Study Guide for Midterm 2
Study Guide for Midterm 2 3444
Popular in Advertising and Society
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Dahlin on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3444 at Ohio State University taught by Amy Nathanson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 380 views.
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Date Created: 03/23/16
Advertising and Materialism Two viewpoints on advertising and promotion 0 Proponents argue that advertising and promotion Provides information Encourages higher standard of living Creates jobs and helps new rms enter a market Promotes competition in the marketplace 0 Critics argue that advertising and promotion Creates needs and wants among consumers ls more propaganda than information Promotes materialism insecurity and greed Example of DeBeers and Diamonds Declining price of diamonds 1938 Hired a leading NY ad agency Old image luxury extreme wealth Created new image symbol of everlasting love diamondsromance 0 Strategy product placement stores amp society photos stressed size ads placed in magazines w trend in uence 0 De nition of materialism o Orientations emphasizing possessions and money for personal happiness 0 Belief that wellbeing can be enhanced through one s relationship with objects 0 Social values vs material values 0 Social values happy family love low stress leisure time good friends 0 Materialistic values nongenerosity envy possessiveness Materialism and happiness 0 People who strongly orient toward materialistic values report less happiness and satisfaction with their lives 0 Report lower relationship satisfaction 0 Causes of materialism 0 Cultural values 0 Compensation for worriesdoubts about self worth 0 The tendency to make social comparisons Social comparison theory Upward amp downward comparison Advertising and upward social comparison 0 Similar but better world 0 Solution to the gap buy product 0000 0 Association of material and happiness 0 Social comparison theory and upward and downward comparisons Advertising and conditioning 0 Advertising messages are pervasive 0 Repeated exposure to pairing of happiness with Purchase of goods 0 Longitudinal study of TV advertising effects 0 Purpose is to go beyond correlational studies and study the short and long term effects of advertising 0 Examine the interpersonal processes 0 Sample 600 6 12th graders Questionnaires measuring materialism family communication about consumption and the extent that parentscaregivers talk about buying things Results exposure to TV advertising time 1 positively correlated with materialism time 2 Moderated by parental discussion of consumption matters Strongest effects on materialism when related family communication is low 0 Conclusion Advertising seems to contribute to materialism But parents can neutralize these effects by discussing consumption Recent research shows that these conversations can be more effective than restrictive mediation Association between advertising and materialism Association between materialism and happiness 0 The role of parentchild communication about consumption 0 Parental communication can reduce the effect of advertising on materialism Advertising and Politics 0 Political advertising and Eisenhower vs Stevenson o 1952 Eisenhower vs Stevenson MampMs ad by Rosser Reeves melts in your mouth not in your handquot IKE cartoon imagery Stevenson preference to give speeches More classy didn t want to appear in ads himself 0 Effects of advertising including the unintended effects 0 O O 0 Awareness Convey information Increases salience of particular issues perceived importance Candidate preference Unintended effects Too much clutter overwhelms people amp causes them to tune out Can tribulize issues bc ads are so short make them not as serious as they should be Decrease amount of election coverage by news 0 Types of political ads including the research on attack ads 0 Name ID ads Time in Campaign Early people don t know candidate as well Function Establish an identity gain recognition and awareness o Argument ads Time in Campaign Later Function Ideology what they are supporting what are they against what they believe in 0 Attack ads Time in Campaign Later still Function lnsult focus on opponent 0 Positive visionary ads Time in Campaign end of campaign Function lmage want voters to have positive image in heads of candidate think of them as leader gives them nal reason to vote Emotionalvalue appeals in political advertising including examples of fear appeals 0 Use visual symbols to get messages across Flag Hard hat Looking over horizon AllAmerican family Courage strength 0 Emotional appeals Fear appeal 0 Daisy girl atomic bombs Hillary Clinton red phone ad 0 Political ads and the lst amendment 0 Political ads receive more 1St Amendment protection than 00000 0 commercial ads Full FA protection NOT commercial speech McCain ad against Obama Who should quotregulatequot Critics say news reporters fail to deal with misleading statementsmisstatements of fact Perhaps bc of horse race mentality Arguments for and against campaign spending rules 0 Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act 2002 Limits on soft money spending No broadcast ads by private corpsunion orgs within 60 days of a general election or 30 days of a primary Critics First Amendment Complex regulations discourage political giving and grassroots political activism Those in favor of spending limits Concerns of voters have been usurped by the in uence of powerful interest groups 2010 Government can t ban political spending by corporations in elections Advertising amp Stereotypes De nition of stereotype O O O O A standardized mental picture of a group A set of generalized beliefs about the personal attributes of members of a particular group Essence the perception that members of the group is a generic exemplar of a type rather than a unique individual Three Characteristics of Stereotypes 1 Ef cient generalizations to organize information cognitively 2 Valence positive or negative signi cance attached 3 Potentially dangerous Oversimplify Distort in a negative way 0 Frequency of portrayals of racial minorities in advertisements O Clark s Four Stages 1 Nonrecognition Excluded from advertising 0 Doesn t exist 2 Ridicule Dominant group belittles Incompetent unintelligent Buffoons 3 Regulation 0 Begin to appear more frequently and with less negaUvRy Narrow range of rules 4 Respect Full range of roles Good and bad 0 Some portrayals may be stereotypical but there is a wide range 0 Trends over time 19651970 of ethnic minorities in magazine ads doubled lot of research 0 African Americans 1940smid 1960s 3 of characters in magazine ads mostly entertainersathletes 19651969 5 of characters in magazine ads tokenism 1980 Whites visible 97 of TV ad time African Americans 85 1990s African Americans appear in 22 of ads 0 Asian Americans 42 Hispanics 4 Caucasians 83 most likely to be main character Race and types of products and role portrayals 0 African Americans Health and beauty Liquor wine beer Food and beverages Financial products and cars Asians Technology Cosmetics Hispanics Telecommunication Banking and nance African American women in ads are often those whose appearances conform to egocentric ideas of beauty light skin straight hair o Hispanics were virtually nonexistent until 1980 sexualized give or receive sexual looks wear suggestive clothing likely to speak with an accent 74 of characters 0 Age related stereotypes rarely appear on TV only in commercials for healthoriented products often mocked Effects of stereotypes of racial groups and cultivation theory 0 Unlikely effects of a single exposure 0 Question is cumulative effects Dif cult research problem 0 Likely to exert socializing effect Perception of roles Normative expectationsbehavior 0 George Gerbner sociologist suggested TV is a storyteller and a vehicle for socialization It presents a view of the world including pattern of setting casting social typing actions that cut across most program types and de nes TV world The more the viewer watches TV the more their perception of reality is skewed Advertising Sex and Gender 0 Advertising and the roles of women 0 Disproportionately seen in domestic roles Laundry cleaning cooking Child care 0 Business professional community roles downplayed Range of occupational roles has increased 0 The SuperWoman Advertising and the portrayals of women physical appearance age thin ideal 0 Physical appearance Youthbeauty Primary goal stay young and attractive 0 Age Women over 30 and especially those 50 are underrepresented 70 of women in TV ads are under 35 40 of men Thin ideal o Gap widening between models and real women 1975 8 less than the average woman Now 23 less 0 Even young girls are body conscious o Barbies extremely thin 0 Fashion models and extreme dieting O O Distorted idea of beauty Children39s advertising and gender differences in the types of settings and the types of interactions 0 70 60 50 40 l Boys 30 W Girls 20 10 0 home awayoutdoors 90 80 70 60 50 l Girls 40 L Boys 309E 203 105 096 Compe ve Coopera ve Representations of men in advertising 0 O O O Sturdy oak hard working good provider Big wheel trappings of social and nancial success Tough emotionless beings Physical appearance Attractive amp strong Emphasis on young Roles Primarily outside the home Uncomfortableout of place in domestic roles Unable to function with regard to housework child care 0 Need to be bailed out by wife Trends in the sexual elements of ads over time 0 Sexual elements in ads have become Morevisual More overtexplicit De nition of objecti cation O 0 Women or men as sexual objects Women s bodies often used to sell products Body parts 0 Low association and high association ad types 0 0 Food low association Product associated with parts of bodies high association 0 Effects of sexual ads on attention involvementinterest recall attitudes purchase intentions Also know the distraction hypothesis 0 Attention an orienting response 0 Involvement amp Interest 0 Recall o The distraction hypothesis Product category particular appeal 0 Attitudes 0 Purchase intentions o Varies by audience Sex of the viewer usually like the opposite sex however women are more likely to like ads with women than men are to like ads with men Age of viewer college students like sexual ads better than older people Attitudes toward sex in media generally 0 Distraction hypothesis when ads are memorable but you re only remembering them for the sexual appeals not the product but then you associate this with the product Using sexual appeals to distract is theoretically more effective in communications quotsexy stimulus distracts the consumer and no counterarguments to the advertised product are formedquot Suggests that a persuasive message discrepant with a position strongly held by an audience member will be more effective in generating attitude change if the audience is distracted during message presentation Humor is example of source of distraction Children and Advertising Cradle to grave marketing 0 Kids can be socialized into brand loyalty The content of ads targeting kids 0 Ads for toys cereals candy snacks and fastfood restaurants Average tween 812 year old sees 21 food ads per day Very small percentage of healthy foods Food ads more often targeting kids than adults Ads emphasize funhappiness and taste 0 Stereotypes based on gender Effects of ads on children39s recognition of brands desire for products materialism and parent child con ict 0 1 Recognition of Brand Children highly aware of brand names 0 2 Desire for products Compared to light TV viewers children who watch more TV 0 Want more advertised toys Consume more advertised foods 0 Want more brand name products 0 3 Materialism Relationship moderated by parentchild communication about consumption Children who consume more commercial media report more materialistic attitudes o 4 ParentChild Con ict Advertising exposure correlated with more purchase requests More purchase requests associated with more con ict Why young children pay attention to ads 0 Young children process information differently than older children and adults 0 Perceptual boundedness young children focus on perceptually salient cues 0 Ads use attentiongetting formal features Jingles fast cuts animation Older kids pay less attention to these cues 0 Important shift occurs around age 78 Perceptual boundedness Centration Egocentrism o Younger children attend more and longer than older children Younger children can t distinguish ad and program well Distinction made based on perceptual features 0 separators required since 1974 not usually effective 0000 CO o Younger children think ads are there for entertainment or information Programadvertisement discrimination 0 Young children under 5 cannot distinguish commercials from surrounding programs They could accurately identify commercials only 53 of the time about the same as chance Bumpersseparators o Bumpers brief announcement placed between the 0 program and commercial break We ll be right back after these messagesquot These often do not help Too brief Look too much like adjacent programming Understanding persuasive intent O O O 1 The source of the message has other perspectives and other interests than those of the receiver 2 Persuasive messages are biased 3 Biased messages demand different interpretive strategies eg skepticism than do unbiased messages 0 Kids under 78 are relatively egocentric lack perspective taking ability 0 of Children Correctly Identifying Selling 100 9 80 7339 60 40 329 20 0 I Comprehension of disclaimers Online food advertising to children advergames viral marketing 0 O 85 of top food brands that target kids with TV ads have onine ads Allows kids to interact with ads for a longer time more personal experience Advergames 73 Viral marketing 64 0 Regulation of children39s advertising 19705 and 19805 0 Early 19705 Action for Children s Television ACT Separation principle Bumpers Host selling prohibited F I I I I I I 0 19805 Deregulation Rescinded time limits amp program length commercial restrictions Allow market forces Controversy Children39s Television Act of 1990 0 Commercial limits 105 minhour weekends 12 minhour weekdays 0 Commercial limits extended to cable TV networks Questionable govt authority to regulate Industry accepted willingly Regulation by the FTC in 1978 o 1978 proposed rule that would ban or severely restrict all TV advertising to children 0 lnherently unfair to target children too young to understand persuasive intent o Broadcasters ad industry corporations opposed the ban Advertising in Schools 0 Advertising in schools history and types with special focus on SEMs o The concept itself is not new lvory Soap sponsored soapcarving competition Publicprivate partnerships Sponsored magazinessupplements Advertisers buy ads on cafeteria tray liners bathroom stalls book covers and team warmup suits Vending Machine Deals Locker rooms hallways score boards report cards Advertising invades the classroom Brands and logos in textbooks Sponsored educational materials SEMs Reach gt 12000 companies 0 00000 Common where textbooks are old andor funds are limited Critics argue Primary objective is not education 0 Not an objective source 0 Con ict of interest Prego Thickness Experimentquot Study of SEMs by Consumer Union 0 80 of SEMs quotcontained biased or incomplete information promoting a viewpoint that favors consumption of the sponsor s product or service or a position that favors the company s economic agendaquot Channel One what is it what39s on it criticism supporters who usesit o 12 minute daily TV news 0 Broadcast quotfreequot to schools 3year contract promising to show Channel One on 90 of school days in 80 of classrooms Schools receive AV equipment install amp tech support 0 What s on Channel One News of current events political issues Some criticism of quality Oversimplifying issues Ignoring breaking news 0 Focus on consumption Program has received many awards Peabody 70 of ads are for food mostly gum soda fast food candy chips 0 Criticism Unethical counter to what schools are entrusted to do Classroommarketplace for ideas not commercial products Ads contradict school lessons Tacit endorsement Displacement of time o The other side Captive Audience argues passionately against educational value of Channel One Other side has been argued by media literacy educator Renee Hobbs Hobbs who has been paid by Channel One to develop curricula has argued in favor of Channel One s educational value o It allows opportunities to integrate media literacy concepts into school curriculum 0 Opportunity to build ties bt classroom and culture 0 See the relevance of schoolwork to larger culture 0 Who uses Channel One SES differences Lowincome schools 0 Schools with less money to spend on educational materials Concern unequal education 0 Education is not the prime objective 0 Displacement
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