Anatomy study guides
Anatomy study guides Kin 290
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leonard Carey on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Kin 290 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Satern in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Kinesiology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 03/23/16
Chapter 1 – The Human Body: An Orientation The Human Body: An Orientation Themes and Assumptions Complementarity of structure and function Hierarchy of structure and function Homeostasis Reference male and female Young and healthy Age = 22 Weight Male = 155 lbs Female = 125 lbs Why This Matters Learning and understanding anatomical terminology allows you to communicate accurately with your colleagues in the health sciences In this chapter, you will learn that: Anatomy and physiology provide a framework that helps us understand the human body, by asking: 1.1 What are anatomy and physiology, and how are they related? 1.2 How is the body organized structurally? 1.3 What are the requirements for life? 1.4 How does the body keep its internal environment in balance? 1.5 What terms do we need to describe anatomy? And exploring 1.6 Body cavities and membranes 1.1 Form (anatomy) determines function (physiology) Learning Objectives Define anatomy and physiology and describe their subdivisions. i) AnatomyStudy of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another. (1) Gross or Macroscopic anatomy the study of large, visible structures. (a) Microscopicanatomy deals with the structures too small to be seen by naked eye (b) Development anatomy studies anatomical and physiological development throughout life. Our profession focuses on adult anatomy. ii) PhysiologyStudy of the function of body parts: how they work to carry out lifesustaining activities. (1) Based on organ systems (2) Often focuses on cellular and molecular levels of the body Explain the principle of complementarity. i) Anatomy complements physiology. Check your Understanding In what way does physiology depend on anatomy? Would you be studying anatomy or physiology if you investigated how muscles shorten? If you explored the location of the lungs in the body? 1.2 The body’s organization ranges from atoms to the entire organism Learning Objectives 1. Name the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships. Chemical level: atoms, molecules, and organelles Cellular level: single cell Tissue level: groups of similar cells Organ level: contains two or more types of tissues Organ system level: organs that work closely together Organismal level: all organ systems combined to make the whole organism 2. List the 11 organ systems of the body, identify their components, and briefly explain the major function(s) of each system. I. Integumentary System: Skin, Hair, Nails II. Skeletal System: bones in the body as well as joints. III. Muscular system: Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains poster and produces heat. IV. Nervous system: Communication system, nerves brain, spinal cord. Uses electricity. V. Endocrine System: Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use(metabolism) by blood cells. VI. Cardiovascular System: Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon, dioxide, nutrients, waste. VII. Lymhatic System/Immune: VIII. Digestive System: IX. Reproductive System: Overall functioning of offspring. Check your Understanding 3. What level of structural organization is typical of a cytologist’s field of study? 4. What is the correct structural order for the following terms: tissue, organism, organ, cell? 5. Which organ system includes the bones and cartilages? Which includes the nasal cavity, lungs, and trachea? 1.3 What are the requirements for life? Learning Objectives List the functional characteristics necessary to maintain life in humans. Maintaining boundaries Separation between internal and external environments must exist Plasma membranes separate cells (can enter and exit cell) Skin separates organism from environment Movement Muscular system allows movement Of body parts via skeletal muscle (allows us to move total body) Of substances via cardiac muscle (blood) and smooth muscle (digestion, urination) Contractility refers to movement at the cellular level(muscle cell can contract) Responsiveness Ability to sense and respond to stimuli (or changes in the body) Withdrawal reflex prevents injury Control of breathing rate, which must change in response to different activities (survival instinct) Digestion Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs, followed by absorption of simple molecules into the blood Metabolism All chemical reactions that occur in body cells (part of digestion) Sum of all catabolism (breakdown of molecules, complex to simple) and anabolism (synthesis of molecules, combining of molecules, simple to complex) Excretion Process of getting rid of waste, removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion Urea (from breakdown of proteins, gets rid of some nitrogen), carbon dioxide (from metabolism, breathing), feces (unabsorbed foods, plant products help this process) Reproduction At cellular level, reproduction involves division of cells for growth or repair At the organismal level, reproduction is production of offspring Growth Increase in size of a body part or of organism (cellular level) Humans are multicellular, so to function individual cells must be kept alive Organ systems are designed to service the cells All cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs List the survival needs of the body. Nutrients Chemicals for energy and cell building Carbohydrates: major source of energy (primary plants) Proteins: needed for cell building and cell chemistry (primary meats) Fats: longterm energy storage (very important to have, store more energy with less weight) Minerals and vitamins: involved in chemical reactions as well as for structural purposes Oxygen Essential for release of energy from foods The body can survive only a few minutes without oxygen Water The most abundant chemical in body; provides the watery environment needed for chemical reactions Also is fluid base for secretion and excretions Normal body temperature If body temp falls below or goes above 37C, rates of chemical reactions and affected. (over 100F can be life threatening, below 94 can be life threating as well) Appropriate atmospheric pressure Specific pressure of air is needed for adequate breathing and gas exchange in lungs. Check your Understanding 6. What separates living beings from nonliving objects? 7. What name is given to all chemical reactions that occur within body cells? 8. Why is it necessary to be in a pressurized cabin when flying at 30,000 feet? 1.4 Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback Learning Objectives Define homeostasis and explain its significance. Describe how negative and positive feedback maintain body homeostasis. Homeostasis is the maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in environment A dynamic state of equilibrium, always readjusting as needed Maintained by contributions of all organ systems Receptor (sensor) Monitors environment Responds to stimuli (things that cause changes in controlled variables) Control Center Determines set point at which variable is maintained Receives input from receptor Determines appropriate response Effector Receives output from control center Provides the means to respond Response either reduce stimulus (negative feedback) or enhances stimulus (positive feedback) Negative feedback Mostused feedback mechanism in body Response reduces or shuts off original stimulus Variable changes in opposite direction of initial change Example: Regulation of body temperature (a nervous system mechanism) Regulation of blood glucose by insulin (an endocrine system mechanism) Describe the relationship between homeostatic imbalance and disease. Stimulus produces change in variable Receptor detects change Input information sent afferent pathway to control center Control center (Afferent toward control center, Efferent away from control center.) Output information sent along efferent pathway effector Response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level. Positive feedback Response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus May exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect as feedback causes variable to continue in same direction as initial change Usually controls infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustment, for example: Enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin Platelet plug formation and blood clotting Disturbance of homeostasis Increases risk of disease Contributes to changes associated with aging Control systems become less efficient If negative feedback mechanisms become overwhelmed, destructive positive feedback mechanisms may take over (meant to repair) Heart failure 1.5 Anatomical terms describe body directions, regions, and planes Learning Objectives Describe the anatomical position. Use correct anatomical terms to describe body directions, regions, and body planes or sections. Check your Understanding 12.What is the anatomical position? Why is it important that you learn this position? 13. The axillary and acromial regions are both in the general area of the shoulder. Where specifically is each located? 14. What type of cut would separate the brain into anterior and posterior parts? 1.6 Many internal organs lie in membranelined body cavities Learning Objectives Locate and name the major body cavities and their subdivisions and associated membranes, and list the major organs contained within them. Name the four quadrants or nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity and list the organs they contain. Check your Understanding 15. Joe went to the emergency room where he complained of severe pains in the lower right quadrant of his abdomen. What might be his problem? 16. Of the uterus, small intestine, spinal cord, and heart, which is/are in the dorsal body cavity? NOTE: Check your answers with those provided in the Answers Appendix on p. A1 of the textbook. 1 Chapter 2 – Chemistry Comes Alive In this chapter, you will learn that: Chemical reactions underlie all physiological processes by investigating: PART 1: BASIC CHEMISTRY by differentiating between 2.1 Matter and energy, and looking closer at 2.2 Atoms and elements, then asking 2.3 How is matter combined into molecules and mixtures? and 2.4 What are the three kinds of chemical bonds? and 2.5 How do chemical reactions form, rearrange, or break bonds? PART 2: BIOCHEMISTRY by asking 2.6 What is the importance of inorganic compounds to the body? then examining Organic compounds, by asking 2.7 How are large organic compounds made and broken down? And looking closer at 2.8. Carbohydrates 2.9 Lipids 2.10 Proteins 2.11 Nucleic Acids, and looking closer at 2.12 The energy currency ATP PART 1: BASIC CHEMISTRY 2.1 Matter is the stuff of the universe and energy moves matter Learning Objectives Differentiate between matter and energy and between potential energy and kinetic energy. o Matter is anything that has mass and occupies (takes up) space o Energy is the capacity (ability) to do work or put matter into motion. Kinetic energy is energy in action Potential energy is stored (inactive) energy Describe the major energy forms. o ChemicalStored in bonds of chemical substances (when atoms move together) o Electrical Results from movement of charged particles (ions) o Mechanical energy Directly involved in moving matter (potential and kinetic) o Radiant or electromagnetic Travels in waves (heat, visible light, ultraviolet light) 2.2 The properties of an element depend on the structure of its atoms Learning Objectives 2 Define chemical element and list the four elements that form the bulk of body matter. o All elements are made up of atoms, are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods. o Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen Define atom. List the subatomic particles, and describe their relative masses, charges, and positions in the atom. o Composed of three subatomic particles: Protons (1) positive, Neutrons (1) no charge, Electrons (0) negative charge Define atomic number, atomic mass, and isotope. o Atomic Number: Number of protons in nucleus o Atomic Mass: Average of mass numbers of all isotope forms of an atom o Isotope: Structural variations of same element, atoms contain same number of protons but differ in the number of neutrons they contain. 2.3 Atoms bound together form molecules; different molecules can make mixtures Learning Objectives Define molecule, and distinguish between a compound and a mixture. o Molecule: general term for 2 or more atoms bonded together o Compound: specific molecule that has 2 or more different kinds of atoms bonding together o Mixture: two or more components that are physically intermixed Define and describe solutions. o Homogeneous mixtures, meaning particles are evenly distributed throughout; Solvent (larger amount) and Solute (dissolved in solvent) 2.4 The three types of chemical bonds are ionic, covalent, and hydrogen Learning Objectives Explain the role of electrons in chemical bonding and in relation to the octet rule. o Atoms desire 8 electrons in their valence shell Differentiate between ionic and covalent bonds. o Ionic bonds: Ions are atoms that have gained or lost electrons and become charged. Number of protons does not equal number of electrons. o Covalent bonds: formed by sharing of two or more valence shell electrons between two atoms. Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar compounds. o Polar: Unequal sharing of electrons between 2 atoms, results in electrically polar molecules. o Nonpolar: Equal sharing of electrons between atoms, results in electrically balanced, nonpolar molecules such as CO 2 2.5 Chemical reactions occur when electrons are shared, gained, or lost 3 Learning Objectives Define the three major types of chemical reactions. o Synthesis (combination): reactions involve atoms or molecules combing to form larger, more complex molecule A + B = AB o Decomposition: reactions involve breakdown of a molecule into smaller molecules or its constituent atoms AB = A +B o Exchange: reactions, also called displacement reactions, involve both synthesis and decomposition, AB + C = AC + B and AB + CD = AD + CB Explain why chemical reactions in the body are often irreversible. o Energy requirements to go backward are too high, or products have been removed Describe factors that affect chemical reaction rates. o Temperature, concentration of reactants, particle size PART 2: BIOCHEMISTRY 2.6 Inorganic compounds include water, salts, and many acids and bases Learning Objectives Explain the importance of water and salts to body homeostasis. o Water accounts for 6080% of the volume of living cells o Salts are all electrolytes Define acid and base, and explain the concept of pH. + o Acids are proton donors: they release hydrogen ions (H ),bare protons (have no electrons) in solution o Bases are proton acceptors: they pick up H ions in solution o PH is Acidbase concentration 2.7 Organic compounds are made by dehydration synthesis and broken down by hydrolysis Learning Objectives Explain the role of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis in forming and breaking down organic molecules. o Many are polymers: chains of similar units called monomers (building blocks) o Synthesized by dehydration synthesis o Broken down by hydrolysis reactions 2.8 Carbohydrates provide an easily used energy source for the body Learning Objectives Describe the building blocks, general structure, and biological functions of carbohydrates. o Contain C, H, and O o Monosaccharides: one single sugar o Disaccharides: two sugars 4 o Polysaccharides: Many sugars 2.9 Lipids insulate body organs, build cell membranes, and provide stored energy Learning Objectives Describe the building blocks, general structure, and biological functions of lipids. o Contain C, H, O but less than in carbohydrates, and sometimes contain P o Insoluable in water o Main types: Triglycerides or neutral fats Phospholipids Steroids Eicosanoids 2.10 Proteins are the body’s basic structural material and have many vital functions Learning Objectives Describe the basic structure of proteins. o Comprise 2030% of cell mass o Have most varied functions of any molecules: chemical (enzymes), Contraction (muscles) o Contain C, H, O, N, and sometimes S and P o Polymers of amino acid monomers held together by peptide bonds o Shape and function due to four structural levels Describe enzyme action. o Globular proteins that act as biological catalyst 2.11 DNA and RNA store, transmit, and help express genetic information Learning Objectives Compare and contract DNA and RNA. o DNA: hold the genetic blueprint for the synthesis of all proteins o RNA: links DNA to protein synthesis and is slightly different fro DNA 2.12 ATP transfers energy to other compounds Learning Objectives Explain the role of ATP in cell metabolism. o Chemical energy released when glucose is broken down o Directly powers chemical reactions in cells NOTE: Check your answers with those provided in the Answers Appendix on p. A1 of the textbook. 1 Chapter 3 – Cells: The Living Units In this chapter, you will learn that: 3.1 Cells are the smallest unit of life by exploring: PART 1: PLASMA MEMBRANE by asking 3.2 What is the structure of the plasma membrane? How do substances move across the plasma membrane? Looking closer at 3.3 Passive membrane transport 3.4 Active membrane transport 3.5 How does a cell generate a voltage across its plasma membrane? 3.1 Cells are the smallest unit Learning Objectives Define cell. o The structural and functional unit of life List the three major regions of a generalized cell and their functions. o Plasma membrane: flexible outer boundary o Cytoplasm: intracellular fluid containing organelles o Nucleus: DNA containing control center 3.2 The fluid mosaic model depicts the plasma membrane as a double layer of phospholipids with embedded proteins Learning Objectives Describe the chemical composition of the plasma membrane and relate it to membrane functions. o Consist of membrane lipids that form a flexible lipid bilayer o Specialized membrane proteins float through this fluid membrane, resulting in constantly changing patterns o Surface sugars form glycocalyx o Membrane structures help to hold cells together through cell junctions 3.3 Passive membrane transport is diffusion of molecules down their concentration gradient Learning Objectives Relate plasma membrane structure to passive transport processes. o Diffusion Simple diffusion Carrier and channel mediated facilitated diffusion Osmosis 2 o Filtration Type of transport hat usually occurs across capillary walls Compare and contrast simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis relative to substances transported, direction, and mechanism. o Simple diffusion: Nonpolar lipidsoluble (hydrophobic) substances diffuse directly through phospholipid bilayer o Facilitated diffusion: Certain hydrophobic molecules (e.g., glucose, amino acids, and ions) are transported passively down their concentration gradient by: Carriermediated facilitated diffusion: substances bind to protein carriers Channelmediated facilitated diffusion: Substances move through waterfilled channels o Osmosis: movement of solvent, such as water, across a selectively permeable membrane Water diffuses through plasma membranes 3.4 Active membrane transport directly or indirectly used ATP Learning Objectives Differentiate between primary and secondary active transport. o Primary active transport: Required energy comes directly from ATP hydrolysis o Secondary active transport: Required energy is obtained indirectly from ionic gradients created by primary active transport 3.5 Selective diffusion establishes the membrane potential Learning Objectives Define membrane potential and explain how the resting membrane potential is established and maintained. o RMP: electrical potential energy produced by separation of oppositely charged particles across plasma membrane in all cells Difference in electrical charge between two points is referred to as voltage Cells that have a charge are said to be polarized o Voltage occurs only at membrane surface NOTE: Check your answers with those provided in the Answers Appendix on p. A1 of the textbook. 1 Chapter 4 – Tissues: The Living Fabric In this chapter, you will learn that: 4.1 Tissues are groups of cells similar in structure that perform a common or related function by comparing: 4.2 Epithelial tissue: Coverings and linings, one nucleus per cell Lining of digestive tract organs and other hollow organs Skin surface (epidermis) 4.3 Connective tissue 4.4 Muscle tissue: Movement (Muscle attached to bones (skeletal) Muscles of heart (cardiac) Muscles of walls of hollow organs (smooth) 4.5 Nervous tissue: control (brain, spinal cord, nerves) 4.2 Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines cavities, and forms glands Learning Objectives List several structural and functional characteristics of epithelial tissue. o A sheet of cells that covers body surfaces or cavities o Polarity (Apical: upper side, exposed to surface; Basal: lower side, faces inward toward body) o Specialized contacts (very tightly attached to each other) o Supported by connective tissues (all epithelial sheets are supported by connective tissue, basement membrane attached to organ underneath. o Avascular (no blood supply), innervated (has nerve fibers) o Regeneration (cells replace themselves) Name, classify, and describe the various types of epithelia, and indicate their chief function(s) and location(s). o Coverings and lining epithelia On external and internal surfaces (example: skin) o Simple epithelia: single layer thick, involved in absorption, secretion, or filtration processes, kidney and lungs o Stratified epithelia: two or more layers thick and involved in protection (i.e. skin), located in areas of high wear and tear (example:skin) o Squamous: flattened and scalelike o Cuboidal: boxlike, cube, forms walls of smallest ducts of glands and many kidney tubules o Columnar: tall, columnlike, Found in digestive track, gallbladder, ducts of some glands, bronchi and uterine tubes 2 4.3 Connective tissue is the most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body Learning Objectives Indicate common characteristics of connective tissue, and list and describe its structural elements. o All have common embryonic organ all arise from mesenchyme tissue o Have varying degrees of vascularity o Cells are suspended/embedded in extracellular matrix(ECM) o Three main elements Ground substance: makes up extracellular matrix with fiber, Unstructured gellike material that fills space between cells Fibers: make up extracellular matrix with ground substance Collagen o Strongest and most abundant fiber o Tough, provides high tensile strength Elastic Fibers: elastin fibers that allow for stretch and recoil Cells: Blast (developing cells), cyte (mature cells) Fat cells: store nutrients, size of fat cells says how much energy is stored White blood cells: Neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes; tissue response to injury Mast cells: Initiate local inflammatory response against foreign microorganisms they detect Macrophages: Phagocytic cells that “eat” dead cells, microorganisms; function in immune system Describe the types of connective tissue found in the body, and indicate their characteristic functions. o Connective tissue proper (reflects tendons and ligaments) CT proper: loose connective tissues Areolar connective tissue: Most widely distributed CT, Supports and binds other tissues, Contains fibroblasts that secrete loose arrangement of mostly collagen fibers, Macrophages and fat cells are contained in spaces Adipose tissue (refers to fat): White fat o Similar to areolar tissue but greater nutrient storage o Cells are called adipocytes o Scanty matrix o Richly vascularized o Functions in shock absorption, insulation, and energy storage o Brown fat 3 Dense irregular connective tissue: found in dermis, fibrous joint capsules, fibrous coverings of some organs Elastic connective tissue: Some ligaments are very elastic, Also found in walls of many large arteries. Cartilage: Matrix secreted from chondroblasts (during growth) and chondrocytes (adults); Avascular: receives nutrients from membrane surrounding it (perichondrium) Hyaline cartilage: Most abundant, found at tips of long bones Elastic cartilage: found in ears and epiglottis Fibrocartilage: Strong, so found in areas such as intervertebral discs and knee Bone: also called osseous tissue, osteoblast produce matrix (bone building cells), osteocytes maintain the matrix (mature bone cells) Blood: consists of cells surrounded by matrix (plasma), red blood cells are most common cell type 4.4 Muscle tissue is responsible for body movement Learning Objectives Compare and contrast the structures and body locations of the three types of muscle tissue. o Skeletal muscle tissue Attached to and causes movement of bones, voluntary muscle o Cardiac muscle tissue Found only in walls of heart, involuntary movement, contains striations but cells have one nucleus o Smooth muscle tissue Found mainly in walls of hollow organs (other than heart), involuntary movement, has no visible striations 4.5 Nervous tissue is a specialized tissue of the nervous system Learning Objectives Indicate the general characteristics of nervous tissue. o Regulates and controls body functions, Neurons: specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses 1 Chapter 5 – The Integumentary System In this chapter, you will learn that: The skin and its derivatives serve several (mostly protective) functions by first asking: 5.1 What is the structure of skin? using information from Chapter 4 Tissues and looking closer at 5.2 Epidermis 5.3 Dermis and asking 5.4 What causes skin color? then learning about The appendages of the skin by looking closer at 5.5 Hair 5.6 Nails 5.7 Sweat and sebaceous glands 5.1 The skin consists of two layers: The epidermis and dermis Learning Objectives List the two layers of skin and briefly describe subcutaneous tissue o Epidermis: Superficial region (the outer most region) Consist of epithelial tissue and is avascular. o Dermis: Underlies epidermis Mostly fibrous connective tissue, vascular. Check your Understanding 1. Which layer of the skin – dermis or epidermis – is better nourished? a. The dermis. 5.2 The epidermis is a keratnized stratified squamous epithelium Learning Objectives Name the tissue type composing the epidermis. o Epithelium Check your Understanding 5.3 The dermis consists of papillary and reticular layers Learning Objectives Name the tissue types composing the dermis. List its major layers and describe the functions of each layer. o Papillary Layer Superficial layer of areolar connective tissue consisting of loose, interlacing collagen and elastic fibers and blood vessels. Dermal papillae Superficial region of dermis that sends fingerlike projections up into epidermis 5.4 Melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin determine skin color 2 Learning Objectives Describe the factors that normally contribute to skin color. o Melanin, carotene, hemoglobin 5.5 Hair consists of dead, keratinized cells Learning Objectives Describe the functional relationship of arrector pili muscles to the hair follicles. o Small band of smooth muscle attached to follicle Responsible for “goose bumps” Name the regions of a hair and explain the basis of hair color. o Shaft: area that extends above scalp, where keratinization is complete o Root: area within scalp, where keratinization is still going on 5.6 Nails are scalelike modifications of the epidermis Learning Objectives Describe the structure of nails o Scalelike modifications of epidermis that contain hard keratin o Consist of free edge, nail plate, and root. 5.7 Sweat glands help control body temperature, and sebaceous glands secrete sebum Learning Objectives Compare the structure and locations of sweat and oil glands. Also, compare the composition and functions of their secretions. o Sebaceous (oil) Glands: Widely distributed, except for thick skin of palms and soles. Most develop from hair follicles and secrete into hair follicles. Relatively inactive until puberty. (Stimulated by hormones) Secrete Sebum: softens hair and skin o Eccrine (merocrine): regulate body temperature. o Apocrine: Confined to axillary and anal genital areas. Reason for body odar. Begin functioning at puberty. 5.8 First and foremost, the skin is a barrier Learning Objectives Describe how the skin accomplishes at least five different functions. o Protection o Body temperature regulation o Cutaneous sensations o Metabolic functions o Excretion of wastes 3 NOTE: Check your answers with those provided in the Answers Appendix on p. A1 of the textbook. 1 Chapter 6 – Bones and Skeletal Tissues In this chapter, you will learn that: Bones and cartilages form the internal supports of the body by first exploring: 6.1 Skeletal cartilages, and asking 6.2 What functions do bones perform? and 6.3 How are bones classified? Looking closer at 6.4 Bone structure, and next asking 6.5 How do bones develop? and 6.6 How are bones remodeled? and 6.7 How are bones repaired? Then asking 6.8 What happens when things go wrong? 6.1 Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage help form the skeleton Learning Objectives Describe the functional properties of the three types of cartilage tissue. Skeletal cartilage: made of highly resilient, molded cartilage tissue that consists primarily of water Contains no blood vessels or nerves Perichondrium: layer of dense connective tissue surrounding cartilage like a girdle Helps cartilage resist outward expansion Contains blood vessels for nutrient delivery to cartilage Cartilage is made up of chondrocytes, cells encased in small cavities (lacunae) within jellylike extracellular matrix Locate the major cartilages of the adult skeleton. Hayline cartilage Provides support, flexibility, and resilience Most abundant type; contains collagen fibers only Articular (joints), costal (ribs), respiratory (larynx), nasal cartilage (nose tip) Elastic Cartilage Similar to hyaline cartilage, but contains elastic fibers External ear and epiglottis Fibrocartilage Thick collagen fibers – has great tensile strength Menisci of knee; vertebral disc. Explain how cartilage grows. Appositional growth Cartilageforming cells in perichondrium secrete matrix against external face of existing cartilage. New matrix laid down on surface of cartilage 2 Interstitial growth Chondrocytes within lacunae divided and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within New matrix made within cartilage. Check your Understanding 1. Which type of cartilage is most plentiful in the adult body? 2. What two body structures contain flexible elastic cartilage? 3. Cartilage grows by interstitial growth. What does this mean? 6.2 Bones perform several important functions Learning Objectives List and describe seven important functions of bones. Support: For body and soft organs Protection: Protect brain, spinal cord, and vital organs Movement: Levers for muscle action Mineral and growth factor storage Calcium and phosphorus, and growth factors reservoir Blood cell formations: Hematopoiesis occurs in red marrow cavities of certain bones. Triglyceride (fat) storage Fat, used for an energy source, is stored in bone cavities Hormone production Osteocalcin secreted by bones helps to regulate insulin secretion, glucose levels, and metabolism. Check your Understanding 4. What is the functional relationship between skeletal muscles and bones? 5. What two types of substances are stored in bone matrix? 6. Describe two functions of a bone’s marrow cavities. 6.3 Bones are classified by their location and shape Learning Objectives Name the major regions of the skeleton and describe their relative functions. Axial skeleton Long axis of body Skull, vertebral column, rib cage Appendicular skeleton Bones of upper and lower limbs Girdles attaching limbs to axial skeleton Compare and contrast the four bone classes and provide examples of each class. Long bones: 3 Longer than they are wide Limb bones Short bones: Cubeshaped bones (in wrist and ankle) Sesamoid bones from within tendons (example: patella) Vary in size and number in different individuals Flat bones: Thin, flat, slightly curved Sternum, scapulae, ribs, most skull bones Irregular bones: Complicated shapes Vertebrae and hip bones Check your Understanding 7. What are the components of the axial skeleton? Skull, vertebral column, rib cage 8. Contrast the general function of the axial skeleton to that of the appendicular skeleton. 9. What bone class do the ribs and skull bones fall into? Axial Skeleton 6.4 The gross structure of all bones consists of compact bone sandwiching spongy bone Learning Objectives Describe the gross anatomy of a typical flat bone and a long bone. Indicate the locations and functions of red and yellow marrow, articular cartilage, periosteum, and endosteum. (highlighted in notes) Indicate the functional importance of bone markings. Sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment on external surfaces. Areas involved in joint formation or conduits for blood vessels and nerves. Describe the histology of compact and spongy bone. Compact Bone: Dense outer layer on every bone that appears smooth and solid Spongy bone: Made up of a honeycomb of small, needlelike or flat pieces of bone called trabeculae Open spaces between trabeculae are filled with red or yellow bone marrow. Discuss the chemical composition of bone and the advantages conferred by its organic and inorganic components. (highlighted in notes) Check your Understanding 10. Are crests, tubercles, and spines bony projections or depressions? 11. How does the structure of compact bone differ from that of spongy bone when viewed with the naked eye? Compact bone appears smooth and solid, and spongy bone appears like a sponge, with small honeycomb of small, needlelike flat pieces of bone. 4 12. Which membrane lines the internal canals and covers the trabeculae of a bone? Endosteum 13. Which component of bone – organic or inorganic – makes it hard? Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts) 6.5 Bones develop either by intramembranous or endochondral ossification Learning Objectives Compare and contrast intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. o Endochondral ossification Bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage Bones are called cartilage (endochondral) bones Form most of skeleton o Intramembranous ossification Bone develops from fibrous membrane Bones are called membrane bones. Describe the process of long bone growth that occurs at the epiphyseal plates. o (highlighted in outline) Check your Understanding 15. Bones don’t begin with bone tissue. What do they begin with? 16. When describing endochondral ossification, some say “bone chases cartilage.” What does that mean? 17.Where is the primary ossification center located in a long bone? 18.As a long bone grows in length, what is happening in the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal plate? 6.6 Bone remodeling involves bone deposit and removal Learning Objectives Compare the locations and remodeling functions of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. o (Highlighted in outline) Explain how hormones and physical stress regulate bone remodeling. o (Highlighted in outline) Check your Understanding 19. If osteoclasts in a long bone are more active than osteoblasts, how will bone mass change? 20. Which stimulus – PTH (a hormone) or mechanical forces acting on the skeleton – is more important in maintaining homeostatic blood calcium levels? 21. How do bone growth and bone remodeling differ? 6.8 Bone disorders result from abnormal bone deposition and resorption Learning Objectives Describe the disorder of bone remodeling seen in osteoporosis. 5 o Is a group of diseases in which bone resorption exceeds deposit Matrix remains normal, but bone mass declines. Spongy bone of spine and neck of femur most susceptible. Vertebral and hip fractures common Check your Understanding 24. What are three measures that may help to maintain healthy bone density? NOTE: Check your answers with those provided in the Answers Appendix on p. A1 of the textbook.
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