Review note for American Politics
Review note for American Politics POL 110
Hobart and William Smith Colleges
Popular in American Politics
Popular in Political Science
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sharon on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL 110 at Hobart and William Smith Colleges taught by Prof. Rose in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see American Politics in Political Science at Hobart and William Smith Colleges.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
American politics midterm review Part i term definition a What is the xxxxx b Give me an example of an instance when the xxxxx would be relevant 0 Why is it significant to the American government system 1 Constitutional government p11 a A system of rule in which formal and effective limits are placed on the powers of the government b American government is a constitutional government federalism limited government check and balance 0 The constitutional government represent the idea of democracy that permit citizens to play a signi cant part in the governmental process And people can get free from the government 3959 Direct democracv p13 a A system of rule that permits citizens to vote directly on laws and policies b The direct democracy can be reached by initiative referendum 0 Direct democracy is not the main method but is so encourage more people get involved in politics 3 Renresentative democracv p13 a A system of government in which the populace selects representative who play a significant role in governmental decision making b At the national level America is a representative democracy in which citizens select government officials but do not vote on legislation Like the selection for the president 5 Articles of confederation p35 HHHH a America s first written constitutional served as the basis for America s national government until 1789 b It was concerned primarily with limiting the power of the central government The central government was based entirely in a congress c The articles of confederation use the legal method to connect the 13 independent confederation states together into a nation It contribute to the real political unity of the united nation laid a foundation 13 DUI IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIEllIIIIIIIIDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDGWG the general and basic idea of what the American government should be limited power and separate power 5 Confederation p35 1 a A system of government in which states retain sovereign authority except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government b Confederation is the previous status of America At that time the relationship between congress and the states is just like the relationship between united nations and its member states that states retained virtually all governmental powers c The confederation era makes Americans know the limitation of weak central government lack of executive branch and judicial authority and so on which force the creation of American constitution 6 Checkand balance p41 a Mechanisms through which each branch of government is able to participate in and in uence the activities of the other branches b Major examples include the presidential veto power over congressional legislation the power of the senate to approve presidential appointments and judicial review of congressional enactments c The check and balance is the main idea of American government system that limited the power of each branch to avoid tyranny of majority 7 Separation of powers p43 a The division of governmental power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision making b The constitution separated the power into legislative executive and judicial and gave them to congress presidency and supreme court c The separation of powers prevents the new government from abusing its power 8 Federalism p43 a A system of government in which power is divided by a constitution between the central government and regional governments b The national government have the power of print money interstate trade foreign affair declare war and set up army and navy The state government have the power of issue license international business election establish local government health and security etc c The federalism system in America prevent the tyranny of majority 9 Federalists p48 a Those who favored a strong national government and supported the constitution proposed at the American Constitutional Conventions of 1787 10 Antifederalists a Those who favored strong state governments and a weak national governments and were opponents of the constitution proposed at the American constitutional convention of 1787 11 Judicial review p45 a b C The power of the courts to review and declare actions of the legislative and executive branches invalid or unconstitutional DDDDDDDDDD action HEIDI The supreme court asserted this power in Marbury v Madison 1803 It is the best express of the separate power and check amp balance The judicial review is the most powerful and supreme one in the American government system 12 Supremacy clause p45 a b C Article VI of the constitution which states that laws passed by the national government and all treaties shall be the supreme law of the land and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any subdivision DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDDDDDD Every action taken by the US congress would have to be applied within each state As the congress makes the homosexual marriage legal no state can prohibit it It is related to the general idea of federalism the strong central government which is used by America government system 13 Expressed powers p44 65 a b C Specific powers granted by the constitution to congress and to the president For example the constitution granted the right of powering to tax and spend for the defense and general welfare of the US borrowing money and regulate commerce with other nations and between the states to the congress It clarifies what powers belong to the congress and what power belong to states and people 14 Implied power p65 a b Powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of article 1 section 8 of the constitution such powers are not specifically expressed but are implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers In the case of McCulloch v Maryland congress was granted the power to create a national bank because it was necessary to honor other powers of the constitution 15 Necessary and pr0per clause p65 a b constitution provides congress the authority to make all laws necessary and Propbf to carry out its expressw powers DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD DDDDDDDDD In the case of McCulloch v Maryland congress was granted the power to create a national bank because it was necessary to honor other powers of the constitution This doctrine allowed the national government to expand considerably the scope of its authority It emphases the power and status of central government 16 Reserved powers p66 a Powers derived from the tenth amendment to the constitution that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states b The power to administer health and safety rules development and enforce criminal codes and regulate the family Via marriage and divorce laws c Constitutional government that the power is separate to national government and state government 17 Three th compromise p40 a The agreement reached at the constitutional convention of 1787 that stipulated that for proposes of the apportionment of congressional seats every slave would be counted as threefifths of a person b c It shows the con ict of idea of slaves between north and south which finally cause a bloody civil war 18 Block rants 81 a Federal grantsinaid that allow states considerable discretion DUDE in how the funds are spent b Nixon s approach consolidated programs in the areas of job training community development and social services into three large block grants c Reducing federal control 19 Commerce clause 72 a Congress has the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the several states and with the Indian tribes this clause was interpreted by the supreme court in favor of national power over the economy b In the case of McCulloch V Maryland congress was granted the power to create a national bank because it was necessary to honor other powers of the constitution c Emphases national power 20 Full faith and credit clause D 67 a Requiring that the states normally honor DD the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state b If a person has a restraining order placed on a stalker or batterer in one state the other states are required to enforce that order as if they had issued it The state Without gay marriage should be obliged to recognize such union 21 Privileges and immunities clause p68 a Provision from article iV section 2 of the constitution that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special privileges b C When Alaska passed a law that gave residents preference over nonresidents in obtaining work on the state s oil and gas pipelines the supreme court ruled the law illegal because it discriminated against citizens of other states States obligations to one another 22 Grantinaid p74 a b C Programs through which congress provides money to state and local governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the federal government The government give money to state to make sure that every child can get study in elementary school middle school and high school Strong national government 23 Cate orical rants 74 a b C Congressional grants given to states and localities on the condition that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law Like in 1960s the federal Medicaid program which provides states with grants to pay for medical care for the poor disabled and many nursing home residents Helped the states perform their traditional functions In the 1960s the national role expended and federal funding in the form of categorical grants increased dramatically g4 Unfunded mandates 1980 a b Regulations or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local governments for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government The 1973 rehabilitation act prohibited discrimination against the disabled in program that were partly funded by the federal government and the local government spend money for the program but the federal did not give any grants It is the product of a democratic congress which wanted to achieve liberal social objectives and republican president who wants to reduce social spending 25 Block rants 81 a Federal grantsinaid that allow states considerable discretion DUDE in how the funds are spent b Nixon s approach consolidated programs in the areas of job training community development and social services into three large block grants c Reducing federal control 26 De facto p120 a by fact practices that occur even when there is no legal enforcement b Such as school segregation in much of the united states even through the law does not require it 0 g7 De iure D120 a Literally by law legally enforced practices b Such as school segregation in the south before the 1960s g8 Due process of law I 96 HHITIITI a The right of every citizen to be protected against arbitrary DD action by national or state government b Fifth amendment no person shall be Deprive of life liberty or property without due process of law An accused person is presumed innocent until proven guilty c It questions only the way the government determines who committed the crime Substantive and procedural restraints together identify the realm of civil liberties 29 Equal protection clause a Provision of the fourteenth amendment guaranteeing citizens the equal protection of the laws this clause has served as the basis for the civil rights of African Americans women and other groups b Racial equality 30 sep te but equal rule a Doctrine that public accommodations could be segregated by race but still be considered equal b Plessy v Ferguson according to the law passed in 1980 white and black can take the same bus but they need to be separated And Plessy get arrested because she rejected to give her seat to a white c This case establishes the separate but equal rule which prevailed through the midtwentieth century And this rule is legal until brown v Board of education 31 Ri ht to rivac 115 a The right to be left alone from government or other person s interference in certain personal areas which has been interpreted by the supreme court to entail individual access to birth control and abortion b Griswold v Connecticut by a vote of 7 2 the supreme court invalidated the law on the grounds that it violated the quotright to marital privacyquot establishing the basis for the right to privacy with respect to intimate practices c Liberty equal protection 32 Push polling p165 DDDDDDD a A polling technique in which the questions are designed to shape the respondent s opinion 33 Agenda setting 2187 a The power of the media to bring public attention to particular issues and problems b In 2008 and 2009 the news agenda was dominated by the global financial crisis and the severe economic recession that ensued c Continuing media attention created enormous pressure for the government to do something even as the crisis began to ease The media agenda decided what the public need to know and have know which give chances for public to know about the government 34 Framin 187 a The power of the media to in uence how events and issues are interpreted b After hurricane sandy hit the middle Atlantic coast the news could write a story focusing on the govemment s failure to respond in a timely matter or on the government s successful relief effort Both stories may be correct but they leave the reader with a very different impression 35 Priming p188 a Process of preparing the public to take a particular View of an event or political actor b The media s intensive focus on terrorism and security in the wake of the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks primed the public to evaluate president bush s performance in office based on his ability to defend the nation for terrorism The public was less likely to assess president bush based on his ability to manage the economy at the time as people were not primed to thing about he economy 36 Dual federalism p69 a The system of government that prevailed in the united states from 1789 to 1937 in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments b Layercake federalism that the national and state government are clearly separated c During this period the federal government is small while the virtually all of the important policies affecting the lives of Americans were made by the state government 37 Cooperative federalism p77 a A type of federalism existing since the new deal era in which grantsinaid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities without commanding them to pursue nationally defined goals also known as intergovernmental cooperation b During the New Deal era president Roosevelt enlarge the power of federal government that let the federal government control more aspect to fix the broken economics during the Great Depression 38 Regulated federalism p82 a National government sets policy for the states and state governments help pay for the administer program b Unfunded mandates conditional grants unfunded mandates 39 New federalism a Attempts by presidents Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grant b The federal government gives some power which involves economics to the local government to release the economics crisis Give grants to families which help the young children get into school c The New Federalism let the local government engages more and decline the power of federal government 40 14th amendment p96 a One of the three civil war amendments it guaranteed equal protection and due Process DDDDDDDDDDD 41 Establishment clause p99 a The first amendment clause that says that congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion this law means that a wall of separation exists between church and state b Studentinitiated public prayer in school is illegal 42 Selectjve incorporation p97 a The process by which different protections in the bill of rights were incorporated in to the fourteenth amendment thus guaranteeing citizens protection from state as well as national governments b Incorporation of the bill of rights into the fourteenth Amendment 43 Positive libertv a Is the possession of the power and resources to fulfill one39s own potential as opposed to negative libertv which is freedom from external restraint II II freedom from yourself which forcing you to be free b Government protect your right 44 Negative libertv Is freedom from interference by other people lllllIquot the freedom from something that people cannot take it away 45 Referendum a The practice of referring a measure proposed or passed by a legislature to the vote of the electorate for approval or rejection 46 Initiative a All citizens participate in the referendum to vote of the electorate for approval or rejection b c Initiative referendum shows the idea of equality that every citizen has equal opportunity to vote of the electorate 47 Social democracy a Social democracy is a political ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a capitalist economy 48 Vir inia Ian 39 a A framework for the constitution introduced by Edmund Randolph that called for representation in the national legislature based on the population of each state 49 New iersev plan 039 a A framework for the constitution introduced by William Paterson that called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population 50 Limited government p51 a A principle of constitutional government a government whose powers are defined and limited by aa constitution b 51 Reserved powers amendment a Tenth Amendment 52 Devolution n 76 a A policy to remove a program from on e level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government such as fro the national government to the state and local governments b United vs Lopez bring gun to the campus Part ii essay and short answer questions 1 The Dositjons of the federalists and antifederalists Federalists favored weak national governments and a strong national government while antifederalists favored strong state governments and a weak national governments and were opponents of the constitution proposed at the American constitutional convention of 1787 Federalists Antifederalists Representation Distance from people Local smaller governing units Tyranny Tyranny of majority Fewer people with more power Power of government Broad power check amp Limited specified power balance 2 Maior compromises in the constitution and why one might consider them undemocratic 0 Threefifths Compromises the agreement reached at the constitutional convention of 1787 that stipulated that for proposes of the apportionment of congressional seats every slave would be counted as threefifths of a person This compromise is undemocratic because the slaves were not treated equally The South wanted slave to be counted as population because the seat in House of Representatives is decided by the population of the state according the Great compromise As a result the amount of representative is decided by the amount of slave a slave owner have North do not count slave in the population because they think they are not citizens and South want to count them because they can increase the population to increase the representative 0 Great compromise the agreement reached at the constitutional convention of 1787 that gave each state equal number of senators regardless of its population but linked representation in the house of representative to population The Virginia plan called for representation in the national legislature based on the population of each state As a result small state may have very small in uence in the national affair and election The New Jersey called for equal state representation in the national legislature regardless of population As a result the large state may have smaller in uence then it should be 3 Gunned down NRA reject the reduce and strict law of gun 4 Contours of the ongoing debate about privacv vs Securitv and STOP AND FRISK Mt we have discussed esnecially as it Dertains to due process and the 14th amendment 14th amendment IIIDDDDDDDDIIDECIDEDIIDDDDDDDDIIDECIDEDIIDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD IEllDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD EllDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD IEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD EllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 21 II HEIDIEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllEllDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 21 EIEII DDDDDDDDDDDDD the stop and frisk should be under the due process of law every person should get equal protection that the police cannot stop and frisk a person because the subject is a black 5 Different forms of enmity Civil equality all citizens should be treated the same and enjoy the same right separate but equal blacks and whites Political equality one person one vote All citizens have politics right and participate in election to vote black want the right of voting Social equality all citizen equally enjoys opportunities in society Natural equality all men born free and equal ex Gender racial equal right Economic equality American regard economic difference as result of individual choices virtues or failures Equal opportunity for working and get rich 6 Different eras of federm Dual federalism 17891937 Cooperative federalism 1937 1960 Regulated federalism 19601970 New federalism 1970now 7 Be about to discuss whv some forms of speech althou2h repulsive E permissible Because of the first amendment citizens have the right of free speech assemble publication and so on And citizens have the freedom of religious As a result if a group of people set their own religious and recognize some forms of speech as their practice of their religious it need to be permissible according the amendment Government may not prohibit speechrelated activities such as demonstrations or lea eting in public areas traditionally used for that purpose though the government may impose rules designed to protect the public safety so long as these rules do not discriminate against particular viewpoints And it is true that it a crime to say or publish anything that might tend to defame or bring into disrepute the government of the united state However if those speech is the expression of political idea it cannot be prohibited
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