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Study Guide for Exam 4

by: Casey McConnell

Study Guide for Exam 4 211

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Biology > 211 > Study Guide for Exam 4
Casey McConnell

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Here's a detailed review sheet that will prepare you for the exam
Principles of biology I
Dr. Colbert
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Casey McConnell on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 211 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Colbert in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Principles of biology I in Biology at Iowa State University.

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Date Created: 03/23/16
Practice Exam 4 Leader: Hannah  Course: BIOL 211 (2) Worksheet 4.5 Supplemental Instruction Instructor: Dr. Waldman  Iowa State University Date: 03/23/16 Chapter 12 & 13: 1.) Label the parts of the following figure: chromosome, centromere, chromatid, sister  chromatids, homologous chromosomes. How many chromosomes & chromatids are  here? Chromosome 2.) What are the 4 phases of the cell cycle? What occurs during each of these phases? M­Phase­­­Mitosis (cell division) G1, G21 Phases­­­cell growth­­­organelle replication S­Phase­­­DNA replication 3.) Fill out the table comparing mitosis and meiosis.  # of cell # of chromosomes Synapsis of Crossing Genetic Role in life divisions (parent vs. homologs? over? material cycle daughter cell) (parent vs. daughter) Mitosis ­Asexual  1 Same No No Same  reproduction ­Somatic cell  production Meiosis ­Gamete  2 Half Yes Yes Different production ­Sexual  Reproduction 4.) How does cytokinesis differ between plants and animals?  Cytokinesis­­­division of cytoplasm after telophase Plants­­vesicles form a cell plate Animals­­actin/myosin pinch a ring forms a cleavage furrow  1060 Hixson­Lied Student Success Center  v  515­294­6624  v  v 5.) Compare the events that occur during mitosis and both meiosis I and II. Mitosis Meiosis I Meiosis II Prophase ­Chormosomes condense and  ­Early: chromosomes condense  ­Spindle apparatus forms become visible  and spindle apparatus forms ­Spindle apparatus forms ­Synapsis of homologs to form  bivalent   Prometaphase ­Nuclear envelope breaks  NO PROMETAPHASE NO PROMETAPHSE down ­Late prophase: nuclear envelope breaks down ­Microtubules attach ­Crossing over on chiasmata Metaphase ­Chromosomes line up in the  ­Bivalents move to middle of the  ­Chromosomes move to the  middle of the cell (metaphase  cell middle of the cell  plate) Anaphase ­Sister chromatids separate  ­Homologous chromosomes  ­Sister chromatids separate  and move to opposite poles  separate and move to opposite  and move to opposite poles poles  Telophase &  ­Spindle apparatus breaks  ­Spindle apparatus breaks down ­Spindle apparatus breaks  Cytokinesis down ­Nuclear envelope reforms down  ­Nuclear envelope reforms  ­Cytoplasm divides ­Nuclear envelope reforms  ­Cytoplasm divides  ­2 haploid daughter cells   ­Cytoplasm divides ­2 identical diploid daughter  ­4 haploid daughter cells  cells   6.) What is cancer? What are the two main causes and types of tumors? Cancer­­­uncontrolled cell growth Causes­­viruses and genetic mutations Types of tumors Malignant­­invasive (cancerous and can spread) Benign­­non­invasive (non­cancerous and won’t spread) 7.) What are the 2 hypotheses proposed in lecture for the existence of sexual reproduction?  1) Purifying Selection Hypothesis­­­natural selection acting against harmful  alleles 2) Changing Environment Hypothesis­­­genetically variable offspring are more  likely to survive in a changing environment  8.) What are 3 ways sexual reproduction creates genetic variability. When do they occur and  why are they important? 1) Independent assortment of chormosomes during meiosis I ­create new combinations of chromosomes  2) Crossing over at chiasmata during meiosis I  ­create new combinations of alleles on the homologous chromosomes 3)  Random combinations of gametes during fertilization 9.) Turner’s syndrome (a monosomy) and Down syndrome (a trisomy) occur when  nondisjunction occurs. What does this mean and where does it occur? Nondisjuction­­­when the homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to  separate during meiosis I and II and gamete production  Meiosis I­­­resulting in 4 abnormal gametes Meiosis II­­­resulting in 2 abnormal gametes Likely to increase with mother’s age 10.) Use the picture below to answer the following questions.    a. Is this organism a male or a female? Male b. How many pairs of autosomes does this organism have? 3 c. What is the haploid number of this organism? Diploid number? Haploid number is 4 and Diploid number is 8 d. If this organism was triploid instead of diploid, how would mitosis and meiosis be affected?  Mitosis will not be affected The individual will not undergo normal Meiosis e. How will the ploidy of each daughter cell in this organism change after meiosis I  and II? Meiosis I­­­reduced from diploid to haploid  Meiosis II­­­stays at haploid  f. How will the number of chromatids of each daughter cell in this organism change  after meiosis I and II?  Reduced by half after meiosis I and II Chapter 14:  11.) Match the following terms. a. Trait 1. A specific form of a gene b. Gene 2. The physical expression of the trait (observable) c. Allele 3. Two copies of the same allele (TT or tt) d. Phenotype 4. Two different alleles (Tt) e. Genotype 5. A specific observable characteristic  f. Homozygous 6. The alleles found in an individual g. Heterozygous 7. A hereditary factor influencing a particular trait 12.) I crossed a blue­flowered and white­flowered plant and allowed the F1 progeny to self­ pollinate. If I found that there were always more blue­flowered plants than white­ flowered plants in a 3:1 ratio, what could we say about the alleles?  ­There is a dominant and recessive relationship ­the allele for blue flowers is dominant to the allele for white  flowers which is recessive  13.) In order to get a 3:1 ratio in the F2 generation, what do the initial and F1 parental  lineages need to be for the trait (pure lines, homozygous, or heterozygous)? ­RR and rr­­­initial parental lineages need to be pure line (homozygous) ­F1 – heterozygous (Rr) ­F2­­­self­pollenation so both are heterozygous  14.) If you cross a heterozygote with a recessive homozygote for a trait, what is the chance of producing an offspring with the dominant phenotype? a. 0% b. 25% R r c. 50% r Rr   rr d. 75% Rr   rr e. 100%  r 15.) What is the frequency of each phenotype in the F2 generation of a cross between 2  homozygous parent peas with the genotypes RR and rr? a. 1 round, 2 slightly wrinkled, and 1 wrinkled b. ¼ RR, ½ Rr, and ¼ rr R r c. 3 round, 1 wrinkled R RR   Rr d. 1:1:1:1  r Rr     rr 16.) What is the difference between a monohybrid and a dihybrid cross? ­Monohybrid­­­looking at a single trait ­Dihybrid­­­looking at different traits 17.) If an F1 plant with the genotype RrYy self­fertilizes, what is the phenotypic ratio of the  F2 generation? (Keep in mind that R is the dominant allele for seed shape (round), r is the recessive allele for seed shape (wrinkled), Y is the dominant allele for seed color  (yellow), and y is the recessive allele for seed color (green)).  a. 9 round, yellow: 3 round, green: 3 wrinkled, yellow: 1 wrinkled, green b. 3 green, wrinkled: 1 yellow, round c. 3 green: 1 yellow d. All of the peas would be round and yellow 18.) What is a testcross? ­Dominant phenotype (homozygous or heterozygous?­­­do not know) cross it with the recessive phenotype ­Heterzygous­­­1/2 dominant and ½ recessive  ­Homozygous­­­all will be dominant 19.) What is the difference between incomplete dominance and co­dominance? Give  examples. ­Incomplete dominance­­­one trait or allele will not be completely dominant or  recessive Example­­­4 o’clock flowers (cross a red with a white flower will  make a pink flower) ­Co­Dominance­­­when genes have more than 2 alleles and more than just one of  them are dominant Example­­­blood type in humans (A and B types will be co­ dominant)       (O will be recessive) 20.) What is pleiotropy? How is this different from polygenic inheritance? Give examples. ­Pleiotropy­­­individual genes can affect more than one phenotypic trait  Example­­­disease like cystic fibrosis  ­Polygenic Inheritance­­­many genes can affect one trait Example­­­Skin color, height in humans 21.) What is a pedigree? ­a family tree to analyze human crosses ­forms genetic relationships a. How do autosomal linked traits differ from x­linked traits?  ­Autosomal Linked­­­not linked to sex chromosomes but are to autosomes  ­men and women are equally affected ­X­Linked­­­2 or more genes located on the X chromosome ­recessive­males are likely to get it since only one x chromosome ­dominant­females are likely to get it since have two x  chromosomes


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