Unit 3 Study Guide
Unit 3 Study Guide BIOL 121N
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dominick Ramos on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 121N at Old Dominion University taught by DOUGLAS J MILLS in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see GENERAL BIOLOGY I in Biological Sciences at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide 1 Our cells must completely regulate cell division by cell cycle checkpoints If our cells fail to go through these checkpoints then it could lead to mutation and possibly cancer Cancer CellsWhat are they Cancer cells are cells that grow in an unregulated manner Some defining characterizes Cell cycle is unregulatedone or more cell cycle checkpoints are ignored Indefinite division Lifespan is increased due to abnormal aging due to telomere replacement Some cannot selfdestruct by apoptosis cell death Abnormal binding to other cells and abnormal binding to the extracellular matrix which promote metastasis malignant growth away from the primary cancer site Benign Tumors Malignant Tumors Made of cells that cannot metastasize 0 Cells cannot invade new locations 0 Made of cells that can metastasize 0 Cells can invade new locations Some early stage cancers can metastasize Treatments Methods to inhibit or treat cancer Alkaloids Colchicine Taxol and Vinca Methotrexate and AntiHormone Therapy Hyd roxyu rea These plant derived compounds 0 Bind to spindle microtubules and disrupt o spindle function 0 Cause M phase spindle o checkpoint activation 0 Induce apoptosis It deprives some breast endometrial and prostate These anticancer drugs inhibit nucleotide synthesis inhibiting DNA replication cancer cells of their quotgo Methotrexate prevents signals thymine dTTP synthesis 0 Antiestrogens amp Hydroxyurea inhibits the antiprogestins treat enzyme ribonucleotide breast and reductase to reduce the endometrial cancers supply of nucleotides 0 Antiandrogens treat available for DNA prostate cancer replication Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide Radiation Therapy Two Vaccines that prevent Cervical Cancer Potential of Nanoparticle Therapy It induces numerous o Gardasil immunizes In order to be safe and mutations in the genome of against some HPV surface effective nanoparticles must cancer cells proteins produced by 0 Be soluble in blood 0 These mutations activate HPV strains 611 16 and lymph fluid and tissue the G2 DNA damage 18 fluid checkpoint o Cervarix immunizes 0 Identify all cancer cells in o The mutations cannot be against HPV strains 16 body repaired and 18 0 Deliver drugs to cancer cells and never to healthy cells 0 Avoid detection by the immune system 0 Avoid immediate elimination from the body by the liver and kidneys o The cancer cells self destruct due to apoptosis The inhibitions of Angiogenesis Blood Vessel Formation o A tumor must recruit new blood vessels as it grows o Angiogenesis inhibitors reduce blood flow to tumors that deprives the cancer ells of nutrients and 02 o The drug angiostatin is a potential treatment for some metastatic cancers The cell membrane o Regulates the import and export of substances 0 Cell to cell binding and cell to cell identification 0 Maintains a voltage difference in electrical charge 0 Voltage is like a battery for our cells Which two organelles are involved in the synthesis of cell membranes VESIGILES ARE SMALIIL g MEMBRANEBDUND 391 SACKS THAT TRANSPORT MATERIAJILS WITHIN THE BELL AlND AlILSO TO THE BELL MEMBRANE THE VESIC LE FUSE5 WITH THE EXISTING CELIL MEMBRANE DURlIllNG EXUGYTOSIS TO INGREASE ITS SIZE Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide 3 Both interact to 0 Make phospholipids and steroids 0 Deliver the vesicles containing new membrane materials to the existing cell membrane 0 Vesicles small membranebound sacks that transport materials within the cell and also the cell membrane I They also fuse with the existing cell membrane during exocytosis to increase cell size Hydrophobic substances Hydrophilic substances 0 Can directly diffuse across the cell 0 Cannot directly diffuse across the cell membrane and organelle membranes membrane from areas of higher concentration to 0 Use specific channel proteins through a areas of lower concentration process called facilitated diffusion 0 Carrier proteins can transport small hydrophilic molecules like glucose or lactose across cell membranes Extracellular space Passive transport Channel protein a 39 39 I t a I I g I I a o Facilitated diffusion Weit ilP l39Gl39le 39 l n 39 v quot I I x a an o i a In t I I i t a a 1 Ha I j l I a THESE HYDROPHILIG 4 q q I l u r I u a 39 O I39 E a I SUBSTAINGES move moan 39 W TRANSPORT occlu s 0 V 39 I I g l I o HIGHEIR CONCENTRATION To i i F THROWquot THE HOMO 0139quot L WER CONCENTRATWN if INTEEIoErrHE CHANNEL AGmSIGHAL L39pld39jl39alle l l llllll39il li llllllll39p39l lquot Jl OXYGEN on v OF EACH GHAHHEl laellmemlwanel 5 l l l H l39 39 I ll 39 39 PRQTEIN lllllllll I THERE ARE Speci c CHANNEL PlEoTEms FDR can INaln K H c Intracellularspace AN ION IS A GHARGED PARTICLE T39lME F AN ELENIlENT I5 I PURE CHEMIIBAL SUBST NGE C OlNSIlST39ING OF ONE TYPE OF ATOM Active Transport Proteins assassinwatts mammal 39 l twins 39 Natllow cwosmsm KW ight mp39 quot Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide are present at higher concentration active transport proteins transport hydrophilic substances from the side of the membrane where they are present at lower concentration to the side of the membrane where they 0 ATP provides the energy required for active transport to occur Multidrug resistance proteins These active transport proteins export 3 MlETHOTREXATE Foreign compounds from our normal healthy cells Anticancer drugs from cancer cells Antibiotics from pathogenic bacteria Endocytosis the process that enables cells to import relatively large particles and cells Phagocytosis cellular eating Pinocytosis cellular drinking Receptormediated endocytosis Type of endocytosis that imports food particles and foreign invaders like bacteria or viruses The cell membrane engulfs the god particle or cell to be imported O Enables cells to import large bulk quantities of substances that are dissolved in the surrounding extracellular fluid such as Dissolved food molecules Other dissolved solutes Water molecules Imports specific larger molecules in a regulated manner such as Low density lipoproteins Transferrins that contain iron Protein hormones Ligands bound to receptors to participate in signal transduction Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide Our cells must also export a range of hydrophilic molecules by exocytosis Exocytosis enables cells to export hydrophilic proteins and other substances like neurotransmitters o A vesicle containing multiple copies of a soluble protein or other hydrophilic molecule fuses with the cell membrane to release its contents into the extracellular space Genes Allele for brown hair color a Homologous THlIS GENE REGULA39ii39ES HAIR COLOR gt pair of chromosomes 2 Allele for black hair color Copynghi b21105 Penman Educalien n publishing as Pearson Eenjamir Cummings Alleles are alternative forms of a single gene Each allele contains 0 A unique nucleotide sequence 0 Different genetic information Mutations Mutagens Mutations are changes in Mutagens cause mutations in a nucleotide sequences of a DNA DNA molecule or the RNA genome molecule or the RNA genome of of RNA viruses and can be RNA viruses 0 Biological chemical or physical o Carcinogenic cancer generating EFFECTS OF M UVTATl DiNS Pmtem V Protein absent overexpressed W s s I Cell cycle inneased sell Celi cycle not overstimulated division in hibiited c Efiects of mutations Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide Protooncogenes Normal GrthsComrrol Pathway G rowtlm factor Receptor Cell nucleus Proto oncogenes code for proteins that regulate the cell cycle and thus cell division in a controlled manner They stimulate the cell cycle and promote cell division in a regulated manner Can code for EXTRACELLMLAH GYTDPLASM FLUID 7 Plasma membrane Signalile moleCule 0 Go signals 13111 ILIu39unj Cr39 iFd39 IanL I fenh yu ai 0 Go signal receptors 0 G proteins 0 Cyclin proteins kinases o Enzymes that synthesize nucleotides However gain of function mutations can convert proto oncogene to an oncogene cancer promoting gene Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide Tumor suppressor genes regulate the cell cycle Normall cell REMOVE DIquot inactivate tumor Suppressor genes Cancer ceii i iamage tp Iioihgenes v leads to M uita39ted iinaciiivated tumor Suppressor genres Tumor suppressor genes code for proteins that o Are necessary for cell division to occur in a regulate manner 0 Ensure that cell division occurs accurately 0 Slow or inhibit cell division in a regulated manner 0 Detect DNA damage mutation 0 Repair DNA mutations 0 Form cell cycle checkpoints 0 Enable apoptosis to occur 0 Allow proper cell to cell binding 0 Allow proper cell binding to the extra cellular matrix Some mutations inactivate tumor suppressor genes A loss of function mutation in a tumor suppressor gene eliminates its ability to code for a functional protein that can result in 0 Failure of cell cycle checkpoints 0 Failure to recognize and repair mutations in DNA 0 Failure to induce apoptosis 0 Metastasis Dominick Ramos r 9 Protein kinases i A i 39 39 Defective or i Q 39539 missing transcription factor such 3 as p53 cannot i activate transcription 039 DNA damage iii genome DNA Protein that inhibits the cell cycle L J b Cell cycle inhibiting pathway CQWMJI JE U 2003 Pearson Educamn 39ix mummig as Remy ijan39 n Cllnl m a Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide 8 The onegene polypeptide hypothesis One gene determines the amino acid sequence of molecule one polypeptide o The sequence of nucleotides in the gene determines the sequence of amino acids in template 7 7 the polypeptide that the gene encodes strand AICICIGIAIGIT Ti G a c T c A DNA Each of the 46 DNA molecules in the nucleus contains many genes The linear sequence of triplets in the gene determines the linear sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide that the gene encodes Protein 397 Amino acid JV Dvil39w39 rm ms The genetic code the genetic language TRIP LET TRIP LlETv it It rm lintalga L cILfIL ll Iur39 NHL mm mm It is a set of rules that store genetic instructions in DNA and in mRNA molecules 0 Based on quotgenetic words called triplets 0 Each nucleotide ACGT is a letter of the quotgenetic alphabet 0 Each triplet consists of three consecutive nucleotides in a gene that codes for 0 Specific amino acids 0 Start signals 0 Stop signals The genetic code is universal All biological systems us the same system to 0 store genetic information in genes Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide 0 access the genetic information in genes to make every protein and specialized RNA molecule they require Defining gene expression The precise activation and deactivation of genes The multistep process that converts the information stored in a gene into a specific protein in the proper cell type at the proper time at the proper concentration The transcription process It transfers the triplet code information stored in the coding strand of a gene to a messenger RNA mRNA molecule or transcript 7 39 T 39 n THE CODING STRAND DETlElRIMINES THE AMINO ACID SEQIJENCIE OF THE PROTEIN THE 5 THE TEMPLATE STRAND a L L L OlRlNONCODING ATGCQTAGGG STRAND u A C G A U THE MEDIA NUCLEOTIDE 5 1 mRNA g 39 E SEQUENCE llS IDENTICAL To 0 THE NUCLEOTIIDE SEQUENCE OF THE DNlA conlNG STRAND Iib n uCIEQtIdES I IllI J www nuluhexomfwalclhm IIF I39 J zaa eaturErelaled Il39 hti s3939www uutuhcxcomfmtdhvMfSYnIt fv a39fuallurum arms Transcription in eukaryotic cells It occurs in o the nucleus and mitochondria in animals 0 in the nucleus mitochondrion and chloroplasts of plant cells and algal cells Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide 10 RNA polymerase make mRNA during transcription RNA polymerase is the enzyme that Elongation O n temlpiate strand of DNA 0 joins ribonucleotides together to make mRNA RNA quot cl eotm es 0 reads the nucleotide sequence of the template powm39erase quot strand of a gene to make a complementary mRNA with a sequence identical to the coding strand 0 replaces T with U in the mRNA molecules transcripts it makes RNA polymerase begins reading the nucleotide sequence of Dirgctioh 0f 5 7 7 I the template strand of a gene at the transcription start site i ggfggspthrggmj I Template 557 r strand of DNA Sequence Nein made FlNiA I mills139s E39LCI39u ml 39a7e39xnO quot39n39CI39I39 Hiquot The Initiation phase of transcription 0 A en karyotic promoter includes aTA39liA box Promoter f A THE TATA BOX SEQUENCE Is 7 y 3 FDIJINID m MANY PROMOTERS 3quot 39 I 5quot TATA box Stan pai Template DNA strand THE GENERAL TRANSGRtiPTIiON FACTORS POSITION QSeUeral transcrlption factors must ASSEMBLEi AND ACTIVATE 7 Transcription 39IO bEfOI39E RNA iPOLYMERASE on THE lacith ix polymerase i can do so PROMOTER THEY ALSO 5 ci3 3 SEPARATE THIE DNA nouleE I a 4 r Z HiEILIX AT THE PRDMDT ER 3 5 REGION 50 RNA POLYMERASE CNN EE GIH TO READ THE HUGLEOTIlDE SEQILIENCE OF THE TEMPLATE STRAND the DNA along with RNA polymerase III Additional transcription factors bind to liorming the transcription initiation complex RNA polymerase I Transcriiption factors V fg 32 5 T A I IJ 13 3 A 39 E 539 FINA transcript htt waw utuhexnmimtchMPSchdoed 7 nu m utuneiWsorIMssm n Transcription Initiation complex m1 IN M39W 39 u I I5 eup39f39 39ll cm P ea 1 quot5 any woess 1 u39l39r39niz RNA polymerase and the six general transcription factors assemble at the promoter region during the initiation phase to form the transcription preinitiation The elongation phase of transcription RNA polymerase o unwinds the double helix 1020 base pairs at a time to read the nucleotide sequence of the template strand 0 makes an mRNA molecule with a sequence complementary to the template strand and identical to the coding strand 0 joins 50 ribonucleotides together per second Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide 11 The termination phase of transcription When RNA polymerase encounters the polyadenlyation signal ATAAA or transcription stop site it releases the mRNA molecule transcript Some mutations affect gene expression 0 Mutations in the promoter can affect transcription 0 Mutations in the splicing sites can affect splicing o Mutations in the start and stop codons can affect translation Mutations can change the instructions in a gene A change in the nucleotide sequence of an exon of a gene can result in the gene coding for a protein with a different amino acid sequence This can alter the structure of a protein causing o A change in its function 0 The elimination of its function Point mutations Silent Synonymous Point Missense Nonsynonymous Mutations Point Mutations They are changes in one A change in the third A new codon is formed that nucleotide pair nucleotide of the codon does codes for a different amino 0 An addition point not change the amino acid acid mutation inserts one encoded by the codon o Conservativethe altered nucleotide pair 0 The altered codon codes codon codes for a o A deletion point mutation for the same amino acid chemicallysimilar amino removes one nucleotide acid that is less likely to pair change protein function 0 A substitution point 0 Nonconservativethe mutation replaces one altered codon codes for a nucleotide pair with chemicallydissimilar another amino acid that is more likely to change protein function Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide 12 Nonsense Point Mutations Frameshift Point Mutations A codon that codes for an amino acid is The addition or deletion of one nucleotide changed to one of the three stop codons pair alters the quotreading frame of a gene UAA UAG or UGA They usually eliminate protein function 0 Nonsense point mutations that because significantly reduce protein length 0 All codons downstream from the typically eliminate protein function mutation site are changed 0 A premature stop codon frequently is formed Chromosome abnormalities 0 Deletionan entire group of genes is removed from a chromosome 0 Duplicationan entire group of genes is copied duplicated in a chromosome 0 Inversionan entire group of genes is inverted flipped in a chromosome 0 Translocationan entire group of genes is exchanged between chromosomes Nondisjunction during meiotic cell division results in sperm and egg with abnormal chromosome number not 23 o Aneuploidythe nucleus of a cell contains an abnormal number of chromosomes not 46 in human cells 0 Polyploidythe nucleus of a cell contains three or more complete sets of chromosomes Genetic disorders due to chromosome abnormalities 0 Down syndrome trisomyoccurs in X21 o Kinefelter Syndrome XXYXYY Synd romeoccu rs in sex chromosomes normalXY abnormalXXY or XYY o Turner syndrome XOtypically inherited from the mother normalXX abnormalX0 Mutation is the source of new alleles in populations Some mutations increase the ability of an individual to reproduce in its current environment and consequently increase in frequency in future generations The addition of the 5 GC to the 5 end of the mRNA The capping enzyme complex attaches a GTP molecule to the 5 end of the mRNA to form the 5 Gcap o This process occurs during transcription Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide 13 The addition of the 3 PolvA tail to the 3 end of the mRNA Polyadenlyate polymerase is the enzyme that attaches 50250 adenine nucleotides to the 3 end of mRNA to form the 3 poly A tail 0 This process occurs in the nucleus after transcription 0 The polyA tail can be added to different sites in the mRNA molecule to produce more than one type of mRNA from a single gene Proteinpcodliilng segment Pollyadenylation signal f W a AAUAAA u t R J V t V A v J Cap 5 UTR Start codon Stop codon 3quot IUTFI PolyA tail The functions of the 5 GCap and the 3 PolvA tail These molecules 0 Enable the export of mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 0 Enable mRNAs to interact with ribosomes in the cytoplasm so they can be translated o Prevent premature mRNA degradation mRNA molecules are spliced in eukaryotic cells NA M m irl39 lf39e39mml Exo n1 intron Exam 2 mRNA splicing occurs within the nucleus after transcription l 39i39 a I hither 39 pro ems SHENP5 l 7 The spliceosome removes introns from the mRNA and joins f Splleeosome the remaining exons together during splicing o Splicing is a quotcut amp paste job 0 Some introns are ribozymes that can remove it 397 7 7 a V ff quot39 themselves from mRNA Spliceosemse 5 components Dut 0 Any nucleotide sequence removed from mRNA mam intron 5 d u ring splicing is an intron 2 Dominick Ramos BiollZlN Unit 3 Study Guide 14 Alternative splicing Alternative splicing enables mRNA PrilmrrRNfi 39l 2 3 4 5 a 7 8 9 in ii 39 39 39 39 ranscri 1 hr quot 39 39 39 39 39i quot iquot 39 transcripts wnth different nucleotide trawl ng NV 7 ll batons axons in r0115 sequences to be produced from one gene Il ti ti39 lllv39 Processed mRNA transcripts rm m0 o This enables different verSIons of a 39 g 2 I 3 4 5 6 739 8 9 1 Ii Smooth muscle 1 g 23 4 Jr 8 9 n 7 protein to be produced from one gene ii55iii quot f3 d 939 Fibroblast missting uxons f2 339 and it 0 Each version of the protein is messmg specialized for a specific 3 13quot o Cthype 0 Stage of development 0 Environmental condition Skeletal muscllc ZZIi LfTEliiiifiJZZ 1 4 5 En 7 8 9 ll ilili illlm39jijjjf i 4 5 b 3 9 1i Iiiiillj jiIi I 1 m l 4 5 139 S 9 Brain TrisSing exons 2 339 it and 11 39 Flnum BThalassemia Affects quot1 in 100000 Individuals This genetic disorder is caused by the abnormal splicing of Bglobin mRNA 0 Fewer blood cells are produced causing severe anemia 0 Red blood cells have reduced BGlobin levels 0 Blood transfusions are required every 23 weeks Eukarvotic cells benefit from mRNA processing Alternative splicing allows one gene to produce 0 Specialized versions of a protein 0 Proteins that have completely different cellular functions The risk of infection is reduced because unprocessed foreign mRNAs viral mRNAs would 0 Not be exported from the nucleus and therefore could not contact the ribosomes 0 Not be recognized by ribosomes and therefore not be translated to produce viral proteins 0 Be degraded by RNases and eliminated from the cell Alternative splicing Alternative splicing enables one gene to code for two or more proteins that have significantly different cellular functions Eg the genes that code for the aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetases also can code for proteins with significantly different cellular functions Alternative splicing enables our cells to produce hundreds of thousands of different proteins from our 20000 proteincoding genes Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide 15 The medical consequences of abnormal splicing Abnormal splicing of the mRNA transcribed from a protooncogene or a tumor suppressor gene hypothetically could increase the risk of cancer The translation of messenger RNA mRNA if MN quotI a 39 39quotT a nvelope y 0 Mature processed mRNA transcripts are exported y yj x from the nucleus through the nuclear pores to the DNA 39 CYtOSOI PreemHNA FINA PROCESSING o Ribosomes In the cytosol translate the genetic code 1 information in a processed mRNA to make a polypeptide protein with a specific amino acid sequence o The sequence of codons in the mRNA determines the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide produced k during translation by iEwkaryotic cell The ribosome performs translation Ganng DOWY39PBIDIME Exit tuinnel IRMA molecules y BTW Sma 39 39 J subunit huE39Hmu I uuuu mnl mmmmm YVEEEhTsB JMrw litOE Mumw E uuuuu gunmanmm mmmm Fm a Computer model of funcW Each ribosome consists of a large subunit and a small subunit 0 Each subunit consists of ribosomal RNA rRNA and ribosomal proteins The cellular function of transfer RNA tRNA tRNAs deliver amino acids to the ribosome during translation Each of the 20 different amino acids has a specific tRNA molecule that delivers it to the ribosome The aminoacyltRNA synthetases These enzymes link the proper amino acid to the proper tRNA 0 There are 20 versions of this enzyme 0 There is one version for each of the 20 types of amino acids Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide 16 Codons and the genetic code START canon and ARGININE o A triplet is a 3nucleotide sequence or quotgenetic word in the gene 0 A codon is a 3nucleotide sequence or quotgenetic word in the messenger RNA I GF39 ill Cn don 2 TH REONMNE Sudan 3 GLUTAMATIE o The triplet in the gene is called a codon in the cm Lemma COWS ARGIHINE 0 Most codons code for a specific amino acid E mm seam flP39C l ccn hm b c39 comm r One codon codes for the translation start site Three codons code for the translation stop Rm g g m l na e Eda ie Morn NaL rlal Human Gei ai rl R aeaii i aiilull T iklrig Elam1 a 2inch Telmi M39i i i at iwu Elemn 1014 I39H39 THE GENETIC CODE TABLE Second mHNA base C A EACH GODON THAT CODES FOR AN AMINO ACID CODES FOR ONLY ONE AMIHNID ACID SOMlE AWIIINO ACIDS HAVE MORE THAN ONE 8000quot Third mFINA base 339 end of cotton FlrstrnFINA base THE FIiR S T AND SECOND NlUCLEOTWDE lIN A CODDN OFTEN DETlERMlINE THE Al liNO ACilI J iT ENCDDES site The initiation phase of translation La rgie ri bolso mal subunh tRNA lbcso39mal Translation initiation complex n39lFl NlA binding site I subunit l Wl JuxjmJ39rw lwquot n o All parts of the translation initiation complex are assembled correctly aligned and activated 0 GTP is required as an energy source to assemble both ribosomal subunits the mRNA the tRNA that recognizes the start codon and to activate the ribosome o Initiation factors are proteins that o Assemble align and activate the ribosome Dominick Ramos Biol121N Unit 3 Study Guide 17 o Unwind mRNA so it can interact with the ribosome The precise interaction between tRNAs and codons Each tRNA anticodon recognizes the proper codon between the proper tRNA amp the proper codon in the mRNA during translation The elongation cycle of translation The polypeptide protein is synthesized during elongation cycle 0 Amino acids are linked together by an enzyme in the ribosome o GTP is required as an energy source 0 Elongation factors are proteins required for the o Proofreading of the tRNAs before they enter the ribosome o Ribosome to move relative to the mRNA so it can read the next codon Peptidyl transferase is a ribozyme The enzyme peptidyl transferase 0 Links the amino acids together during the elongation cycle o Is the 285 rRNA molecule in the large ribosomal subunit The termination phase of translation The release factor interacts with the stop codon to instruct the ribosome to stop making the polypeptide protein and release the o Polypeptide 0 mRNA so it can be translated by other ribosomes GTP is required as an energy source Some antibiotics inhibit translation 7 Arnino acid 508 subunit centre F e ptidyl I transferase Decoding reion aquot kY Release 1 factor Free I polypeptide Stop oocion UM UAA or lJ GA mm 233 m Em Some antibiotics destroy pathogenic bacteria by preventing their 70 S ribosomes from making proteins Ribosomes are synthesized in the nucleolus in the nucleus Dominick Ramos
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