Midterm study guide
Midterm study guide HST 111 - M001
Popular in Early Modern Europe, 1350-1815
HST 111 - M001
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dylan Cadet on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HST 111 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by C. Kyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Early Modern Europe, 1350-1815 in History at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Constant warfare weakened Europe during the fourteenth century The hundred years war was a war between England and France as England tried to claim territories in France The war took a large amount of money from the aristocracies of both countries and deepened the economic depression The first cause of the hundred year s war was the disputes over the title of duke of Aquitaine The fact that the king of England inherited the title meant they owed military support to the French kings whenever they asked The second cause of the war is succession of the French crown as the heir was Edward 111 but as he already ruled England the French barons did not accept it and elected King Philip VI Edward accepted the ruling until the Philip started hearing judicial appeals from the duchy of Aquitaine and Edward changed his mind and claimed the title of king of France and started the Hundred Years War The war was not a hundred years of battle rather a hundred years of turmoil between the two countries Despite France being the richer of the two the English managed to stay victorious due to better discipline and their longbow as well as battle strategies such as avoiding open battles and preferring raids After the battle of Agincourt in 1415 and the complete victory of Henry the French refused to face England in open battle and acknowledged him as king However in 1422 Henry V was dead and there was again to claimants to the throne Henry VI the son of Henry V and Charles VII the son of Charles VI and the war continued as new By 1429 the English had almost won with the Dauphin Charles penniless and indecisive but Joan of arc got involved and following divine voices lead the French armies to success until she failed to recapture Paris The final victory came from King Charles and the exhaustion of the Englishmen Charles won Aquitaine in 1453 and Calais in 1558 The con ict involved all of Europe at one point or another The war devastated France as most was fought on its ground The deaths of so many nobles and destruction of their fortunes diminished the international luxury trade The war also made England more English After 15 months of success Joan de Arc fell to the hands of the English who brought her to trial for witchcraft as they could not allow their troops to believe she had superior military prowess She stuck to her story of hearing the divine voices of St Catherine St Margaret and the Archangel Michael and the English were only able to sentence her based on her crossed dressing and relapsed heretic as they could not prove to their standards that she was hearing voices of the devil She was burned at the stake In France in1358 a peasant revolt broke out called the J acquerie The peasant indulged in pillaging murder and rape but they had no plan so they had no lasting effect They were quickly defeated by a group of nobles Due to the incessant feuding in Rome seve consecutive popes chose to reside in the relative calm of Avignon France The Babylonian Captivity of the Church The popes became subservient to the kings of France The loss of revenue due to the move caused several popes to be lured into questionable financial schemes Which included accepting kickbacks from appointees to church offices and taking bribes for judicial decisions and selling indulgences Humanism is a renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought Civic Humanism is a branch of humanism introduced by the Florentine chancellor Leonardo Bruni who defended the republican institution and values of the city Civic Humanism promoted the ethic of citizenship Johannes Gutenberg introduced a movable type printing to Europe and started the printing revolution The most important event of modern period He also printed the very first bible in Mainz Germany More books were printed than had ever been copied by scribes during the first year The Encomienda was the basic form of economic and social organization in Spanish America It was created to exploit native labor An encomienda was a royal grant rewarded for military or other services that gave the conquistadores and their successors the right to gather tribute from the Indians in a definite area In return the encomendero the people receiving the tribute had to protect the native and teach them Christianity The encomienda were so large there was only a small number of Spanish settlers that were encomenderos By the 17th century the encomienda s evolved into the haciendas Niccolo Machiavelli is best known as the father of modern political thought His little book the prince unmasked political life He worked as diplomat and a political advisor for 15 years He was imprisoned and tortured and exiled to his suburban farm due to the dis gruntlement of new rulers and suspicion of involvement in an assassination plot Machiavelli thought the world could be set right though concerted political actions Vasco da Gama finally succeeded in sailing from Lisbon to India around the Cape of Good Hope This led to the Portuguese being the first Europeans to establish trading posts in Asia The lusiads was written as a celebration of Vasco da Gama Predestination The doctrine promoted by John Calvin that since God the allknowing and allpowerful being knew everything in advance and caused everything to happen then salvation of any individual was predetermined Petrach was the first humanist Petrach and Valla developed critical methods by editing classical texts to establish the original words a method different from the medieval scribe s temptation to alter or improve a text as he saw fit Petrachs method was called philology Petrach attempted to trace the changes in meaning Luther prepared 95 theses arguments or talking points about indulgences that he announced he was willing to defend in an academic disputation They argued a simple point that salvation could not be bought and sold a proposition that was sound catholic theology and they explicitly accepted the authority of the pope even as they set limits on that authority The 95 theses were translated into German
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