PSYC 203 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
PSYC 203 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE PSYC 203
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Potter on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 203 at Towson University taught by Kim Shifren in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 03/23/16
PSYC 203: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT EXAM 2 REVIEW (CH.710) Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Sleep Patterns and Problems - Most U.S. children average about 11 hours of sleep at night by age 5 and give up daytime naps - Bedtime varies by countries o Zuni: no regular bedtime, sleep when sleepy o Canadian Hare: bed time after dinner but no naps - Sleep disturbances are only occasional and usually are outgrown - Persistent sleep problems may indicate an emotional, physiological, or neurological condition that needs to be examined - Sleep Terrors o Awaken abruptly early in the night from a deep sleep in a state of agitation o Usually occur between ages 313 and affect boys more often than girls - Walking and Talking o Fairly common o Accidental activation of brains motor control - Nightmares o Common o Brought on by staying up too late, eating a heavy meal close to bedtime, or overexcitement - Enuresis (Bed Wetting) o Involuntary bed urination at night by children o About 1015% of 5 year olds, more commonly boys Motor Skills - Preschool children make great advances in gross motor skills, such as running and jumping which involve the large muscles - Physical development flourishes best in active, unstructured free play - Fine motor skills, such as buttoning shirts and drawing pictures, involve eyehand and smallmuscle coordination - Gain in fine motor skills allow young children to take more responsibility for their personal care - System of actions is increasingly complex combinations of skills, which permits a wider or more precise range of movement and more control of the environment Handedness - Handedness is the preference for using one hand over the other - Usually evident by age 3 - Because the left hemisphere of the brain, which controls the right side of the body, is usually dominant most people favor their right side - SingleGene Theory o Dominant allele for right handedness o 82% of population is right handed Health and Immunizations - because of widespread immunizations, many of what once were the major disease of childhood are much less common in Western industrialized countries - In developing countries diseases such as measles, whooping cough and tetanus still take a large toll - Preventing Obesity - Over 10% of 25 year olds are overweight - Lowincome children of all ethnicities are at greater risk - Heredity and learned eating habits also contribute obesity rate increases - Three factors are critical in the prevention of obesity: o Regularly eating an evening meal together as a family o Getting adequate amounts of sleep o Watching less than 2 hours of TV a day - Under nutrition is an underlying cause in more than half of all deaths before age 5 Piagetian Approach: The Preoperational Child - The second major stage of cognitive development, in which symbolic thought expands but children cannot yet use logic - From age 2 – 7 Symbolic Function - The ability to use symbols, or mental representations such as words number or images to which a persona has attached meaning - Preschool children show symbolic function through the growth of deferred imitation, pretend play and language Understanding of Objects in Space - Because children under age 3 need to keep more than one mental representation in the mind at one time it is hard to understand scale models and maps Understand of Causality - Preoperational children cannot yet reason logically about cause and effect - They reason by transduction, mentally linking two events, especially events lose in time, whether or not there is logically a causal relationship - Familiar settings help advance causality o Ex. I am quiet so I wont wake the baby Understanding of Identities and Categorization - Preschool children develop a better understanding of identities: the concept that people and many things are basically the same even if they change in form, size, or appearance - By age 4 many children can classify by two criteria, such as color and shape - The tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive is called animism o Familiarity increase accuracy Understanding of Number - Infants as young as 4 ½ months have a rudimentary concept of number - Ordinality, the concept of comparing quantities (more or less, bigger or smaller) seems to begin at around 12 to 18 months - By age 4 children have words for comparing quantities, bigger, smaller Immature Aspects of Preoperational Thought - One of the main characteristics of preoperational thought is centration, the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others - Preschoolers come to illogical conclusions because they cannot decenter, think about several aspects of a situation at one time Egocentrism - Egocentrism is a form of centration - Young children center so much on their own point of view that they cannot take in another’s - Ex. Luis believes that his bad thoughts have made his sister sick or that he cause his parents marital troubles - Three mountain task - A child sits facing a table that holds three large mounds. A doll is placed on a chair at the opposite side of the table. The investigator asks the child how the mountains would look to the doll. They described the mountains from their own perspective, therefore preoperational children cannot imagine a different point of view which indicates egocentrism Conservation - Failure to understand Conservation is an example of centration - Failure to understand the fact that two things that are equal remain so if their appearance is altered, as long as nothing is added or taken away - Examples: Number, length, liquid, matter/mass, weight, area, volume - The ability to conserve is also limited by irreversibility, failure to understand that an operation or action can go in two or more directions Language Development - By age 3 the average child knows and can use 900 to 1,000 words - By age 6 a child typically has an expressive vocabulary of 2,600 words and understand more than 20,000 - This rapid expansion of vocabulary may occur through fast mapping Grammar and Syntax - At age 3, children typically begin to use plurals, possessives, and past tense and know the difference between I, you, and we - Sentences are short, simple and declarative (ex. Kitty wants milk) Pragmatics and Social Speech - Pragmatics, how we use language to communicate o Knowing how to ask for something - Social Speech, speech intended to be understood by a listener o Trying to explain something clearly Private Speech - Talking aloud with no intended listener - Normal and common in childhood - Piaget says it’s a sign of cognitive immaturity because young children are egocentric - Vygotsky says it is a special type of communication: conversation with the self Delayed Language Development - About 3% of preschoolage children - May be problems in fast mapping - Many children catch up especially if comprehension is normal Key Terms Deferred Imitation: becomes more robust after 18 months is based on having kept a mental representation of a previously observed event Pretend Play: children may make an object, such as a doll, represent or symbolize something else such as a person Transductive Reasoning: mentally link particular phenomena, whether or not there is logically a causal relationship Animism: tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive Centration: the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others Recognition: ability to identify a previously encountered stimulus Recall: ability to reproduce material from memory Scaffolding: Temporary support to help a child master a task Fast mapping: process by which a child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it once or twice in conversation Chapter 8: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood SelfImage Representation - At age 4 the first step is single representation o Statements are onedimensional o Thinking jumps from particular to particular without logical connections o Cannot imagine having to emotions at once (you can’t be happy and scared) o Cannot acknowledge that his real self, person he actually is, is not the same as his ideal self, the person he would like to be - At age 5 second step, representational mapping o Logical connections between one aspect of himself and another o Expressed in completely positive, all or nothing terms, cannot see how he might be good at some things and not at others o Ex. I can run fast and climb high SelfEsteem - The selfevaluative part of the selfconcept, the judgment children make about their overall worth. - Based on children’s growing cognitive ability to describe and define themselves o Ex. I or good or I am bad - The Helpless Pattern o When selfesteem is contingent on success o Children may view failure or criticism as an indictment of their worth and ma feel helpless to do better o Improved selfesteem depends on whether children believe their traits are fixed or changeable SelfEvaluative Emotions - Ability to recognize guilt, shame, pride - Develops around age 3 - Becomes more complex with age Understand Conflicting Emotions - Young children have difficulty in recognizing that they can experience more than one emotion at the same time - Most children acquire a more sophisticated understand of conflicting emotions during middle childhood Erikson: Initiative VS Guilt - Erikson’s third stage in psychosocial development in which children balance the urge to pursue goals with reservations about doing so - Conflict arises from the growing sense of purpose and the desire to plan activities - Children reconcile the desire to “do” with their desire for approval - Virtue of “purpose”, the courage to envision and pursue goals without fear of punishment Gender - Gender Identity is the awareness of one’s femaleness or maleness and all it implies in one’s society of origin - Gender differences are psychological or behavioral differences between males and females o Measurable differences are few o 78% of gender differences are small to negligible, and some differences such as in self esteem change with age o Boys superior motor performance and more active physical activity o Girls better attention and inhibition of inappropriate behavior o Cognitive difference are few Perspectives on Gender Development - Gender roles are the behaviors, interest, attitudes, skills, and personality traits that a culture considers appropriate for males or females - Gender typing, the acquisition of a gender roles, takes place early in childhood, but children vary greatly in the degree to which they become gendertyped - Gender stereotypes are preconceived generalizations about male or female behaviors o Ex. All females are passive and dependent - Biological Approach o Many or most behavioral differences between the sexes can be traced to biological differences o Genetic, hormonal, and neurological activity - Evolutionary Approach o Child develops gender roles in preparation for adult mating and reproductive behavior o Theory of sexual selection, gender roles are universal and resistant to change - Psychoanalytic Approach o Freud suggested a process of identification o Gender identity occurs when the child identifies with the same sex parent o Occurs when a boy gives up desire to possess his mother; a girl her father - Cognitive Approach o Once a child learn she is a girl or he is a boy, the child sorts information about behavior by gender and acts accordingly o Classify themselves as male or female - Social Learning Approach o Child mentally combines observations of gendered behavior and creates own behavioral variations o Observation enables children to learn about gendertyped behaviors o Children select or create their own environments thought choice of playmates and activities Cognitive Levels of Play - Functional Play o insists of repeated practice in large muscular movements such as rolling a ball - Constructive Play o The use of objects or materials to make something, such as a house of blocks or a crayon drawing - Dramatic Play o Involves imaginary objects, actions, or roles: it rests on the symbolic function which emerges during the last part of the second years o Involves a combination of cognition, emotion, language and sensorimotor behavior Parten’s Social Dimensions of Play - Unoccupied behavior o The child does not seem to be playing but watches anything of momentary interest - Onlooker Play o The child spends most of the time watching other children play, talks to them asking questions or making suggestions but does not enter into the play - Solitary Play o The child plays alone with toys that are different from those used by nearby children and makes no effort to get close to them - Parallel Play o The child plays independently but among the other children, playing with toys like those used by the other children but not necessarily playing with them in the same way - Associative Play o The child plays with other children. They talk about their play, borrow and lend toys, follow one another and try to control who may play in the group - Cooperative Play o The child plays in a group organized for some goal to make something, play a formal game, or dramatize a situation Influences on Play - Gender Segregation, tendency to select playmates of one’s own gender o Boys lean toward active play o Girls choose more structured activities - Culture Baumrind’s Parenting Styles - Authoritarian o Control and unquestioning obedience - Permissive o Parents value selfexpression and selfregulation - Authoritative o Value child’s individuality, as well as restraint - Neglectful or Uninvolved o Parental needs are most important - Inductive Techniques for Parenting - Designed to encourage desirable behavior or discourage undesirable behavior by reasoning with a child - Ex. Setting limits, demonstrating logical consequences of an action Key Terms Gender Identity: awareness of one’s own gender and that of other occurs between ages 2 and 3 Gender constancy: awareness that one will always be male or female; also called sex category constancy Power Assertion: Disciplinary strategy designed to discourage undesirable behavior through physical or verbal enforcement Chapter 9: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Brain Development - Loss in the density of gray matter in certain regions of the cerebral cortex. This process reflects pruning of unused dendrites - The loss in density in gray matter is balanced by a steady increase in white matter, axons or nerve fibers that transmit information between neurons to distant regions of the brain - Another way to measure brain development is by changes in the thickness of the cortex. - Patterns of development in prefrontal cortex Nutrition in Middle Childhood - Children need about 2400 calories per day - Less than 10npercent of calories should come from saturated fat Overweight Children - Fall behind peers in physical and social functioning - May have lower health related quality of life - Tend to suffer emotionally and compensate by indulging themselves with food and treats - Tend to become overweight adults at risk for hypertension heart disease, orthopedic problems, diabetes and other medical issues Prevention and Treatment of Overweight Children - Less time in front of TV and computers - Healthier school meals - Education to help children make better food choices - Regular physical activity - Parents should address eating patterns before the child becomes overweight Piagetian Approach: The Concrete Operational Child - At about age 7 children enter the stage of concrete operations when they can use mental operations, such as reasoning to solve concrete problems - Cognitive Advances - Special relationships and Causality o Concrete operational children have a clearer idea of distance from place to place o Better use of maps and models - Categorization o The ability to categorize helps children think logically o Seriation: arranging objects in a series based on dimension Ex. Lightest to darkest o Transitive inference: Knowing the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object o Class inclusion: Ability to see relationship between a whole and its parts Ex. Flowers and specific types like daisies, 7 daisies but 12 flowers, are there more flowers or daisies - Inductive and Deductive Reasoning o Children in concrete operation use on inductive reasoning, starting with specific observations about particular members of a class of people, animals, objects and drawing conclusions about the class as a whole Ex. My dog barks, so does terrys dog so all dogs bark o Deductive reasoning doesn’t develop until adolescents, starts with a general statement about a class and applies it to particular members of the class Ex. All dogs bark. Spot is a dog. So spot barks - Conservation o Concreteoperational children can answer conservation problems in their heads o Children understand identify, reversibility and decentering o Horizontal décalage, the inability to transfer knowledge of conservation (liquids vs solids) - Numbers and Mathematics o Learn to “count on “ o More adept at solving simple story problems o Some intuitively understand fractions o Able to estimate how much time do I need to walk to school Strategies for Remembering - External memory aids: using something outside the person o Ex. A note pad, making a list, setting a timer - Rehearsal: strategy to keep an item in working memory thought conscious repetition o Repeating a phone number in your head - Organization: categorizing material to be remembered o Placing information into categories ex. Animals, clothing - Elaboration: making mental associations involving items to be remembered o Imagining items associated with something else Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences - Linguistic: ability to use and understand words an nuances of meaning - Logical/math: ability to manipulate numbers and solve logical problems - Spatial: ability to find ones way around and judge relationships between objects - Musical: Ability to perceive and create patterns of pitch and rhythm - Bodily: ability to move with precision - Interpersonal: Ability to understand and communicate with others - Intrapersonal: ability to understand the self - Naturalist: Ability to distinguish species and their characteristics Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence - Three elements or aspects of intelligence o Componential (analytic) determines how efficiently people process information o Experiential (insightful or creative) determines how people approach novel or familiar tasks o Contextual (practical) determines how people deal with their environment Intelligence Tests - Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children o Individual intelligence test for school age children which yields verbal and performance scores as well as combined scores o Ages 616 - OtisLennon School Ability Tests o Group intelligence test for kindergarten to 12 grade o Children are asked to classify items, show an understand of verbal and numerical concepts, follow directions The IQ Controversy - In favor of using IQ tests - Extensive information about validity and reliability - Scores form middle childhood are fairly food predictors of school achievement - Criticisms of IQ tests - The tests can underestimate children who do not test well - The tests do not directly measure native ability, only test current knowledge Influence of Culture on IQ Cultural Bias: Tendency of intelligence tests to include items calling for knowledge or skills more familiar or meaningful to some cultural groups than others CultureFree Tests: intelligence tests that if they were possible to design would have no culturally linked content CultureFair test: intelligence tests that deal with experiences common to various culture, in an attempt to avoid cultural bias Key Terms - Transitive inference: Knowing the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship of each to a third object - Seriation: arranging objects in a series based on dimension - Metamemory: Knowledge about the process of memory Chapter 10: Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood SelfConcept Development: Representational Systems - The third stage in development of self definition characterized by breadth, balance, and the integration and assessment of various aspects of the self - Broad, inclusive selfconcepts that integrate different aspects of the self - Around age 7 or 8 - “I am really smart in math, but I am having troubles in English - Global Self Worth Erikson’s Industry vs Inferiority - Fourth stage of psychosocial development - Children must learn the productive skills their culture requires or else face feelings of inferiority - Virtue that follows successful resolution of this stage is competence, a view of the self as able to master kills and complete tasks - Includes social support from family and friends Family Atmosphere - Children exposed to parental discord had high levels of o Internalizing behaviors: anxiety, fearfulness, and depression o Externalizing behaviors: aggressiveness, fighting, disobedience and hostility Parenting Issues in Middle Childhood - Coregulation o Parent and child share power o Parent: general supervision o Child: self regulation - Discipline o Inductive techniques – point out actions to child o Ex. Hitting Jermaine hurts him and makes him feel bad Adjusting to Divorce - Divorce causes stress for all family members - Adjustment of children depends upon: - Childs age or maturity - The level of parental conflict before the divorce - Gender and temperament - Psychosocial development before divorce Custody and Visitation - In most cases, mothers get custody - Joint custody o Custody shared by both parents o Beneficial if parent can cooperate - Joint legal custody o Parents share the right to make decisions about the child’s welfare - Joint physical custody o Child lives part time with each parent Long Term Effects of Divorce - Most children adjust reasonably well - However, divorce increases risk of: - Antisocial behavior - Difficulties with authority figures - Dropping out of school - Emotional or psychological problems (anxiety) Cohabiting Families - Similar to two parent families but tend to be more disadvantaged - Less income, education - More mental health problems - More likely to break up than married families Stepfamilies - Adjustment may be stressful - May include relatives up to 4 adults - Child’s loyalty to an absent or dead parent may interfere with bonding to stepparent - Findings on the impact of remarriage on children are mixed Gay or Lesbian Families - An estimated 9 million children have at least one homosexual parent - Research shows no special concerns in terms of children’s physical, cognitive, or emotional development - Children of homosexuals are no more likely to be homosexual than children of heterosexuals Adoptive families - Adoption is found in all cultures throughout history - 60% of adoptions are by stepparents or relatives, usually grandparents - increase in open adoptions o parties share information or have direct contact - US adoptions of foreign born children quadrupled from 1978 to 2001 Special Challenges of Adoptive Families - Integrating child into the family - Explaining the adoption to the child - Helping the child develop a healthy sense of self - Decisions about contacting biological parents - Foreign adoptions do not appear to entail any more problems than domestic adoptions Types of Aggression - Instrumental or Proactive Aggression o View coercion as an effective means to get their way (preschool) - Hostile Aggression o Aim is to hurt the victim - Often takes relational (social), rather than overt (physical) form - Aggressors may have hostile attribution bias o See others as trying to hurt them Media and Aggression - 6 out of 10 TV shows portray violence - usually glamorized, trivialized or glorified - most studies support a casual relationship between media violence and aggressive behavior - virtual violence (video games) may have a stronger impact than passive media (TV) Bullies and Victims - Bullying: aggression deliberately directed against a particular target - Victims are usually weak, vulnerable, defenseless Patterns of Bullying - Become established as early as kindergarten - Bullying increases during middle school then declines - Temporary rise as social networks form o Especially with middle school boys - Boys tend to use overt aggression - Girls tend to use relational aggression Disruptive Conduct Disorder - Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) o Pattern of behavior persisting into middle childhood marked by negativity, hostility, and defiance - Conduct Disorder o Repetitive, persistent pattern of aggressive, antisocial behavior violating societal norms or the rights of others - Generalized Anxiety Disorder - Not focused on any specific part of their lives - Worry about everything: school grades, storms, earthquakes, hurting themselves on the playground - Tend to be self conscious, self doubting, and excessively concerned with meeting the expectations of others - Seek approve and need constant reassurance Key Terms: Hostile Attribution Bias: tendency to perceive others as trying to hurt one and to strike out in retaliation or selfdefense Instrumental Aggression: aggression aimed at achieving an objective the hallmark of preschool period Rough and Tumble Play:
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