I More letters reported for short delay Della gt Inquot 3 From Goldsl einr Cognitive Psychology 1 77 Partial 3 report Whale report 7 J Galezulatm number of Matters as afla laa to participant m l as D as ea one as 11 0 Delay of tone seal Shortterm memory holds small amounts of information for a short time stores what you are currently processing big proportion of this information gets lost STM connects sensory memory and longterm memory What is the duration of short term memory Listen to three letters and recall them 1 m 391l on 1 mm 3 5 w E E E I I l a G D e 9 D 7 E 5Q E 50 E 5t a m 9 E e a 53 r y D 0 39 39 D 3 1 E 3 1 8 Delay Delay Delay 32 Average performa nice 1b Firstatrial performance lie Thirdtriiatl performance over many trials proactive interference previously learned and new information interfere Participants performed well in the first trial Performance dropped from the third trial onwards Triplets of letters are stored in STM for some seconds Previously learned content interferes with new content Interference effect present for 1520 seconds Interference effect decreases after 20 seconds capacity of shortterm memory is measured by the digit span typical span is 58 digits STM capacity is 58 items the magical number 7l 2 size of the times is variable Monkey child wildly zoo jumped city ringtail young vs Ringtail monkey jumped wildly for the young child at the zoo chunking collection of elements that are strongly associated with one another but are weakly associated with elements in other chunks small units can be combined into larger meaningful units chunking as a strategy to expand the capacity of STM instead of items chunks or units are handled Chunking in chess Chase amp Simon 1973 Master does better became can churn lit r u on game Master Beginner a neural game Mmefie how is information coded in STM coding refers to the way information is represented physiological approach stimulus is represented by firing of neurons mental approach stimulus is represented by mental model in mind auditory coding sound Conrad 1964 target letters were flashed on the screen participants had to write down the letters Ne advantage fer mamaquot ill can39t clhunlr 15 at E 4 D 39 Master quot3 lib meant placement misidentification due to similar sound of letters example F vs S vs X conclusion code for STM seems to be auditory coding in STM seems to be auditory rather than visual visual coding image Zhang amp Simon 1985 Recall based on visual coding B X r Greater recall when if eudibew coding l5 ll possible lil fquot l 4 u ii39 L v 5 r R a 39 1 Radical Character 3 Inn sound has same 7 Radicals characters Ital ll l semantic coding meaning Wickens 1976 Fruit metssiun Trial 1 banana peach apple salami purl chicken lawyer lEre ghterltcacl1cr Trial 2 plum apricot lime bacon hot dog beef dancer minister executive Trial 3 melon letriorii grape hamburger rutrllzeyi veal 1centremarl1i d ct fi editor Trial fll Grange cherry pineapple mange cherry pineapple orange cherry pineapple same category snitch Eategmr yjl snitch category 3 en 3 an get E60 Euro Em a 213 a 21 in r r v P M F Group M Trial 1 working memory differs from STM Shortterm memory is a single component whereas working memory consists of a number of parts Shortterm memory is concerned mainly with holding information for a brief period of time whereas working memory is concerned with the manipulation of information that occurs during complex cognition Baddeley amp Hitch 1974 manipulation of information through three components Phonological V auditory in ammation Professions Moat Fruit mm 39 39 due1n buildup of PI if M Trial 2 words in same catego as Erame j S F M F Group lie Trial 3 Words still in same category transit and executive infamaitl rn Wmapa all 100 Release from Pli E3 an m lg a f P M F Group MI mil 4 Shift to fruit cameth for prufemiom and meat No shift fruit Central executive is where the major work of WM occurs Pulls information from longterm memory Coordinates phonological loop and visuospatial sketch pad Divides attention between the two types of tasks support for the phonological loop phonological similarity effect ie which task is more difficult Task 1 Slowly read the fulLowing lettElrs Look away and mum to 15 39fhen Write thiaml down g t l t v 9 Task a How do the same thing for these letters f l k 5 y 9 all word length effect task 1 beast bronze wife gold inn limp dirt star task 2 alcohol propert amplifier officer gallery mosquito bricklayer Interaction between PL and VSP ie John ran to the store to buy some oranges a Task 1 Memorize sentence and indicate for each word whether it is a noun by saying yes or no Task 2 memorize sentence and indicate for each word when it is a noun by marking it in a matrix central executive suppression of irrelevant information Tank llnstimcltinn Cue stimuli Dewy Test tin e Eliseo g nee Face relevant Hernemberfaces ignore scenes lal Tank llInntmetinn Cue stimuli Delay Test stimuli 9 sec 1 sec Fassive Passive view 39 quot l D a a I V bl Measure WEI From Goldstein Cognitive Pay Good suppressors had less brain activity for scenes E 13903 E E E a 5i a m S E I H I E III Good Poor suppressors suppressors Working Memory and the Brain memory areas in the brain prefrontal and temporal areas are involved in memory Chapter 6 LongTerm Memory Time range of information storage dDWI39l x IE lLTM 5m 6 fquot E quot 39 1 Irr w weX Fquot am t r x a g x I Ilramember LTer 151 7 1 Jim andl lwem v f lavas l 1 my elemenltniryl 5 wenztm the shopping for I walking to i quotx school A 0011393 s1 rambalIIgama ix clothes I class F I H a 39 5u i rayHy J A kl 7 I 7 ll I l I I a w I I 7 I I quot 10 One Last Yesterday 5min 3t sec years ago year ago week ago Longterm memory an archive of information about past events archive of knowledge information from 30 seconds1 minute ago to years ago stores information at different levels of detail interacts with STM on current tasks provides background knowledge for working memory Serial Position Murdoch 1962 Distinction between STM and LTM Words are in in STM and 7 ate tiletefere temembered Serialposition curve mo Heeeney 3 effect 3 3 at E l l E l E 40 4 I a 7 20 Wetds are reheat39ied and ttansten ed to LTM Serial position Primacy effect is LTM effect Glanzer et a 1966 if rehearsal time is increased primacy effect decreases Evidence that primacy e eet is due in LTM int i 1 t5 i3 time 13 9 between words E quott allows mere E 50 3 y Y rehearsal 1 U H 39139me N J J m r FPJ iQD 25 J U HJV r 7 39 39k Short time 39 between wattle quot339 7 1 W 5 167 7 asquot at at Serial position Effect Duties It eeuf Haw C It Be Changed Primacy Effegt Better nit2mm fut words at uids are rehearsed dillfl g 39i n increeite present the list more the beginning of the serial presentation of the list so slowly so there is more time fur pnsition curve the get intn L39i M rehearsal see Figtj e b6311 Rxeeeney Effect Better merrier fut words at Eliotds are still in S i Mt 39lh decrease test after waiting the end of the serialposition 3i seenmls after end tithe list so entrees infmmetion is llnst from SilliM tsetse Figure Mb Double dissociation STM and LTM 511 Lil Clive Hearing and lth1 Impaired impaired 0K CW and HM have damage to hippocampustemporal KF has damage to prefrontal areas are STM and LTM two separate processes Semantic coding is predominant type of coding in LTM experiment read passage below There is an interesting stery street the tElEStZ pE 1n Fleilentl e rnen named tippeer shey was an eyeglass meltet One day his children were playing with serne lenses quotthey discovered that things seemed very elitese if two lenses weie held about a feet apart Lippershey39 began experimenting anti his sprygllass attratteti rnuth attentien He sent a letter aheut it to Galilee the great Italian scientist Gatilee at ence realizeti the ini naertaniee ef the cliisrzeeelry and set about to build an instrument of his own Types of LTM LDlNleTERM MIEMDHY necmnetwe IiMlP IUI39CliT conscious not sensations Episodic Semantic Repetitian Procedumll persenell facts piiming memory ewenits Enemadale Declarative memory Divided into two subsystems Episodic Memory for personal events in our lives Experience mental time travel travel back in time to reconnect with events in the past selfknowing remembering that involves mental time travel Semantic Memory for facts and knowledge Information distinction based on types of information remembered separation of episodic and semantic memory Case 1 KC Severe damage to hippocampus after accident Lost episodic memory Can no longer relive past events Knows that brother has died but does not remember circumstances Remembers facts Semantic memory seems to be intact Case 2 Italian woman Brain damage after encephalitis Difficulties recognizing familiar people Difficulties remembering words on shopping list Cannot recall facts eg about World War II Episodic memory about events in her life is intact Episodic Memory Semantic Memory connections between episodic and semantic memory Episodic information gets lost but facts remain Knowledge is initially attained through experience Semantic memory can be enhanced via episodic memory Facts about important events are remembered better Semantic memory can influence our episodic memory Knowledge about facts can bias recall of events Implicit Memory definition Previous experience improves performance on task Experience is not consciously remembered Implicit memory is nonknowing repetition priming performance in response to stimulus is better if stimulus has been encountered recently Tulving 1962 Effect of a stimulus continues until after its presentation and facilitates response to next presentation of the stimulus Example stimulus cabaret Test stimulus c g a g t Filling in spaces is more successful 47 in conditions when priming stimulus has been presented compared to new words 30 procedural memory Memory for how to do things eg ride a bike playing a music instrument Experience how skill was acquired is not remembered Remains intact even if episodic memory is lost Propaganda Effect Perfect et a 1994 Example of implicit memory in everyday life a Participants are asked to scan articles containing ads Participants were not asked to pay attention to ads Later participants were asked to rate the ads appealing Previously presented ads received higher ratings Ads are not explicitly remembered Pure presentation of ad results in positivity bias Effect is also called mere exposure effect Chapter 7 Encoding acquiring information and transferring it to LTM Encoding is the process of storing information in LTM Coding refers to the form in which information is presented Encoding goes hand in hand with retrieval Retrieval is the process of transferring info back to STM two types of rehearsal Rehearsal is used to keep information active in STM Maintenance rehearsal Helps maintain information in working memory Is not effective way of transferring information into LTM Elaborative rehearsal When thinking about meaning of an item When making connections bw item and knowledge Good way of establishing longterm memories Levels of processing Craik amp Lockhard 1972 memory depends on how information is encoded Memory is better when meaningful connection is made Meaningful means connection to knowledge in memory Memory depends on depth of processing Shallow processing Little attention to meaning focused on physical features maintenance rehearsal Deep processingClose attention to meaning relations to other items elaborative rehearsal Varying depth of processing Craik amp Tulving 1975 asking different kinds of questions about a word i 10339 Ask queetlem Present Answer Exam pie D we queetlen Capital letters Exampiei Bird Example Ho Percent correct ml 9 ll Fill in Rhyme Gepital blanks letters 1 Shatlnw processing A question about physical features at the ward Question 5 the ward printed in capital Letters Word bird 2 Deeper processing A question about rhyming Question Dunes the word rhyme with train Ward pain 3 Deepest processing A htLginetheebLaniks question Quastinn Does the word lit intn the sentence quotHe saw at en the streetquot Were car TransferiAppmpriate Processing Morris 1977 Relationship between encoding and retrieval Ericending Heavierml Performance pereent eerreet necegntt lun 32 test Iquot 39 necegntt ion 5239 y 39 test a Standard test in retrieval create connections memory is better when information is imagined visually Jr Mil net are l Ferreth eerneet recall Heeetlrtlnn lrneeryr QF u p giltDU Memory is better when information is related to oneself ABEQESET I athlete Elmword I 39 39 quot describe you any Yea la 3 7 a V Retrieval ones a i a Previous information that e i 6 5 helps UlS rememlbe ng Hillsquot aliiiiiiii 39ll39ype pl task lbl generating information generating material yourself enhances learning lit Read group Read these pairs of related words kingtaonm horseeaatltlle lampesliatle etc Generate group Fill in the blank with a word that related to the rst Wottli lting ta horseea l39aInp sh etc group who generated words remembered 28 more words organizing information organizing items in groups help remembering them Rate 5 coma Alisa Pleatquot Masai l l l l 1 Platinum Aluminum Bronze Sapphire Limestcme Silver Dapper Steel Em eral d Granite Gold Lead Brass Diamond Marble Iron Flyby Slate Neuroscience of memory two processes are involved in memory consolidation Structural changes at the synapse Repetition leads to new protein synthesis and more complex connections at the synapse experience causes structural changes enhance protein synthesis greater transmitter release and increased firing rate Changes in activity at the synapse LongTerm potentiation enhances firing of neurons after repetition Stucturel l 17 737 changes w 39 1397 393 39 are P f H 5 increased 4 39 39lirir39rg e L13 r39 J i e l 1 Enhanced 5 I l sci5 res Dndin If He 13 g a First presentation lle Continued tel Leten same stimulus of stimulus Presentation is presented again of stimulus Physiological changes at synapses ll 3 l l l Sluctur I l gr 1 P1 1 If hange iii11 ll 13 View Y t V Increased r u M a FlL39St presentation in Continued cl Later same stimulus of st IIII us presentation is presented again of stimulus experience causes structural changes enhance protein synthesis greater transmitter release and increased firing rate amnesia loss of memory inability of accessing old memories retrograde inability of forming new memories anterograde Retrograde Anterogradre I l I Memery for recent 14 events is mere fragile 39 I Graded Mum amnesia consolidation process of storing information in memory transforms new memories from a fragile state in which they can be disrupted to a more permanent state in which they re resistant to disruption takes place in two ways synaptic consolidation structural changes at synapse within minutes systems consolidation gradual reorganization of circuits longer timescale standard model of consolidation consolidation depends on hippocampus connections bt the cortex and the hippocampus are initially strong but weaken as connections within the cortex are established incoming information activates number of areas in the cortex Hippocampus coordinates the activity of the different cortical areas which are not yet connected in the cortex during reactivation the hippocampus replays activation Formation of connections between the cortical areas during sleep relaxed wakefulness or during rehearsal cortical connections become strong enough to be linked directly Hippocampus is not necessary anymore memories are represented by cortical activation only recent memory retrieval of recent memories depends on hippocampus remote memory After consolidation cortical connections have formed and the hippocampus is no longer needed current state of the art hippocampus and MTL Hippocampus MTL activated during consolidation Activation for recent semantic memory Activation for recent episodic memory Hippocampus MTL activated for remote episodic memory Remote episodic memory still intact after MTL damage memory for emotional stimuli highly emotional events stand out emotion improves memory activation in amygdala for emotional stimuli ow do we retrieve information from LTM memory failures most memory failures are failures in retrieval Tip of the tongue phenomenon retrieval cues cues that help us remember information stored in memory location sound smell cued recall categories as cues selfgenerated cues encoding specificity link between encoding and retrieval information is learned together with its context ie diving experiment state dependent learning learning is associated with particular internal state retrieval is better if mood matches for encoding retrieval


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