Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide PSYCH 150A
Popular in Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior
Popular in Psychlogy
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PSY3H 10A1 Structure of Mind amp Behavior Study Guide for Final Exam Study Guide for Chapter 10 Personality Groups of personality theories different approaches try to do different things A Psychoanalytic perspective originated with Freud 1 Key assumptions a The most important causes of behavior are motives especially unconscious motives b Personality is determined by the interplay of inner conflicts amp their resolution c Personality is set by adolescence 2 Three systems of personality a Id i Pleasure principle b Ego i Reality principle c Superego i Conscience ii Ideal 3 Psychosexual development a Fixation b Oral stage birth to 18 months i part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations Mouth ii major conflict at this stage weaning c Anal stage 18 months to 36 months i part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations Anus ii major conflict at this stage toilet training d Phallic stage 3 to 6 yrs i part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations Genitals ii major conflict at this stage Oedipus complex amp castration anxiety for boys Electra complex amp penis envy for girls e Latency stage 5 or 6 to puberty i part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations dormant sexual feelings ii conflictsexperiences Period of sexual calm Interest in school hobbies samesex friends f Genital stage from puberty on i part of the body that provides pleasurable sensations Genitals ii conflictsexperiences Revival of sexual interests Establishment of mature sexual relationships B The NeoFreudians 1 Carl Jung amp Analytical psychology a Components of personality i Ego ii Personal unconscious iii Collective unconscious b Archetypes i Anima female component of the male psyche ii Animus male component of the female psyche iii The Shadow iv The Persona v The Self 2 Alfred Adler amp Individual psychology a Main contributions i inferiority complex iii sibling rivalry iv birth order b Real or perceived inferiority leads to compensatory process 3 Karen Horney a Argued that little girls do not feel inferior to boys because they have a penis D Social relationship more important than unconscious sexualaggressive impulses 4 Erik Erikson a Theory of psychosocial development 8 psychosocial stages of growth b Ego identity C Learning theories 1 Behavior theory AKA behaviorism situational or environmental influences shape personality NOT internal individual variables 2 Social cognitive theory Albert Bandura a person variables Within the person such as knowledge skills emotions plans vs situation variables rewards vs punishments b selfefficacy expectations D Humanistic personality theories Carl Rogers amp Personcentered theory a Unconditional positive regard A b Conditional positive regard amp Conditions of worth c Two types of personalities i Fully functioning person selfactualizing with a positive selfconcept ii Maladjusted person not selfactualizing with a negative selfconcept d lncongruence vs congruence e Goal is to move toward congruence between real self ideal self amp self concept 2 Abraham Maslow a Selfactualization primary motivation for healthy individual b Maslow s hierarchy of needs i bottom of triangle basic needs physiological or survival needs ii safety needs iii love affection and belongingness needs iv esteem needs v top of triangle need for selfactualization c An individual cannot satisfy any level unless the needs below are satisfied d Need for selfactualization is a healthy individual s prime motivation E Trait theories Traits 2 Two key themes a people display consistency in their actions thoughts amp feelings b people differ from each other in many ways 3 How many traits are there a Allport 1930s infinite b Cattell 1960s 16 factors c Costa amp McCrae 1990s 5 factors Five factor theory or Big Five OCEAN i Extraversion E degree of interpersonal interactionactivity level ii Neuroticism N degree of emotional stability iii Agreeableness A quality of interpersonal orientation iv Conscientiousness C degree of organization goalorientation v Openness to experience 0 Preference for exploration tolerance of the unfamiliar d Hans Eysenck s Trait theory i Focused on two personality traitsdimensions lntroversion vs extraversion Emotional stabilityinstability Study Guide for Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders Categories of mental disorders A Anxiety disorders more common in women 1 Phobias a social phobia A wwewsn A A 0N3 b specific phobia i claustrophobia ii acrophobia c agoraphobia Generalized anxiety disorder GAD Panic disorder a panic attack Obsessivecompulsive disorder OCD a obsessions b compulsions Posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD Mood disorders Major depressive disorder more common in women Seasonal affective disorder Bipolar disorder equally common in men and women a extreme highs of mania amp extreme lows of major depression b manic episode mania i rapid flight of ideas ii pressured speech Dissociative disorders Dissociative fugue Dissociative amnesia 3 Dissociative identity disorder DID previously known as multiple personality disorder Schizophrenia Positive symptoms of schizophrenia a hallucinations delusions speech disturbances disorganized behavior inappropriate affect Negative symptoms of schizophrenia a social withdrawal b limited speech mutism c stupor d e f 60206 poor hygiene apathy flat affect no emotional response at all Gender Identity disorder Somatoform disorders Conversion disorder Hypochondriasis Personality disorders 1 What is a personality disorder 2 Three clusters of personality disorders a Cluster A odd eccentric i paranoid personality disorder ii schizoid personality disorder iii schizotypal personality disorder b Cluster B dramatic erratic i histrionic personality disorder ii narcissistic personality disorder iii antisocial personality disorder ASPD iv borderline personality disorder BPD c Cluster C fearful anxious i avoidant personality disorder ii dependent personality disorder iii obsessivecompulsive personality disorder Study Guide for Chapter 13 Methods of Therapy Therapy types A Psychodynamic therapies began with Freud s psychoanalysis 1 Exposing the unconscious a Catharsis b Free association c Resistance d Dream analysis i Manifest content all the parts of the dream we remember what we would describe to someone else when recalling our dream ii Latent content hidden content of dream such as forbidden thoughts and unconscious desires that is represented only symbolically iii Symbolization unacceptable latent content expressed in manifest content symbolically eg children are symbolized as small animals iv Wish fulfillment in dreams the acting out of ideas and impulses that are repressed When one is conscious e Freudian slips f Transference g Interpretation B Humanistic therapies 1 Clientcentered therapy Carl Rogers a Nondirective therapy b How to lead someone back to themselves Give them something they are lacking an atmosphere in which they have the freedom to be who they are c 3 key ingredients to this atmosphere Genuineness congruence Acceptance unconditional positive regard Empathy d Therapeutic relationship is most potent force we have for healing e Goal grow toward selfactualization realization of inner potential 2 Gestalt therapy founded by Fritz Perls a Directive therapy b Therapist directs clients to get in touch with feelings amp resolve unfinished business i Empty chair technique c Goal is to create conditions so that client can become more selfaware amp selfaccepting focus is on the here and now C Behavior therapies 1 Classical conditioning techniques a exposure amp response prevention used to treat OCD b systematic desensitization wrelaxation exercises used primarily to treat specific phobias i desensitization hierarchy ii exposure iii virtual therapy c flooding d aversive conditioning associates an unpleasant state such as nausea with an unwanted behavior such as drinking alcohol i used to break bad habits eg alcoholism and smoking 2 Operant conditioning techniques a stimulus satiation b token economies c time outs d contingency management I increase reinforcement after desired alternative behavior ii decrease reinforcement of undesired behavior e successive approximations f social skills training self monitoring behavior rehearsal feedback g biofeedback training D Cognitive therapies 1 Rational emotive behavior therapy REBT Albert Ellis a attempts to modify irrational beliefs that cause distress b confrontational amp directive c ABC theory i Activating event leads to irrational Belief about event which leads to emotional Consequence ii Common irrational beliefs 2 Cognitivebehavior therapy CBT Aaron Beck a Automatic thoughts thoughts people have about life amp self that may be unreasonable but are accepted as accurate i cognitive distortions b Automatic thoughts can create depression amp anxiety c Goal teach patients to stopchallenge the automatic thoughts d Highly effective treatment for depression amp anxiety E Group therapies F Biological therapies Study Guide for Chapter 1 Psychological Science Steps in the scientific method The research process A Begin with Theory An explanation that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events B Hypothesis a specific statement about behavior or mental processes that is tested through research C Evidence researchoberservations D Drawing Conclusions E Theory construction OR modification F New research questions OR hypotheses ll Goals of the scientific method Description Prediction Explanation A Description 1 Methods of observation a Naturalistic observation b Laboratory observation c Participant observation d Case study e Survey research i Population the entire group of people of interest to the researcher vs sample a smaller group selected from the population for study ii Representativeness 0 Representative sample reflects the true characteristics of the population vs biased sample does not reflect the true characteristics of the population B Prediction 1 Correlation a Correlation coefficient i Direction 0 Positive correlation o Negative correlation o No correlation ii Strength iii Advantages b Cannot imply causation due to i Directionality problems ii Third variables C Explanation causal understanding 1 Experimental research a Characteristics of experiments i Independent variable IV variable that experimenter manipulates ii Dependent variable DV variable that experimenter measures iii Experimental Control 0 Avoid confounding variables variables other than the N that are not equivalent across groups iv Experimental group vs control group b Sources of bias in experimental research amp ways of reducingeliminating bias i Selection bias or Selection Factor any process that may create groups not equivalent at the beginning of the study eg when participants are allowed to choose for themselves a certain treatment in a scientific study 0 How to avoid 0 Random assignment ii Placebo effect a physiological or psychological change that occurs as a result of the mere suggestion that the change will occur 0 How to avoid o Placebo iii Demand characteristics aspect of the research that suggests to the participant what behavior is expected 0 How to avoid 0 Cover stories deception iv Experimenter bias any effect the expectation of the researcher might have on the measurement of the dependent variable 0 How to avoid o Na39I39ve experimenters don t know hypothesis 0 Blind experimenters research assistants are unaware of whether or not one has received a treatment 0 Doubleblind study neither the participants nor the research assistants collecting the data will know which group is receiving the treatment Study Guide for Chapter 2 The Biology of Mind Cells of the nervous system The neuron A Parts of a neuron 1 Cell body also called Soma contains the nucleus Dendrites branch out from cell body amp receive signals from other neurons 3 Axon slender taillike extension of the neuron that transmits signals to other neurons Types of neurons Sensory afferent neuron transmits messages from the senses to the CNS Motor efferent neuron transmits messages from the CNS to the muscles lnterneuron transmits information between neurons in the CNS Other cells in nervous system 1 Glial cells specialized cells in the brain and spinal cord that hold the neurons together and remove waste products such as dead neurons 2 Myelin sheath fatty substance that encases and insulates axons speeds up transmission of neural impulses Communication between neurons Neural firing A Resting neuron 1 Resting potential 70 mV B If a portion is stimulated beyond its threshold it briefly reverses polarity 1 Action potential rapid depolarization to approximately 35 mV electrical impulse that provides the basis for the conduction of a neural impulse along the axon of a neuron 2 Permeability changes ion channels openclose 3 Allor none law 4 Refractory period 45 ms a phase following firing during which a neuron is less sensitive to messages from other neurons and will not fire 5 Resting potential is restored Communication between neurons occurs at the synapse A Synapse communication between two neurons 1 Presynaptic vs postsynaptic neuron B Firing neurons release neurotransmitters chemical messengers that cross the synapse 1 Neural impulse the electrochemical discharge of a neuron C Synaptic vesicles sacs in the axon terminals that store the neurotransmitter 1 Neural firing drives them to the synapse where they release their neurotransmitters D The neurotransmitter binds to the receptor site on the target postsynaptic ce E Ion channels open causes change in electrical potential of postsynaptic neuron IV The central nervous system CNS A Spinal cord connects brain to PNS simple reflexes B Brain 1 Hindbrain a Brainstem handles functions critical to physical survival i pons relay station for motor messages bt cerebellum amp motor cortex ii reticular formation arousal system involved in alertness amp attention N 09 wa iii medulla heartbeat breathing blood pressure swallowing coughing b Cerebellum smooth and skilled movement muscle tone amp posture 2 Midbrain a Substantia nigra unconscious motor actions 3 Forebrain a Thalamus relay station bt cerebral cortex and sensory information for all senses except smell b Hypothalamus hunger thirst body temperature physiological aspects of emotion c Limbic system i amygdala emotion esp response to unpleasant or punishing stimuli ii hippocampus memory navigational ability d Cerebrum largest structure in human brain i Cerebral cortex 0 Cerebral hemispheres lateralization of brain function 0 Left hemisphere controls right side of body Language for 95 of righthanders and 62 of lefthanders Broca s area damage results in Broca s aphasia difficulty producing speech understanding fine Wernicke s area damage results in Wernicke s aphasia difficulty understanding speech production fine but doesn t make sense Math amp logic Details 0 Right hemisphere controls left side of body Visualspatial relations Music Metaphors Emotional qualities of speech Overall patterns 0 Lobes of the brain 0 Temporal lobes auditory hearing cortex amp Wernicke s area 0 Occipital lobes visual seeing cortex 0 Parietal lobes somatosensory sensing cortex spatial orientation 0 Frontal lobes Broca s area thinking planning reasoning impulse control motivation motor moving cortex ii Corpus callosum thick band of nerve fibers connecting right and left hemispheres V The peripheral nervous system PNS A Somatic voluntary muscle activation carries information from the senses to the CNS for processing and sends movement instructions back to the muscles B Autonomic transmits messages between the CNS and the body s organs and glands 1 Sympathetic prepares body for stress or action fight or flight reactions 2 Parasympathetic returns body systems to normal rest and digest Study Guide for Chapter 3 Sensation amp Perception Sensation process through which the senses pick up visual auditory and other sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain vs Perception process by which sensory info is actively organized amp interpreted by the brain II The perceptual process applies to all senses A Environmental stimulus 1 The stimulus for vision a Electromagnetic spectrum b Visible light waves visible spectrum humans can perceive wavelengths between 400700nm B Attended stimulus C Stimulus on the receptors 1 Cornea tough transparent protective layer covering the front of the eye and performs the first step in vision by bending light rays inward 2 Lens composed of many thin layers amp looks like a transparent disc and performs the task of focusing on viewed objects 3 Iris a muscular membrane Whose dilation regulates the amount of light that enters the eye 4 Pupil the blacklooking opening in the center of the iris thorough which light enters the eye 5 Fovea an area near the center of the retina that is dense with cones and where vision is consequently most acute 6 Retina a layer of tissue located at the back of the eye that contains the sensory neurons for vision D Transduction converts sensory stimulation eg light waves sounds waves into neural impulses 1 Sensory neuronsreceptors aka photoreceptors for vision a Rods allow us to see in dark or dimly lit conditions b Cones allow us to see color and detail visual acuity 2 Blind spot no rods or cones at this point in the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye a Optic nerve carries visual info from each retina to both sides of the brain 3 Bipolar cells neurons in the eye that conduct neural impulses from rods and cones to ganglion cells P Ganglion cells neurons in the eye Whose axons form the optic nerve E Processing Primary visual cortex occipital lobe 2 Feature detectors neurons in the sensory cortex that re in response to specific features of sensory information such as lines or edges of objects 3 Topdown processing use of contextual information or knowledge of a pattern in order to organize parts of the pattern vs Bottomup processing organization of the parts of a pattern to recognize or form an image of the pattern they compose F Knowledge see Topdown processing G Perception Color vision A What physical attributes produce color 1 Wavelengths of light that reflect off of an objectsurface 2 Visible spectrum has wavelengths associated with different colors a short blue b medium green c long red 3 Every surface has a reflectance curve a Flat reflectance curve associated wachromatic colors i Achromatic colors White Black Gray b Selective reflection associated wchromatic colors i Chromatic colors Blue Green Yellow Red Orange Magenta etc c Colors are created by our perceptual system B Trichromatic theory of color vision explains the first phase of color processing the way the cones perform color processing 1 Discovery of three types of cones shortblue mediumgreen longred 2 Does not explain color in negative afterimages C Opponent process theory of color vision explains the second phase of color processing the way the information about wavelength from the cones is passed on to other neurons A Three pairs of opponent processes blueyellow redgreen blackwhite 2 Explains color in negative afterimages Color deficiency occurs in 7 of males less than 1 of females A Ishihara plates used to test for color deficiency B Trichromat a person with normal color vision C Receptorbased cone deficiencies 1 Monochromat color blind no functioning cones rod vision only low acuity 90 9 VI 2 Dichromat inability to distinguish certain colors from one another only 2 types of cones a redgreen color deficiency b blueyellow color deficiency D Cortical brainbased deficiency 1 Cerebral achromatopsia Heanng A Sound 1 Physical definition a Sound stimulus sound wave b Properties of the sound wave i frequency hertzHz number of sound wave cycles per second ii amplitude decibels overall size of pressure change from the top of the sound wave to bottom 2 Perceptual definition a Range of hearing 2020000 Hz for humans b Loudness corresponds to amplitude of the sound wave higher amplitude waves are louder c Pitch corresponds to frequency of the sound wave higher frequency sounds have a higher pitch eg a 10000 Hz tone is much higher in pitch than a 1000 Hz tone B The ear 1 Outer ear a Pinnae b Auditory ear canal c Ear drum tympanic membrane border between outer amp middle ear 2 Middle ear a Ossicles amplifies sound waves i hammer malleus closest to tympanic membrane ii anvil incus iii stirrups stapes closest to oval window amp cochlea b Oval window border between middle amp inner ear 3 Inner ear a Cochlea i basilar membrane base responds best to high frequencies and apex responds best to low frequencies ii hair cells sensory neurons for hearing b Auditory nerve transmits electrical impulses from hair cells to brain Perceptual organization A Wilhelm Wundt s structuralism B Gestalt psychology Wertheimer Koffka Kohler 1 Principles of perceptual organization a Similarity similar things appear to be grouped together b Continuity lines tend to be seen as continuous even if they are interrupted c Proximity things that are near to each other appear to be grouped together d Closure missing parts of an object are filled in to complete it so that it appears as a whole e Common fate things that are moving in the same direction appear to be grouped together f Familiarity things are more likely to form groups if they appear familiar or meaningful g Figureground as we view the world some objects the figure often seem to stand out from the background the ground Study Guide for Chapter 14 Social Psychology Social Thinking Social Perception strategies used to assessjudge others A Explaining behavior Attributions 1 Attributions help us to understand someone s behavior predict someone s future behavior control the situation if it should occur again Types of attributions a Situational attributions attribute a person s behavior to some external cause or factor such as the social pressure found in a situation b Dispositional attributions attribute the behavior to some internal cause such as a personal trait motive or attitude 3 Attributional biases a Fundamental attribution bias assumption that others act predominantly on the basis of their dispositions even when there is evidence suggesting the importance of their situations b Selfserving bias tendency to attribute our successes to dispositional internal causes and blame our failures on situational external causes c Actorobserver effect tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational factors but to attribute the behavior of others to dispositional factors Attitudes A Forming attitudes 1 learning principles 2 mere exposure effect tendency to feel more positively toward a stimulus as a result of repeated exposure to it B Changing attitudes N9 1 Elaboration likelihood model a Two routes to attitude change i central route high elaboration careful processing of info attitude change depends on quality of arguments ii peripheral route low elaboration careful processing of info does not occur attitude change depends on presence of persuasion cues eg attractiveness of person delivering message expert source 2 Cognitive Dissonance Theory a Festinger and Carlsmith study 1959 b Cognitive dissonance is the discomfort andor distress that result when an individual s attitudes do not match up with hisher behaviors lll Interpersonal Attraction A Keys to interpersonal attraction 1 Situational factors a mereexposure effect tendency to feel more positively toward a stimulus as a result of repeated exposure to it i example proximity increases attractiveness physical or geographical closeness major influence on attraction first meeting in a comfortable situation increases attractiveness Similarity between individuals attitude similarity more similar attitudes high ratings of attractiveness Physical attractiveness attractionsimilarity hypothesis people are more likely to be ro antically attracted to people who are similar in physical attractiveness than to people who are notably more or less attractive lV Social influence the process whereby words or actions of other people directly or indirectly influence a person s behavior A Social norms learned sociallybased rules of behavior 1 Norm of reciprocity tendency to respond to others as they have acted towards you 2 Creates orderly social behavior a BUT problem of deindividuation the process by which group members may discontinue selfevaluation and adopt group norms and attitudes heightened arousal amp cohesiveness wgroup resulting in reduced sense of personal responsibility amp accountability for behavior B Conformity change behavior or beliefs to match others due to real or imagined group pressure 1 Sherif s experiment 1937 2 Asch s experiment 1956 C Compliance adjust behavior because of a request 1 Compliance techniques wwwwc a footinthedoor technique designed to gain a favorable response to a small request first with the intent to make the person more likely to agree later to a larger request the result desired from the beginning b doorintheface technique large unreasonable request is made first with the expectation that the person will refuse but will then be more likely to respond favorably to a smaller request later the result desired from the beginning c lowball technique very attractive initial offer is made to get people to commit themselves to an action and then the terms are made less favorable D Obedience 1 Milgram tested obedience to authority V Group Behavior A Social Facilitation the process by which a person s performance is increased when other members of a group engage in similar behavior 1 evaluation apprehension concern that others are evaluating our behavior B Social Loafing tendency to put forth less effort when working with others on a common task than they do when they are working alone 1 may be attributable to diffusion of responsibility the spreading or sharing of responsibility for a decision or behavior Within a group C Group Polarization risky shift when group discussion causes members of a group to shift to a more extreme position in whatever direction the group was leaning initially D Groupthink a process in which group members are influenced by cohesiveness and a dynamic leader to ignore external realities as they make decisions individual members may hesitate to voice any dissent Study Guide for Chapter 5 Learning What is learning A Reinforcement any event that increases the probability that a response will occur B Antecedents events that precede a response C Consequences effects that follow a response D Operant conditioning changes the way we act upon the environment vs classical conditioning changes the way we react to the environment ll Classical conditioning amp Pavlov A Elements of classical conditioning 1 Neutral stimulus NS a stimulus that does not evoke a response eg bell 2 Unconditioned stimulus UCS a stimulus innately capable of eliciting a response eg food 3 Conditioned stimulus CS a stimulus that evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with a UCS eg bell 4 Unconditioned response UCR an innate reflex response elicited by a UCS eg reflexive salivation to food 5 Conditioned response CR a learned response elicited by a CS eg salivation to bell B Higherorder conditioning occurs when a previously conditioned CS is used as a UCS to condition a new CS a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit the response brought forth by a conditioned stimulus by being paired repeatedly with that conditioned stimulus C Changing conditioned responses 1 Extinction weakening or eventual disappearance of the CR as a result of repeated presentations of the CS without the UCS the process by which stimuli lose their ability to evoke learned responses because the events that had followed the stimuli no longer occur 2 Spontaneous recovery reoccurrence of an extinguished response when an organism is exposed to the original CS following a rest period 3 Generalization tendency to make a CR to a stimulus that is similar to the C8 the tendency for a conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the stimulus to which the response was conditioned 4 Discrimination learned ability to distinguish bt similar stimuli so that the CR occurs only in the presence of the original CS but not to similar stimuli D John Watson and emotional conditioning 1 Albert amp the white rat classical conditioning of fear a UCS loud noise b UCR reflexive fear of loud noise c CS white rat d CR fear of white rat Thorndike amp the puzzle box A Trialanderror learning B Thorndike s Law of Effect BF Skinner amp Operant conditioning A Basic components of operant conditioning Reinforcement 1 Primary reinforcer reduces primary drive does NOT depend on learning such as hunger thirst pain reduction eg food drink sex 2 Secondary reinforcer learned through association with other reinforcers eg money good grades gold star 3 Schedules of reinforcement a continuous reinforcement all responses are reinforced most effective way to condition NEW response b partial reinforcement some but not all responses are reinforced best for maintaining responses amp more resistant to extinction than continuous i fixedratio schedule a schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of responses high response rate ii variableratio schedule a schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a variable number of responses produces highest response rate amp most resistant to extinction iii fixedinterval schedule a schedule in which a fixed amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available lowest response rate iv variableinterval schedule a schedule in which a variable amount of time must elapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available moderate response rate B Basic components of operant conditioning Punishment C Operant conditioning contingencies see table in slides 1 Positive reinforcement add something good to situation to increase behavior eg give candy or sticker when child makes bed 2 Negative reinforcement take something bad away from situation to increase behavior eg remove headache by taking aspirin 3 Positive punishment add something bad to situation to decrease behavior eg spanking yelling 4 Negative punishment takes something good away from situation to decrease behavior eg grounding time out lose privilege D Operant conditioning Related concepts 1 Shaping gradually teach target behavior by reinforcing successive approximations any movement in the direction of the target behavior a series of gradual steps each of which is more similar to the final desired response 2 Superstitious behavior occurs when irrational behaviors followed by reinforcers are repeated eg wear your lucky red socks to every exam to ensure an A 3 Extinction occurs when reinforcers are withheld and the learned response weakens and eventually disappears 4 Discriminative stimulus stimulus that signals whether a certain response or behavior is likely to be rewarded ignored or punished V Cognitive learning A Insight learning sudden realization of how to solve a problem B Latent learning learning that is hidden until it is reinforced 1 Cognitive map a mental representation of the layout of one s environment C Observational learning Bandura the acquisition of knowledge and skills through the observation of others rather than by means of direct experience Study Guide for Chapter 6 Memory Basic processes of memory A Encoding modifying information so that it can be placed in memory the first stage of information processing 1 Consolidation physiological change in brain required for encoding to occur B Storage the maintenance of information over time the second stage of information processing 1 rehearsal one way of placing info into storage a maintenance rehearsal mental repetition of info to keep it in memory b elaborative rehearsal involves relating new info to something you already know C Retrieval the location of stored information and its return to consciousness the third stage of information processing ll Models of memory A AtkinsonShiffrin model 3 memory stages 1 Sensory memory memory stage that holds info from the senses for a period of time ranging from only a fraction of a second to about 2 seconds a Iconic memory visual sensory memory the icon i Sperling s classic experiments ii Whole report procedure vs partial report procedure b Echoic memory auditory sensory memory the echo c Capacity very large d Duration very short i duration of icon 1OO milliseconds ii duration of echo S 3 seconds 2 Shortterm memory STM a Capacity small 7 plus or minus 2 chunks i chunking organizing or grouping several bits of info into larger units or chunks b Duration short less than 30 seconds c Increases with age primarily due to increases in chunking ability with age d Forgetting in STM i displacement each new incoming item pushes out an existing item which is then forgotten 3 Longterm memory LTM vast storehouse of permanent or relatively permanent memories a Capacity VERY large b Duration potentially VERY long decades c Organized by meaning d Types of long term memory i explicit memory also called declarative memory stores facts info personal life events that can be brought to mind verbally or in the form of images episodic memory type of explicit memory for events that happen to a person or that take place in the person s presence eg what you ate for breakfast semantic memory type of explicit memory that includes memory for general knowledge or objective facts and info eg spelling math vocabulary ii implicit memory also called nondeclarative memory stores motor skills habits priming and simple classically conditioned responses procedural memory memory for skills amp habits priming an earlier encounter with a stimulus word or picture increases the speed or accuracy of naming that stimulus or a related stimulus at a later time results from activation of specific associations in memory often as a result of repetition and without making a conscious effort to access the memory 4 Distinguishing between STM amp LTM a Serial position effect finding that for info learned in a sequence recall is better for items at the beginning and the end than for items in the middle of the sequence i primacy effect first items in a list remembered better probably due to words getting into LTM reducing primacy effect reduce amount of time between word presentation from 2 seconds per word to 12 second per word ii recency effect last items in a list remembered better probably due to the words still being in STM reducing recency effect use distractor task for 30 seconds before testing recall iii words in middle of list recalled LEAST lll Memory tasks A Recall remembering in the absence of the item being remembered eg what are the names of the seven dwarves what did you eat for breakfast essay tests and short answer questions 1 retrieval cues any stimulus or bit of info that aids in retrieving a particular memory 2 usually the most difficult test of memory B Recognition memory task in which the person must simply identify material as being encountered before eg identify the seven dwarves from a list of 50 names multiple choice or matching tests 1 usually the easiest test of memory C Relearning retention is expressed as the percentage of time saved when material is relearned relative to the time required to learn the material originally 1 method of savings a measure of retention in Which the difference between the of repetitions originally required to learn a list and the of repetitions required to relearn the list after a certain amount of time has elapsed 2 most sensitive test of memory lV Factors affecting retrieval A Serial position where on the list the item appeared B Contextdependent memory info that is better retrieved in the context in which it was encoded and stored or learned 1 Context becomes encoded along with the material being remembered 2 Reinstating context increases memory 3 Godden amp Baddeley 1975 study of recall under water amp on the clock as a function of learning under water or on the clock a Better recall when setting for learning and recall are the SAME C Statedependent memory information that is better retrieved in the physiological or emotional state in which it was encoded and stored or learned 1 Internal body states are encoded with memories 2 Memories easier to retrieve when these body states are entered again 3 Mood congruency effects V Forgetting A Rate of forgetting 1 fastest right after initial learning slower for more meaningful material Causes of forgetting Encoding failure info was never put into LTM in the first place Decay fading of memory through disuse 3 Interference major cause of forgetting where info stored before or after a given memory can interfere with the ability to remember it a retroactive interference the interference of new learning with the ability to retrieve material learned previously eg study French then study Spanish difficulty with FRENCH test b proactive interference the interference by old learning with the ability to retrieve material learned recently eg study French then study Spanish difficulty with SPANISH test 4 Consolidation failure loss due to organic brain injury trauma disruption while the memory is being formed a retrograde amnesia failure to remember events that occurred prior to physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma b anterograde amnesia failure to remember events that occurred after physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma inability to form new longterm memories 5 Motivated forgetting repression of memories usually to avoid dealing with traumatic experiences a repression unpleasant memories removed from consciousness 6 Retrieval failure inability to find the necessary retrieval cue for retrieval even though you know you know the information a Tipofthetongue phenomenon the feeling that info is stored in memory although it cannot be readily retrieved 7 Infantile amnesia inability to recall events that occur prior to the age of 2 or 3 Neww VI read Improving memory A Organization better organization of info results in better memory B Elaboration relating new info to info you already know C Spaced practice spacing study over several sessions vs massed practice learning in one long practice session without rest periods D Overlearning practicing or studying material beyond the point where it can be repeated once without error E Recitation after you finish studying close eyes and repeat aloud everything you F Mnemonic devices strategies that increase memory especially for material that is not easily organized 1 Acronyms take the first letter of each item to be remembered and form a word phrase or sentence with those letters Roy G Biv for colors in rainbow 2 Acrostics series of words lines or verses in which the first letters form a word or phrase eg Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge to represent the musical scale EGBDF 3 Visual imagery visualizing associations between words a Method of loci involves pairing each item to be remembered with one of an organized set of familiar locations b Pegword method involves pairing each item to be remembered in an interactive image with each item on a standard list Chapter 9 Development Prenatal development A Germinal stage the first 2 weeks 1 Begins with conception a Sperm fertilizes egg zygote Zygote duplicates into many cells Ends when successfully attached to uterine wall Embryonic stage beginning of week 3 through week 8 all of major body systems organs amp structures are formed Ends when first bone cells form 1 long a resembles human being with limbs fingers toes 3 Amniotic sac sac Within the uterus that contains the embryo or fetus a placenta membrane that permits the exchange of nutrients amp waste products bt the mother and her developing child b umbilical cord tube bt the mother and her developing child through Which nutrients amp waste products are conducted C Fetal stage beginning of week 9 until birth 1 period of rapid growth amp further development of body structures organs systems Newww Teratogens viruses and other harmful agents including drugs environmental toxins etc that can have a negative impact on prenatal development A Cocaine amp heroin miscarriage prematurity birth defects tremors sleep problems VI B Alcohol 1 Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS facial deformities mental retardation behavior problems due to maternal alcohol intake early in prenatal development C Smoking tobacco reduces oxygen flow causes respiratory problems increases C02 increases odds of prematurity low birthweight miscarriage SIDS D Thalidomide babies born with flipperlike arms andor legs What do babies have at the start A Reflexes Permanent swallowing breathing coughing blinking 2 Temporary Moro startle reflex where they draw up their legs and arch their backs Babinski fanning of the toes in response to stimulation on their feet tonic neck grasping hold onto objects that press against the palms of their hands rooting turn their head toward stimuli that prod or stroke the cheek chin or corner of the mouth sucking steppingwalking a disappear in about 34 months Motor development Milestones A Sequence of stages including rolling over sitting up crawling creeping walking running ages at which infants first engage in these activities vary but sequence generally remains the same Language development A Cooing sounds about 23 months B Babbling about 6 months vocalization of phonemes basic units of language eg ga ga C Says single words holophrases single word used to express complex meaning eg up pick me up understands some words about 12 months D Uses twoword sentences vocabulary about 50 words about 1820 months 1 Overextension common eg dog for all 4legged animals application of a word on the basis of some shared feature to a broader range of objects than is appropriate E Has vocabulary of about 270 words about 24 months F Uses telegraphic speech short sentences which follow a rigid word order and contain only essential content words leaving out plurals possessives conjunctions articles etc eg daddy come I want daddy to come home or Daddy is coming home right now G Begins acquisition of grammar rules 1 Overregularization common eg goed instead of went mouses instead of mouse when children inappropriately apply grammatical rules for forming plurals and past tenses to irregular nouns and verbs Cognitive development A Piaget s stages of cognitive development 1 Schemas or schemes basic building blocks of intellectual development a assimilation refers to mental process by which new objects events experiences and info are incorporated into existing schemas b accommodation refers to mental process of modifying existing schemes and creating new ones to incorporate new objects events experiences information 2 Sensorimotor stage ages birth TO 2 yrs a major achievement of sensorimotor stage i object permanence realization that objects including people continue to exist even when they are out of sight 3 Preoperational stage ages 2 yrs TO 6 or 7 yrs a characteristic patterns of thinking in pre0perational stage i egocentrism belief that everyone sees what they see thinks as they think and feels as they feel ii animism belief that inanimate objects are alive eg why is the mood following me the empty car is lonely iii centration tendency to focus on only one dimension of a stimulus 4 Concrete operations stage ages 6 or 7 yrs TO 12 yrs a major achievements of concrete ooerational stage i decentration ability to focus on more than one dimension of a stimulus eg height and width ii reversibility ability to mentally reverse actions eg if 2 4 6 than 4 2 6 iii conservation understanding that a given quantity of matter number mass area liquid remains the same if it is rearranged or changed in its appearance as long as nothing is added or taken away 5 Formal operations stage ages 11 or 12 yrs and beyond a characteristic patterns of thinking in formal operations stage i ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical s ua ons ii na39I39ve idealism adolescents often thing about ideal characteristics of themselves others and the world iii adolescent egocentrism personal fable belief that our feelings amp ideas are special and unique and that we are invulnerable imaginary audience belief that other people are as concerned with our thoughts as we are risk taking adolescents tend to engage in risky behavior they would never do as adults B Vygotsky s sociocultural view 1 Zone of proximal development range of tasks the child cannot yet perform alone but can learn to perform with instruction amp guidance of parent or teacher or advanced peer a Scaffolding adjusting the quality and degree of instruction amp guidance to fit the child s present level of ability or performance Vll Social amp emotional development A Motherinfant bond B Social referencing use their mothers emotional expressions to guide their own behavior in ambiguous situations C Temperament characteristic ways of responding to the environment that vary from infant to infant 1 Temperament patterns Thomas amp Chess 1968 a Easy babies 40 predictable react to new situations cheerfully seldom fuss b Difficult babies 10 irregular amp irritable c Slowtowarmup babies 15 react warily to new situations but slowly come to enjoy them D Attachment early close relationship formed between infant and caregiver 1 Separation anxiety fear and distress when the parent leaves them occurring from about 824 months of age peaking bt 12 18 months 2 Stranger anxiety fear of strangers beginning at 67 months which increases in intensity until about 125 months then decreases thru the 2nOI year 3 Ainsworth amp attachment a Strange situation b Secure vs insecure children c Ainsworth s attachment categories i securely attached 65 distress upon separation happiness when mom returns mom used as safe base for exploration ii insecurer attached avoidant 20 no distress when mom leaves indifferent when she returns ambivalentresistant 10 show significant emotional distress when mom leaves and alternate between shunning and clinging to mom when she returns disorienteddisorganized 5 distress when mom leaves alternate bt happy indifferent amp anger when mom returns often look away from mom or look at her wexpressionless face 4 Harlow s study nature of attachment a 2 surrogate mothers i wire surrogate that fed the infant ii cloth surrogate that did not feed the infant b results infant monkeys formed attachments with cloth surrogate but not with the wire surrogate even if the wire mother held a milk bottle V c conclusion attachments seem to follow from needs for contact comfort rather than for basic physical needs E Parenting styles amp socialization Baumrind 1971 1 Authoritarian low warmth high control arbitrary rules expect unquestioned obedience from children punish misbehavior often physically value obedience ASSOCIATED WITH a low intellectual performance b lack social skills c particularly harmful for boys 2 Permissive high warmth low control warm and supportive but make few rules or demands and don t enforce those that are made allowing children to make their own decisions and control their own behavior ASSOCIATED WITH a poor academic performance b drinking problems c promiscuous sex 3 Authoritative high warmth high control set high but realistic and reasonable standards enforce limits and at the same time encourage open communication and independence ASSOCIATED WITH a higher intellectual performance b independence c internalized moral standards 4 Uninvolved low warmth low control parents make few demands and show little warmth or encouragement ASSOCIATED WITH a problems with social relationships throughout life b insecure attachment in infancy Moral development A Kohlberg s theory of moral development growing a conscience 1 Level I Preconventional morality goal is to avoid punishment gain pleasure a stage 1 punishment amp obedience orientation morality judged in terms of consequences b stage 2 instrumental orientation or personal gain morality judged in terms of what satisfies own needs or those of others 2 Level II Conventional morality concerned with what other people think following rules duty social conventions a stage 3 good boy or good girl orientation morality judged in terms of adherence to social rules or norms with respect to personal acquaintances b stage 4 maintenance of the social order orientation morality judged in terms of social rules or laws applied universally notjust to acquaintances 3 Level III Postconventional morality more important are personal standards such as equality respect for human life a stage 5 legalistic orientation morality judged in terms of human rights which may transcend laws b stage 6 universal ethical principles orientation moralityjudged in terms of selfchosen ethical principles
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