Popular in People In Places: Understanding and Developing Community
Popular in Sociology
This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Alexandra Lord on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 240 at Illinois State University taught by Michael Dougherty in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see People In Places: Understanding and Developing Community in Sociology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Sociology 240 People in Places Understanding and Developing Community Study Guide Examples cities towns neighborhoods 0 How to know if it is a community of place Ask the question quotAre there people interacting with each other at institutions that can be found on a map 0 No population Requirement Communities of Learners Peers being a support group Example study groups Series of Traps feeling that private lives are trapped no matter how aware one becomes 0 We are nothing without society 0 People are resistant to change gtwhy Solution to the Series of Traps gtCultivate and exercise your sociological imaginations gtUnderstand the connection between personal troubles and public issues Jim Crowe System Separate but equal Caste System founded in India Key questions in sociology related to community 1 How is nature of community changing 9 No socializing 9 Don t know neighbors 9 Have online friends 9 Too much time with internet TV games and not people 2 What are the power dynamics within communities 3 Why are some communities weak and others strong 4 Changing Nature of rural 9 How do we define a rural community 5 Social management of natural resources a Parks b Sprawl c Tourism d Pollution Elements of Community of Place 1 Territory 2 Institutions gt local social organizations institutions 3 Social interaction gt on matters concerning common interest 4 A place where there are opportunities to live work and consume Institution gt broader than concrete things like schools 9 Ex History Memories 9 Ex Jews of the diaspora form communities within societies Community Sociology 9 Wide disagreement over the definition 9 Stuck on placebased value sense of place 9 Tend to imagine communities as homogeneous and problemfree ideal type Gemeinshschaft 9 Families stay local 9 Personableinformal 9 Connections are intimate 9 Common interests 9 Ruralareas Gesellschaft 9 People tend to leave areas 9 Impersonalformal 9 Very vague connections fake 9 Urban areas 9 Work lives Both point to a continuum Community vs Society Tradition vs Change OrganicReal vs MechanicalImaginary Collective vs Rational Will Private vs Public Old vs New Morals vs Laws UnselfishConsiderate vs Selfish Both have Pros and Cons Strong community bonds in small communities 9 Translate into aversion from people from outside Gesellschaft people are essentially separate despite factors which unite them Gemeinschaft any action by one individual manifests the will and spirit of the collective Humans as rural people 9 Human nature to live rurally Cities were unplanned 9 Industrial Revolution Happened overnight Jobs cash Capitalistic economy Pulled rural people into urban 0000 No labor laws I No minimum wage Gemeinschaft Positive associations with farmers market 9 Farmers own goods producer and seller directly 0 Good quality Gesellschaft Negative associations with Walmart 9 Walmart other producers at other places shipped to intermediate company stocked and sits dozen different hands 0 Only for profit All communities are different from one another 9 Why 0 Global economic integration Globalization Commonalities between rural and urban Change is ultimately a bad thing Isolation and mobility are important factors What makes a place rural 9 People who live there culture 9 Jobs offered farming vs office 9 Number of people in the area population density 9 Connectivity of people 9 Isolation and Remoteness Numbers Culture Economy They are the problem definers Labeling obscures issues of power and control Poor people defined as deficient by those whose incomes depend on the deficiency they de ne Why do we have this problem Communitydrawing from de Tocqueville quotSmall groups of common citizens coming together to form associations that solve problems Labeled people Surrounded by services thus isolated from community life 3 Critiques of Global Capitalism 1 Efficiency replacing workers 2 Competition destroys itself 3 Globalization destroys local diversity and independence DinzeyFlores gt What are some differences between gates for rich and gates for poor 0 Power of who enters and who leaves gt Gates signify withdrawal from the city 0 Isolation gt What does it mean to quotpolitically freeze social distinctions of race and class 0 Create inequality and fix inequality 0 Gates are barriers from working up in class gt What is the fundamental destroyer of community discussed here 0 Professional Problem 0 Globalization Homophily People like to be around people that are like themselves Internalized own powerlessness McKibben gt quotMore and Better used to live on the same branch but no longer the case 0 Sometimes Less is More McKibben s Alternatives gt Individualism was good gt What does McKibben propose as an alternative gt Community revitalization 0 Local economics 0 Local food systems 0 Strong local ties V Where does McKibben fall on the community question 0 He believes they are deteriorating V Why is the city ailing 0 Cars infrastructure misfit What does this do to neighborhoods Public places VV Why have cars taken over our cities O gt Why did cities happen 0 Industrialization 0 Population growth 0 Immigration 0 Decline of agriculture Social versus Creative Capital gt Civic involvement is declining 0 Trying to get jobs 0 Community bonding getting involved gt Why does it matter 0 Hypocrisy whining complaining and not making an effort to change things 0 No community if not involved 0 Choose not to be involved I We create a power vacuum 0 Hand power over to wealthy and create new dependencies gt Why does Putnam name his book Bowling Alone 0 No more teams Declining Social Capital gt Number of Americans attending public meetings declined 50 since the 1970 s gt Membership in unions dropped 50 since 1950 s gt Membership in PTA s down from 12 million in 1964 to 7 million in 2000 s Countervailing Trends gt Soccer Leagues gt Social Movements gt Membership in National Advocacy Groups ex AARP gt Nonprofit Organizations gt Support Groups Not challenging Putnam s main argument because these don t tie to local communities they are individualistic gt High bridging Lots outside of community gt High Bonding Strong connections inside the community Ideal gt Low bridging High internal bonds gt High bonding Mistrust of outsiders gt High bridging Tons of Relationships outside rely on change driven externally gt Low bonding No engagement in community gt Low bonding Everyone out for themselves gt Low bridging Poor get left out gt Jobs 0 People we know but not well 0 New Person Potential connection to get ahead in life 0 Get jobs through social capital I Not friends gt Safety Safer Places 0 Better communication with more people with strong ties 0 Community looks out for each other gt Busy urban neighborhoods are safer 0 Tons of people on streets gt Isolated places are more dangerous 0 Not a lot of eyes watching gt Vibrancy 0 Interesting places gt Happiness quality of life emotional health 0 We need people to keep us healthy gt Economic resilience 0 Experience economic shock and bounce back easier I Surprising dramatic change in society 0 People are more interested and active in community I Work together and look out for others gt Connects all gifts and talents of human capital gt We can harness this to get through hard times Democracy and participation 0 Invested in communities 0 One does better lots do better 0 Power and Resource sharing VVVVV Narrowmindedness Exclusion Reinforcing power elite Gangs example of too much bonding with too little bridging NIMBY not in my back yard 0 Communities that would support a thing in theory but would organize against it because it would affect them directly Racism less tolerant of others Generational effects gt VVVVV V gt Welfare State Maybe a little ex Urban renewal policies in 1940 s Dissolution of traditional family Not so much Racism Maybe a little Globalization In theory no in practice yes Work and economic pressures Yes 10 Suburbanization and sprawl Yes 10 o Sprawl When cities expand outward I Ex suburbs TV Oh Yeah 25 Ideological generational change MmHmm 50 0 Not telling us what brought this about 0 3 things that make up the change I Work and economic pressures I Suburbanization and sprawl I TV Screens in general No clear solution to this problem gt gt Urban planning orthodoxy 1940 s1950 s o Orthodoxy dominant way of thinking Freeways and Expressways o Moment when science technology and engineering are coming together and being their own 0 Solutions to our problems I Start applying this in different social realms 0 High modernism 0 Cities are in bad shape I Automobiles no more people interaction I Suburbs taking the life out of the city I Getting poorer violent emptier 0 Science Technology Engineering I Modernize our cities with freeways and expressways o Stadiums ports 0 Large infrastructure projects ports stadiums o Euclidean single use zoning o Demolishing slums and building projects I Slums private housing neighborhoods 0 Occupied mostly by African Americans and immigrants 0 Buildings were falling apart I Huge debts I Never asked what the citizens wanted Scathing critique of urban renewal Argues these citiesneighborhoods that urban renewal was so ready to change were actually very safe gt Critique of high modernist government social engineering of cities 1961 gt Advocates density diversity mixed use 0 Wanted self contained urban environments I Were safer more vibrant o More eyes watching cuts crime 0 Creates community gt Safe vibrant fair gt Creates community Her approach starts to replace urban renewal New urbanism comes into play gt What is Flora s argument 0 People are moving to cities I Why 0 Creative Centers I Who 0 Creative People 0 Entrepreneurs o Entertainers 0 Artists gt What does this mean for cities 0 Population and economic increase I Promote activities the creatives like 0 Politically o Tolerant 0 Recreational activity centers 0 Night clubs 0 Cafes 0 Art galleries gt Economic Development Orthodoxy o Attract People I To jobs 0 Benefits and incentives I Smoke stack chasing DudleyThe Problem of Community gt Community is an enduring pattern of relationships V Community is somehow antimarket or anticapitalist V Farming is a business not a way of life V Individualism social meanings of accountability Laguna Chichoj story Political Capital and the Power Elite gt Protected Lake gt Doesn t change or fix the problem of shrinking lake gt Wanted sewerdrainage systems Political Capital the ability to influence the distribution of resources can be exercised through quotnondiscussion Generally held by the quotpower elite and used to maintain status quo o Conforms to social stratification system 0 Power elite tends to share cultural traits Can discourage groups with different ideas and agendas from coming forward Political capital can have a private face Transformation of Rural Industry 1 The Globalization of production and markets 2 Shifts in competitive strategies production for niche rather than mass markets a Government subsidizes farmers 3 Expansion of services a Ex Walmart 4 Employment decline in traditional rural industries Rural Economic Transformation gt Farm employment dropping yet surface area farmed increasing 0 Technology gt Loss of manufacturing Rural Demographic Transition gt Ageselective patterns for migration into rural areas 0 Retirees Rural Coping Strategies 1 Selfprovisioning a Growing own food etc i Using environment 2 Maintenance quotinsourcing a Do it yourself 3 Informal economy cashing that social capital a No taxes for payment b Doesn t use money i Ex Pie for Babysitting services c No taxes i Off tax roles ii No IRS involvement Black Farmers gt gt gt V Pigford vs gt 1920 0 926000 black farmers 2000 0 18000 black farmers in the US Causes for decline 0 Mechanization and the dismantling of sharecropping in the south Share cropping dismantled o Moved north o Moved into urban areas for work Systematic discrimination against black farmers Mass migration to northern cities Today 0 Still decline in numbers of farmers but increase in the total land owned and operated by black farmers Glickman Well documented systematic discrimination against black farmers by the USDA o Denied loans disaster payments price support and payments etc Suit filed 1997 settled 1999 90000 petitions 13000 members of the class received 1 billion in settlements Black Farmers Discrimination Litigation Settlement gt 2008 Farm bill reopened the opportunity to black farmers to pursue legal redress for discrimination up to 100 million gt 2010 Pigford earmarked another 12 Billion gt Payments disbursed as of 2013 Latinos in Rural America gt Increasingly settling into rural areas 0 Why I Easier to get jobs I Cheap labor undocumented I Work experience in farming gt Population doubled from 19902004 gt Nonmetropolitan population growing faster than metropolitan population 0 Counties with less than 50000 or no urban core gt Role of networks 0 Create streams of migration gt 0 Agriculture 0 Timber 0 Mining 0 Why is this I Uneven development I Unpredictable I Resources can run out I Boom and bust I Prices all over the place Manufacturing V Robust in 1960 s 1970 s Decline in the 1980 s Stabilized in the 1990 s These jobs aren t spread uniformly throughout non metropolitan areas VVVV quotgood jobs although benefits have been eroded 0 Unions raises benefits Service Sector gt Blossomed in the 1990 s 0 Why gt quotBad jobs 0 Why I Fewer benefits gt Little differentiation between urban and renewal gains in service sector across urban city levels gt Maintenance but not sustenance 0 Ex Services follow a kick start they can t kick start an economy themselves McGranahan gt What did he mean by quotthe complexity approach to urbanrural divide 0 Rural economies are less complex organisms 0 Urban economies are much more complex organisms gt What did he mean by quotrecreation is rural America Rural Poverty gt Working poverty Offfarm income female wage labor More social capital less financial capital Lower educational attainment VVVV Rising faster than urban poverty rates since 2000 Sprawl gt Urbanization of the rural suburbs 0 Cities extend outwards gt Unlimited outward real estate development into developed areas gt quotCookie cutter development 0 All houses are alike gt High intensity and low density 0 Few people in the area gt Urban land use not functionally related to adjacent land uses gt The premature or poorly planned conversion of rural land to other uses Types of Sprawl gt Extending the urban boundary 0 Piecemeal extension of infrastructure gt Ribbon Sprawl 0 Based on highways o Generates additional development What s wrong with Sprawl gt Energy efficient no walking all driving less dense o More expensive for cities 0 Have to travel farther to get place to place More costly for city government and tax payers Favors large corps over small stores Consumes fragile land and reduces surface area for farming and wildlife Segregation o Wealthy leave the city VVVV 0 Zoning I Schools produce segregation I Separates residential land use by residential land use 0 Not just retail from school from residents but different types of subdivisions by socioeconomic gt Property taxes fund public schools 0 Effect on social capital Advantages of Sprawl V Inexpensive convenient goods and services to consumers Opportunities for economic development Connect rural areas to urban areas Cheaper housing Safer neighborhoods VVVV 0 Less eyes watching V Easier commutes Historical Origins of Sprawl gt Euclidean zoning 1926 o Euclid Ohio I Sued by real estate Urban renewal Expansion of the automobile market gt gt gt gt Cheap land What does Euclidean zoning control gt Industrial arrangement land users V Frontage requirements 0 How far back from the road you can build Height The amount of space structures may occupy The location of a building on the lot setbacks VVVV The proportions of the types of space on a lot and how much parking must be provided The costs of Sprawl V Larger lots greater water and sewer costs More traffic new roads and more road maintenance Police fire garbage become more expensive Disproportionally small increases in tax revenue Two sets of underused infrastructure Obesity and disease VVVVVV Environmental costs not counted Upski s Five Myths 1 Suburbs are white middle class enclaves 2 Suburbs aren t cool 3 Suburbs are a product of the free market a People take advantage of living cheaper b Suburbs created by private industry 4 Suburbs are politically conservative 5 Suburbanites don t care about the environment gt The process whereby the original residents of the neighborhood get priced out o Rentproperty values etc get more expensive and the original people there are forced to move because they can t afford it gt White middle class moving into an area and try to reconstruct the neighborhood in their image gt Generation of the time o Newermodern values instead of traditional gt Renewal 0 Positive connotation gt Negative connotation Urban Renewal centrally planned gt Upski o Gentrification sanitizes neighborhoods thus diminishing creative opportunities for recreation 0 Ghetto is now outer city inner city is all gentrified I Ferguson 0 Fear is instrumental When work Disappears gt What is Wilson arguing gt What are some of the causes of urban segregation according to Wilson 0 Restrictive covenants 0 Zoning o PanicPeddling The Story gt VV Significance of title 0 Already had jobs but lost them 0 Not the best education not the best jobs etc 0 When the work itself vanishes Disappearance ofjobs 0 Where to I Mexicooverseas Diminishment of real wages 0 Real wage is adjusted for inflation Diminishment of nonwage benefits Leads to Weakening social organization Social Organization social capital as a synonym V VVVV The Culprits gt gt Local friendship ties Social cohesion Participation in voluntary association Density and stability of formal organizations Informal social controls 0 Get weakened Supply side factors 0 Industrial and occupational restructuring Demand side factors 0 Fewer people enrolled in college increased immigration gt Social and demographic changes 0 Segregation and concentrated poverty I Cut migration of nonpoor and in migration of the poor
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