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Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Allysa Yi

Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide 031:015

Marketplace > University of Iowa > Psychlogy > 031:015 > Social Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Allysa Yi
Introduction to Social Psychology
Meara Hebashi

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This is all the class notes, discussion notes, and my own side notes put into one outlined study guide. I've underlined and bolded important things. It may be long, but everything on it is what you...
Introduction to Social Psychology
Meara Hebashi
Study Guide
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allysa Yi on Saturday January 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 031:015 at University of Iowa taught by Meara Hebashi in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 1005 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Iowa.


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Date Created: 01/10/15
Chapter 1 Introduction 0 What is social psychology 0 Definition The scientific study of the feelings thoughts and behaviors of individuals in social situations OR The scientific study of the effects of social and cognitive processes on the way individuals perceive influence and relate to others Social Processes how others affect our thoughts feelings actions etc Cognitive Processes how our own perceptions feelings etc influence our actions and understanding of the world What do social psychologists study They focus on understanding everyday social behavior and often social problems 0 How people perceive influence and relate to others Rewarding people for doing something they already enjoy will typically make them like that activity less in the future When women think there is any sex differences whatsoever on a test they tend to perform worse 2 Fundamental Axioms acceptedgeneral truth 0 Construction of reality I Each person s view of reality is constructed by social and cognitive processes Example within this lecture class one person will be thinking something different that the person next to them We have different opinions and perceptions to how this class is even though we are all experiencing the same thing 0 Pervasiveness of Social Influence I Other people influence most of our thoughts feelings and behavior whether those quotothersquot are physically present or not 3 Motivational Principles 0 Striving for Mastery people seek to understand and predict events in the social world to obtain rewards o Seeking Connectedness people seek liking support and acceptance from others they care about 0 Valuing quotme and mine people like to view themselves and others they care about in a positive light 3 Processing Principles 0 Conservatism people s views of the world are slow to change 0 Accessibility information that is most readily available tends to have the most impact on thoughts and behavior 0 Superficiality vs Depth generally people put little effort into processing information but in some situations we my be motivated to think more carefully Prominent Research Perspectives 0 Although social psychologists try to answer similar questions about humans they do so from a variety of perspectives evolutionary crosscultural social neuroscience and social cognition I Evolutionary psychology A subfield of psychology that uses principles of evolution to understand human social behavior Attempts to uncover quotultimate causation Contrasts other perspectives in social psychology in some cases I Crosscultural research designed to compare and contrast people in different cultures Research examples social relations in collectivist vs individualist cultures I Social neuroscience the study of the relationship bn neural and social processes Focuses on how the social world affects the brain and biology and vice versa Research examples gender differences in neuroendocrine reactivity to stress different amygdala activity when observing black vs white faces I Social cognition The study of how people perceive remember and interpret information about themselves and others Focuses on how we process social information Has become the most prominent perspective in social psychology Chapter 2 Research Methods How do we know what we know is true As in for example we thought the Earth was round for a while until that quottruequot statement was changed to an actual true statement 0 Many ways of knowing I Personal experience I Logical analysis I Cultural consensus we all use it and we all know what it means ex our acceptance of 224acceptance I Authority I Hunches or quotbest guess Scientific Theory amp Hypotheses 0 Theory An organized set of principles used to explain observed phenomena Laws in psychology will never exist 0 Hypotheses Testable predictions about the conditions under which an events will occur Types of Research 0 Basic research Intended to expand general knowledge 0 Applied research intended to solve practical problems Observational Method A researcher observes people and systematically records their behavior 0 O 0 Examples include field studies and archival analyses Method is sufficient if the goal is to provide description of social behavior Limitations Lack of control over variables amp difficult to generalize results Correlational Method 2 or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship bn them is assessed 0 O Commonly used in the form of surveys Method is sufficient if the goal is to predict social behavior andor if variables cannot be experimentally manipulated Correlational scale is of 1 to 1 1 perfect negative relationship 0 no relationship 1 perfect positive relationship Limitations I Cannot determine causation only tells us if variables are related Remember correlation does NOT equal causation I quot3ml variable problem X 9 Z 9 Y Example Correlation bn the amount of violent TV kids watch and how aggressive they are 0 Violent TV 9 Aggression o Aggression 9 Violent TV 0 Violent TV 9 Neglect 9 Aggression 0 Experimental Method Manipulating some variabes while keeping others consistent across conditions 0 Only experimentation can determine cause and effect relationships Key Features of Experiments 0 O 0 Random Assignment All participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment Independent Variables Variable that is systematically manipulated Dependent Variables Variable that is measured in order to determine if it is influenced by the independent variable 9 Example Randomly assign kids to watch either violent or nonviolent TV then measure aggression Independent variable watch a onehour police drama or a one hour nonviolent program Dependent variable measure aggressive responses toward other children during a play session Result exposure to violent TV increases aggressive behavior in children Experiments Pros and Cons O O 0 High internal validity can be relatively certain of causal relationship Relatively easy to replicate Low mundane realism do experiments translate to what happens in the quotreal world Some causal variables can t be manipulated o More Potential Problems I Demand characteristics cues in an experiment that leads subjects to make inferences about what the experimenters desire and that therefore bias how the subjects act I Social Desirability subjects may respond in ways that are socially desirable rather responding in ways that reflect their true feelings 0 Solutions I Cover story description of study purpose given to participants differs from realpurpose I Deception misleading participants about true nature of study or what will occur in the study I quotBlindquot experiments do not know purpose of the study or the conditions that each participant is in Chapter 4 Perceiving Individuals Elements of Impressions Visible Cues 0 Physical Appearance I The Halo Effect quotWhat is beautiful is good Ex teachers rate more attractive children as having more academic potential Or strangers are more likely to give attractive people help when in need Or attractive people have lower bail set in criminal cases Or attractive people receive lighter prison sentences 0 Overt Behavior An observable action or the product of an observable action including testor assessmentrelated responses I Causal Attribution A judgment about the cause of a behavior or other event So like literally what causes a behavior I Fritz Heider 1958 quotpeople are na39ive scientists that try to understand other people s behavior by piecing together information I Attribution was one the most widely studied issues in social psychology during the 605 and 70s 0 Nonverbal Behavior facial expressions body language eye contact etc I Eg frequent eye contact perception that the person is honest and likeable Nonverbal amp Deception o Deception Cues face body and voice I Which type of cues should we focus on when trying to tell if a person is lying Most people focus on facial cues but liars can best control these cues The quotbestquot cues are related to a person s voice eg highpitched tone and body movements eg restlessness like nervous ticks I People can be trained to pay attention to the right cues Ekman amp O Sullivan 1991 had police detectives US Customs CIA amp Secret Service Agents judge whether people were truthful or not 0 Result detectives customs amp CIA were all no better at detecting deception than college students Secret Service performed best bc they re trained to look at body language and they don t really talk to people Elements of Impressions Invisible Factors 0 Familiarity The Mere Exposure Effect The more exposure we have to a stimulus the more apt we are to like it Ex Moreland amp Beach 1992 had 4 females pretend to be students by attending varying numbers lectures for a large college lecture At semester s end women that students had seen more often in class were found to be more likeable interesting and attractive 0 Motivation amp Emotion Our desires feelings moods and goals can sometimes influence our perceptions of others Mood congruent impressions eg positive mood positive impression of another and vice versa Goals influence impressions eg might view a teammate more positively if your success is dependent on their performance In many situations we see what we want to see Example In a quotdating study Bersheid and colleagues 1976 had participants watch a video of three people having a discussion one of which would be their future date 3 groups of participants each expected to date a different person in the video and 1 control group not expecting to date any of them Results participants rated their expected date more positively compared to others o Accessible Concepts recently or frequently activated concepts from memory can influence impressions One of the most widely researched areas of impression formation in social psychology Examples quotPrimingquot Studies Most common priming techniques are scrambled sentence tasks visual priming and word memorization The Effects of Priming 0 One example by Higgins Roles and Jones Participants memorized either negative eg reckless conceited or positive words eg adventurous selfconfident They received an ambiguous description of a person named Donald The researchers then measured the favorability of impressions on a numbered scale and 70 formed positive impressions of Donald after memorizing positive words 10 formed positive impressions of Donald after memorizing neg words Limitations of Priming 0 Applicability Higgins and colleagues 1977 also primed separate groups with traits such as obedient positive or disrespectful negative I Priming these traits did not effect perceptions bc not applicable to the written description about Donald 0 Awareness if rememberreminded of the prime then often no effects or the opposite is found Many studies deal with priming outside of awareness show impact on behaviors 0 One example by Bargh et al 1996 had subjects make sentences out of a scrambled set of words 13 was given words related to quotpolitenessquot eg yield respect considerate 13 was given words related to quotrudenessquot eg disturb intrude bold bluntly 13 given neutral words Participants were then told to go down the hall to find the experimenter when finished The experimenter intentionally ignored the subjects and carried on a conversation with a confederate Results subjects given quotrudequot words interrupted most subjects given quotpolitequot words interrupted least Accessible Concepts The Role of Expectancies 0 Our beliefs about what others quotarequot or quotmight be like can significantly influence our impressions I Ex Rosenhan 1973 had quotsanequot confederates enter a mental health facility as patients Then these quotsanequot confederates were treated like they really had a mental health even though they didn t Selffulfilling Prophecy A person s expectations about another become reality by eliciting behaviors that confirm the expectation 0 Ex Rosenthal amp Jacobson 1968 examined selffulfilling prophecies in elementary school classrooms Gave an intelligence test to students and then randomly gave teachers names of students who were expected to quotbloomquot intellectually The ones expected to quotbloomquot got more help from the teachers and didn t help the others as much Because the teachers helped more the ones supposedly expected to bloom really did do better on the intelligence test later on Chapter 5 Perceiving Individuals Part 2 Cognitive Processing ie thinking 0 Superficial Processing aka low elaboration heuristic processing relying on accessible information to make inferences orjudgments while expending little effort in processing 0 Systematic Processing aka high elaboration giving careful effortful consideration to a wide range of information relevant to a particularjudgment Found above Overt Behavior 0 Causal Attribution A judgment about the cause of a behavior or other event 0 Fritz Heider 1958 quotpeople are nai39ve scientists that try to understand other people s behavior by piecing together information o 2 Primary Types Heider 1958 I Internal Attribution aka Personal Attribution An inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of internal characteristics eg ability personality effort etc I External Attribution aka Situational Attribution An inference that a person is behaving a certain way bc of external characteristics eg the task surroundings other people etc 9 Example Dwight from the office Top salesperson bc nterna Attribution He is a determined intense terrific and a hard worker External Attribution All of the other salespeople are incompetent Theoretical Models of Attribution Correspondent Inference Theory Jones amp Davis 1965 amp Covariation Theory Kelley 1967 o Correspondent Inference Theory CIT Internal attributions are made by comparing what people could accomplish with the behavior they chose to perform with what could have been accomplished with alternative actions I Or basically what information do people use to make internal attributions I According to CIT internal attributions are most likely to be made when Few quotnoncommon effects of hisher behavior 0 Something about the behavior that is unique or different from the other stuff small amount And when the behavior is unexpected I The role of noncommonality example a friend has accepted a job at an advertising agency in NYC why Did heshe accept the job bc of an interest in advertising Bc heshe wants to live in NYC Or Bc the job pays well Many non common effects Few non common effects Career in Career in Ad 39 39 T h39 vertlsmg eac Ing Write Insurance Write L39 39 N Obtain L39 39 Public Cigarette Neylgrk ew Health wngnligg Service Carequot Ads Insurance Ads Advems39ng Use Artistic Help Others Live in New Talents York Use Artistic Talents Advertising Teaching Helg Em HOOK Em JOb 1 Job Agency Job T Agency Job Internal Attribution Internal Attribution 0 Less Likely More Likely I The role of behavior expectations with continuation of previous example suppose the 2 jobs are nearly identical except one pays 100K and the other 25K Taking the 100Kjob means the behavior is uninformative and external attribution Taking 25Kjob means the behavior is informative and it s internal attribution o Covariation Theory How do people decide whether to make an internal or an external attribution 3 types of covariation information Consensus across people Distinctiveness across stimuli Consistency across time Ex Why did Jack fall down on the sidewalk outside of Van Allen Hall sidewalk outside of Van Allen is the stimulus 1 Consensus do other people fall down on this sidewalk 2 Distinctiveness has Jack fallen down only on this sidewalk or has this happened on other sidewalks as well 3 Consistency how frequently does Jack fall down on the Van Allen Hall s sidewalk We are likely to make an internal attribution something about Jack if we see this behavior as 1 Low in consensus Jack s the only person to fall down on the VAH sidewalk 2 Low in distinctiveness Jack falls down on most sidewalks not just at the VAH 3 High consistency Jack falls down on the VAH sidewalk often Thus it must be something about Jack We are likely to make an external attribution something about Jack if we see this behavior as 1 High in consensus Most people fall down on the VAH sidewalk 2 High in distinctiveness Jack falls down only on VAH sidewalk 3 High consistency Jack falls down on the VAH sidewalk often Thus it must be something about VAH s sidewalk 0 Additional information about these attribution models CIT amp Covariation Theory both assume that people make causal attributions in a logical rational fashion Many studies have confirmed that people often make attributions in ways predicted by these theories Attributional Biases o Fundamental Attribution Error ie Correspondence Bias The tendency to overestimate the extent to which people s behavior is due to internal factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors Ex subjects read an essay about Fidel Castro that was written by a fellow student The essay was either written in favor or opposed to Castro Participants were told that the student author had a choice of topics or no choice of topics Results participants assumed that the author believed what heshe wrote regardless of choice I Why do we commit the fundamental attribution error FAE The focus of our attention is generally on the person rather than the surrounding situation 0 Perceptual Salience salience definition most noticeable or more important information that is the focus of attention people tend to overestimate the causal role of perceptually salient information Situational causes of another s behavior may be practically invisible to us How accurate are our impressions and attributions Under many circumstances we are not very accurate or at least not as accurate as we think we are Some studies have shown that people are more accurate when motivated 0 But does it seem feasible to try to be accurate all of the time I Would likely expend too many cognitive resources I Another problem people generally aren t aware of potential biases and biases can operate even when motivated to be accurate eg self fulfilling Chapter 3 The Self The Social Self o 2 Components I Selfconcept all of an individuals knowledge about his or her qualities I Selfesteem an individual s positive or negative evaluation of himselfherself 0 We may often draw inferences from our thoughts feelings and behaviors SelfPerception Theory we make inferences about our attitudes by observing our own behaviors when quotinternal cues are weak or ambiguous o Eg think about how you attend church end conclude that you are religious o Eg volunteering at a homeless shelter and conclude that you re helpful or caring We will most likely draw inferences when behavior is freely chosen andor driven by internal motivation According to SPT when people realize their behavior is caused by an external factor they do not assume that it reflects their internal feelings o Eg if you re waiting tables over the summer for extra money you won t assume that you do it bc you enjoy being on your feet all day Motivation Internal vs External 0 Intrinsic Motivation doing something because you want to o Extrinsic Motivation doing something because it s a means to some external end like getting a job for the money The Effect of Being quotOverRewarded o Overjustification effect perceiving your behavior as caused by extrinsic reasons in turn leads to underestimation of intrinsic causes of the behavior 0 quotIntrinsic causes attitudes 0 Recall question from lecture 1 which was something like will a person be more or less motivated when someone rewards them for something they already like to do answer NO why because they already liked doing it and rewarding them will make them like it less 0 Ex Pro sports Bill Russell who said that at first he played basketball for the love of the game but then it turned into him calculating how it s going to determine his future It turned from love to more of a business I Intrinsic motivation goes away Research Supporting OverJustification 0 Ex Kids and math games I Initially played the games for an average of 20 minutes I When given extra credit they averaged 25 minutes of play ie reward level I After reward program stopped average only 14 minutes of play ie no reward level 9 So basically they started off playing for the hell of it Then they got extra credit so they tried harder to play longer or whatever but then once that extra credit was no longer given out they lost interest So intrinsic turned into extrinsic o Replicated the effect w kids and markers I 13 of kids were asked to draw some pictures I 13 were told they would get a quotgood player award I 13 were not told about the reward before starting but received one afterward I The percentage of time playing with markers were greatest with kids who got an unexpected reward the next was those who got no reward and the lowest was when they were expecting a reward o Amabile et al 1996 had adult participants write poems draw pictures or generate creative business solutions I These researchers consistently found that people were more creative interested and challenged when external rewards were not present If extrinsic benefits serve to undermine intrinsic motivation should teachers parents and employers not offer rewards o If reward comes in the form of quotspecial bonuses for superior performance then it can actually enhance performance The Influence of Others 0 Social Comparison Theory The theory that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others Festinger 1954 argued that this is most likely when we are uncertain of our abilities or opinions Example Klein 1997 had participants make a series ofjudgments about artwork Then gave people quotfalsequot feedback 0 12 told 60 of their answers were right 12 told 40 of answers were right 0 Also told either that their scores were 20 better or 20 worse than average 0 Results when they later rated their own skill they were not influenced by their own score but how it related to others 0 Do people also turn to others to determine their emotions Schachter 1959 found that when people were frightened into thinking they would receive electric shocks most sought out others in the same situation Perhaps when people are unsure about how they feel their emotional state is actually determined by the reactions of others around them The twofactor theory of emotion 0 According to this theory The experience of emotion is based on two factors physiological arousal and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal Seeking out others help us interpret the arousal we are feeling as a specific emotion 0 Example Schachter and Singer injected males with epinephrine a drug that produces arousal 1 group was told of the true effects of the drug 1 group was not told about the drug s effects 1 group was given a placebo Subjects were then left alone with a confederate who supposedly received the same injection The confederate either acted euphorically or displayed anger Results Druginformed group were not significantly influenced by the confederate However the druguninformed group reported more anger or happiness consistent with the confederate s behavior Knowledge Self vs Others o Is selfknowledge the same as knowledge about other people Yes and no 0 ActorObserver Differences in Attribution We tend to attribute our own behaviors to situational causes while seeing others behavior as caused by internal characteristics Especially when behaviors are negative Why Could be one of the following but probably a combination We have more situational information about ourselves than we do for others Also others behavior is most salient most noticeable or important Could also be motivated to view oneself in a positive light by explaining negative behaviors as externally caused 0 quotMultiple Selves How do we formmaintain a coherent selfconcept We organize information according to various roles activities and relationships we have Selfcomplexity the diversity of selfaspects people develop for various roles Eg you may consider yourself to be studious in school situations competitive in athletic contexts and fun loving when hangingout with friends The need for selfesteem o For most of us we want to view ourselves in a positive light But why quotThe need to belongquot we desire selfesteem bc we have a primitive need to connect with others and gain approval Terror Management Theory we are biologically programmed for self preservation but we are always in fear of our own death Buffering Effects of SelfEsteem o If you were to measure the selfesteem of people across the world would you find that some groups differ What we think are those men having higher self esteems than women whites more than blacks and Asians more than Hispanics Researchers have wondered whether low selfesteem is an issue for members of stigmatized minorities What Twenge and Crocker found out is that blacks reported to have higher selfesteem relative to whites Other groups reportedly had relatively lower self esteem relative to whites The Dark Side of High SelfEsteem o Heatherton and Vohs measured subjects selfesteem and then had them take a supposed quotintelligence test 12 were given easy questions and told they did better than average quotnon egothreatening 12 were given hard questions and told they did worse than average quotego threatening After the false feedback as in they did better or worse than the average the subjects talked with another subject who did not take any test The other subject rated the participants who took the test on how likeable they were I Result The high selfesteem and low selfesteem non ego threatened people were generally the same in likeableness The high selfesteem egothreatened was least likeable and the low self esteem ego threatened was the most likeable Ratings of likobility 01 No ego threat Ego threat 0 I High sellesteem I Low sellesteem SelfEsteem Related Biases 0 Our level of selfesteem plays a crucial role in how we adapt to our world eg reacting to successes failures 0 Selfenhancing bias interpreting information concerning the self in a way that leads to overly positive evolutions I Seeing things to be positive in order to maintain the positive and high self esteem I People generally rate themselves as quotbetter than average on most positive traits and characteristics 0 Implicit egoism a nonconscious form of selfenhancement I Example Pelham et al 2002 argue that we form positive associations to the sight of our own name and are drawn to people places and things that resemble our name Such as Allysa starts with A so I must like Alabama more than Iowa I Very small but statistically significant effects I Evaluating Personal Experiences 0 Although we all generally selfenhance success does differ across people I Ex Linville 1985 examined selfesteem after people experienced success and failure I Results people low in selfcomplexity ie few aspects of the self felt better after a success and worse after a failure than people high in selfcomplexity Selfevaluation 0 Evaluation of the self also involves comparison to internal standards 0 SelfDiscrepancy Theory People evaluate themselves against internal quotidealquot and quotoughtquot standards producing certain emotional consequences I quotIdealquot selves the type of person we want to be I quotOughtquot selves the type of person we think we should be 0 Self Discrepancy Theory predicts that I When actual self and ideal self do not match Emotional Reactions Disappointment sadness lowered physiological arousal Long term effects lowered selfesteem depression poor immune function illness I When actual self and ought self do not match Emotional Reactions guilt embarrassment heightened physiological arousal Long term effects lowered selfesteem anxiety poor immune function illness SelfRegulationControl o SelfExpression a motive for choosing behaviors that are intended to reflect and express the selfconcept o If given a choice I People prefer social situations that let them behave in a way that is consistent with their selfconcept and I Prefer relationships where the other person agrees with their own self concept SelfRegulationPresentation o SelfPresentation A motive for choosing behaviors that are intended to elicit a desired impression of the self I One common strategy selfhandicapping Creating obstacles and excuses for ourselves so that if we do poorly on a task we have ready made excuses 0 Ex my arm hurts sol might be bad at playing tennis today SelfRegulation Individual Differences 0 We all selfexpress and present to some degree but people show stable preferences for on or the other 0 SelfMonitoring the extent to which people are sensitive to the demands of social situations and shape their behavior accordingly I High selfmonitors tend to shape their behavior to their audience or situation I Low selfmonitors tend to behave consistently across audiences and situations As in just because the audience changes they don t change who they are Chapter 7 Perceiving Groups Stereotype an impression of social group that people form by associating particular characteristics with that group Prejudice a positive or negative evolution of a social group and its members attitude Discrimination any unjustified positive or negative behavior toward a social group and its members ABC Model 0 Affective prejudice attitude toward a social group and its members 0 Behavioral discrimination behavior toward a social group and its members 0 Cognitive stereotypesbeliefs bout attributes of a group quotHotquot Prejudice Extreme hatred for other groups eg Nazis Ku Klux Klan quotCold Prejudice Some groups just don t have what it takes and should be excluded from desirable positions wealth and power ex women should not be CEO s or men wanting to be home wo being ridiculed 9 Both types of prejudice still exist more cold than hot though What causes prejudice o A social learning explanation prejudice learned from others eg parents teachers peers media 0 By age 5 most children have begun to develop clearcut racial attitudes I Acquisition by observing and imitating elders media expression of group s norms stereotypical role representations etc o Baron amp Banaji 2006 measured extent of Whites preferences for a White vs a Black stimulus person so all the White participants were tested I quotExplicitquot surveytype questions were measured eg quotwhich one do you prefer I Result There were higher percentages of 6 year olds who showed explicit preference to Whites Decreased as it got to adults Is there a prejudiced personality type 0 Early explanations were influenced by WW the extreme prejudice and discrimination shown by Nazis Authoritarian Personality Those who cannot accept their own quotinner conflicts believe in authority and see their own inadequacies in others 0 Prejudice as a means of protection from selfdoubts Is prejudice quotnaturalquot or quotunnaturalquot 0 According to some evolutionary psychologists they have found that animals have a strong tendency to feel more favorably toward genetically similar others and express fear and loathing toward dissimilar organisms I They say that it s natural bc it s a way to protect themselves within their own group They may have fear towards the other group and thus protecting themselves from different groups Is prejudice really the quotrulequot rather than the exception 0 Perhaps most social psychologists would answer quotyesquot 0 Contemporary social psychology say that such phenomena result from similar social and cognitive processes that affect the rest of our lives Categorization 0 Social Categorization Process of identifying individuals as members of a social group because they share typical features of the group e people are perceived as group members rather than as individuals 0 The quotBig 3 Categories Gender Ethnicity and Age Many other categories and combinations can be just as influential in some situations socioeconomic status occupation speech dialect uniforms etc Pros Categorization helps us master our environment It can help us deal with others efficiently and appropriately Cons Categorization makes all members of a group seem more similar to each other than if they were not categorized Also categorization can also exaggerate differences bn groups Eg studies show that US men are only slightly more aggressive than US women but our impressions of gender groups really overestimate this difference Stereotype Content 0 Stereotypes can be thought of as mental images 0 Our stereotypes often include many different types of information Physical appearance Interests amp goals Preferred activities Traits o Stereotypes can be positive or negative HOWEVER it will always lead to negative Ex Asians are smart positive but that can increase pressure onto Asians to prove they are smart Another example is women are sensitive which is not a bad trait but because of it they may not get a CEO job 0 Stereotypes can be accurate or inaccurate Eg analysis of many previous studies show that many gender stereotypes accurately describe the direction of differences bn male and female behavior such as aggressiveness leadership style and emotionally Many stereotypes can be entirely inaccurate as well however on some level every stereotype is inaccurate when it is viewed as applying to every member of a group Measuring Stereotypes and Prejudice 0 As societal norms have changed people are less willing to openly endorse stereotypes of reveal prejudice 0 Modern research relies on a number of subtle methods Disguised questionnaires I Elaborate experimental cover stories I Physiological measures eg facial EMG I Implicit reaction time measures eg the IAT l Wit l Baron amp Banaji l 2006 also subjects preferences measured White y implicitly outside of 3 y their control awareness 3U High and proves it w really stays with you after v39t til lllw l ll H mm Olll Atlulls ll l l1l Atlllll w Chapter 11 Perceiving Groups Part 2 The Implicit Association Test IAT o IAT A covert computerbased measure derived from the speed at which people respond to pairings of concepts I Eg how quickly subjects associate African American cues such as black face with negative and positive concepts compared to the same associations with European American cues Stereotype Activation o Stereotypes can influence judgments or actions only if they quotcome to mind But does this happen frequently 0 Often lst thing we notice about other people are their group memberships and most of the time it s the quotbig 3 o Stereotypes can become so well learned that their activation is automatic 0 Ex Lepore amp Brown studied subliminally primed people w words associated with stereotypes of Blacks eg reggae dreadlocks or nonsense syllables I Then they read a description of a person that contained traits eg aggressive athletic related to Black stereotypes I Results those primed w words related to Blacks rated the person more stereotypically The effect was even stronger for those with high antiBlack prejudice Automatic stereotypic influence can go far beyond just impressions 0 Ex Payne 2001 had subjects make quick decisions as to whether an object that flashed on a screen was a weapon or a tool I Objects were preceded by a quick presentation of either a Black or a White face I Results subjects were more likely to misidentify a harmless tool as a weapon when it was preceded by a black as opposed to a white person Stereotypes and cognitive processing 0 Generally speaking stereotyping is associated with superficial processing In other words 5 cognitive capacity decreases stereotyping increases I Stereotypes are often used as quotcognitive shortcuts or quotjudgmental heuristics when people lack the motivation and ability needed to process information systematically For ex increased stereotyping has been shown when people are 0 Under time pressure 0 Experiencing intense emotions 0 At low circadian arousal I Ex Bodenhausen 1990 randomly assigned quotmorning types or quotevening types to take a morning afternoon or evening experiment They read evidence about a person accused of assault The name was either Robert Garner or Roberto Garcia Results Roberto Garcia was rated as more guilty than Robert Garner when at nonpreferred times of day ie low circadian arousal Basically the evening people used stereotypes in the morning Morning people used stereotypes late at night Why bc morning people got tired late at night and evening people got tired early morning Thus we just don t process well and just use those shortcuts of stereotyping Stereotypes are often used short cuts however they can influence more effortful evaluations 0 Example selffulfilling prophecies I Teachers expectations for Black students are lower than those for Whites regardless of abilities I In a job interview study White interviewers conducted briefer interviews and sat further away from Black applicants Stereotype Suppression 0 Generally attempts to avoid bias require motivation and cognitive capacity I One common way is to suppress stereotypic expectancies and thoughts 0 Ex Macrae and colleagues 1994 gave British subjects a photo of a Skinhead and asked them to write a quotdayinthe life paragraph I 12 of the subjects were told to avoid using any stereotypes and the remaining 12 were told nothing Results of the paragraphwriting task were not surprising Those who were told to avoid stereotypes did and those who weren t did not I After paragraph writing participants were brought into a room and told they would meet the skinhead Subjects chosen seat and distance from the Skinhead s chair were measured chair had a jacket on it and a bag w a swastika on it Results Participants who were told to avoid stereotypes during the writing tasks actually chose to sit further away from the Skinhead This phenomenon has been coined o Rebound Effect suppressing stereotypic thoughts makes them more accessible in the mind and in some cases more likely to influence future actions and thoughts I So as you were writing you were suppressing because someone told you to Afterward when you were told to do whatever you will see more stereotypes that you were holding in Stereotype Change 0 Intuitively we may think increased learning about others can eliminate stereotypes and prejudice I Contact hypothesis the theory that certain types of direct contact bn groups will reduce prejudice I More contact is thought to increase the amount of stereotype inconsistent information s contact enough NO 0 However stereotype inconsistent information is I Often quotexplained away because stereotypic beliefs are quite strong I Or people resort to a specific quotsubtypequot Subtype A narrower more specific social group that is part of a broad social group 0 Eg feminist is a subtype of the larger group women I Other examples quotsensitive man amp quotbusiness women Some research suggests that increased contact can be effective if o It includes a large amount of stereotype inconsistent information so that it cannot be explained away o It involves many group members to limit subtyping o It comes from quottypicalquot group members So contact alone is NOT enough contact requires 0 Equal status 0 Cooperativeinterdependence o Intimacy of contactacquaintance potential 0 Supportive norms From Discussion FiveFactor Model OCEAN Openness 0 Low practicalroutine Example Sheldon cooper on big bang 0 High inventivecurious Example curious George Conscientiousness 0 Low carelessdisorganized 0 High efficientorganized Extraversion 0 Low solitaryreserved Example carl from UP 0 High outgoingenergetic Example Ferris bueller Agreeableness 0 Low coldunkind 0 High friendlycompassionate Neuroticism 0 Low secureconfident 0 High sensitivenervous Identity claim symbols that you choose to put up Examples are posters you choose to putup Behavioral Residue traits that are left behind after an after an activity The 1st Discussion with eperceptions personality impressions based on personal websites 3 questions did the authors attempt to answer Consensus answer yes observers interpret in the same way Accuracy answer yes observers impressions matched friends39 and authors39 reports Impression management answer a little biased but overall fairly accurate Sept 16 IAT Implicit Prejudice unconscious biases automaticimmediate evaluative reactions measured indirectly eg the IAT nonverbal behavior reaction times Explicit Prejudice conscious biases verbally reportedmeasured directly eg surveys feeling thermometer Do social attitudes bias people39s perceptions of the facial emotion displayed by others Implicit prejudice in particular Facial expressions can be ambiguous Implicit prejudices might influence your interpretation fail expressions Hypothesis Ambiguously hostile black faces perceived as a more hostile than similar white faces In line with stereotype of African Americans as aggressive Study 1 watch 4 movie clips and indicate when the initial hostile expression ended Slower RT means longer perception of hostility Took both explicit and implicit measures of prejudice Study 2 same except indicate the onset of the hostile expression Faster reaction time means quicker reaction to hostility Results Study 1 when does anger expression stop Higher implicit but not explicit prejudice was associated with longer response latencies for Black faces Study 2 whites high in implicit prejudice perceived the anger expression in Black faces sooner than in white faces Selffulfilling prophecy if you expect something of someone they may become that way Prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true A Self Fulfilling Prophecy is a prediction that causes it to come true due to the simple fact that the prediction was made This happens because our beliefs influence our actions For example if a woman thinks that her husband will leave her for another woman she will act in ways that will directly or indirectly cause her belief to come true She might get jealous easily and make a fuss about him being friends with other women She might pick fights whenever she suspects that he is cheating on her or she might go through his personal things to look for evidence of cheating Eventually her actions will put a strain on their marriage and her husband just might leave her causing her prediction to come true


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