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Marriages and Families: Ch. 1-7, 9-16

by: Brittany Lawson

Marriages and Families: Ch. 1-7, 9-16 HDFS 1300

Marketplace > University of Houston > HDFS 1300 > Marriages and Families Ch 1 7 9 16
Brittany Lawson
GPA 3.8
Development of Contemporary Families

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About this Document

These are my notes from Think! Marriage and Families from Kunz 2013. I used these for my exams last semester and was able to easily make an A in the class-hopefully you can do the same!
Development of Contemporary Families
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This 71 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Lawson on Saturday January 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 1300 at University of Houston taught by Rushing in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 683 views.

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Date Created: 01/10/15
Chapter OneMarriage Stressors anything putting added strain on relationships emphasizing dif culty of balancing life and home commitments Marriagesocially approved mates that are generally expected to be stable and lasting 0 O 0 000 O Monogamousexclusive Polygamousone person married to multiple Arrangedbride and groom negotiate an arrangement before entering relationships Ceremonialfollows procedures speci ed by state and other powers legal contract Common Lawliving together long enough Endogamyrelations within certain group same race Exogamyrelations outside group interracial No rules Lead by norms and traditions Familya group of two or more people related by birth marriage or adoption that live together Household people who occupy a housing unit regardless of a relationship 0 O Af liated kinnon related individuals who are accepted as family Living apart together people in marriage like relationships but live separately Modern de nition more tuned to culture and context Provides Economic security Social class Education and socialization Protection Religious tradition Recreation Affection US Colonial Period to 1899 O Nuclearfamilies Fathers provided and heads of households Child labor Gender divides Women in the house 0 Units of production 0 US 1900 to Pre WW2 0 Women s rights 0 Advanced tech leading to increase in education Decrease in child labor Schools more responsible for socializing o Companionate model Less open to other people Husbandwife ties Emotional support 0 US Modern Era to Present 0 quotShotgun weddingsquot 0 quotGolden Agequot increases divorce rates 0 Women expected to return back home after WW2 Demographic Factors 0 Longer life Less will to stay married to the same person Less pressure to be married 0 Cohabitation Lifestyle Factors 0 Education of women Socially acceptable to put family on the back burner 0 Birth control 0 Gay movement 0 Divorce rates 0 Functions of family 0 Economic stability Food shelter clothing 0 Social prestige and status Place and belonging Family of originfamily raised in Social class 0 Education and socialization Arti cial insemination and vitro fertilization for babies Socializationshaping of individual s behavior to social norms and culture 0 Protection O O 0 Religious tradition Recreation Affection 0 Diversity in race and ethnicity O O O Racecategorized by phenotype Ethnic groupcharacterized by culture African American Higher never married divorce rates and unmarried births Single moms Mostly due to poverty Hispanic Largest and fastest growing Cannot be generalized due to diversity in ethnics and socioeconomic status Asian American More likely to be married Half likely to divorce Less children Miniscule teen pregnancies Family orientated American Indian Migration to urban areas Diverse Extended families clans Theories of the Family 0 O O O StructuralFunctional Talcott Parsons Conform to moral code 0 Promote society as a whole to survive o Procreation 0 Maintain structure 0 Patriarchy Con ict Members supposed to pursue own needs and desires Powerlegitimacy money physical and love Feminist Women central in family Roles de ned by society lndividualist Symbolic Interaction Examine on micro level Sense of self based on reaction and perception Lookingglass selfself ful lling prophecies Three main concepts 0 Self through interactions 0 Society through interpretation and learning 0 Role through what is expected 0 Ecological Microsystemchild s immediate environment Mesosystemhow different parts of microsystem interact Exosystemoutside in uences Macrosystemculture in uences Chronosystemsresearch models that examine life transitions on development over time o Normativepuberty moving marriage etc o No normativetrauma Social Exchange Rewards Costs Comparison level of alternativesevaluation in light of alternatives Family Systems Boundaries Rules of transformation 0 What is brought in and out of the home 0 Groceries and recreation Subsystems Parental sibling marital Variety Family Life CourseDevelopment Life stages Family career Biosocial Nepotismfavoritism to kin Favor siblings to ensure carrying of family genes Reciprocityexchange of favors Coercionforced to act against own interests Family Perspectives o Societal Narrow de nition of family 0 Nuclear or blood relatives 0 Smallgroup Extended family or kin group 0 Individual 0 Go Global 0 South American families 0 Increase in single person households 0 Poverty and unemployment increasing leading to extended family households 0 Homosexuality legal issues and increases in same sex houses 0 Feminism rising Equaleducann Financial independence Birth control being fought over 0 Catholic in uences Violence still a problem 0 Elderly Welfare services decreasing care given by younger generations Use of pension or homes to combat poverty 0 Lack of sexual and reproductive services CH 2 How to Study Marriages and Family Why do we study 0 What can hurt us 0 Understanding families and ourselves 0 Think critically and make informed decisions Theory perspectives 0 Ways to view reality 0 Organize and interpret 0 Identify aspects of a phenomenon 0 Purpose Provide principles to explain behavior Explain why things happen Understand life s patterns Research efforts More satis ed in early and later years 0 Set into pattern more established 0 Know yourself and your partner Family development theorysuggests similar stages Social exchange theorybased on efforts to minimize costs and max pro ts 0 Uncomplicated explanation o Emotions ignored altruism ignored individualized Family systems theorycommunication how patterns evolve and how personalities affecting other members 0 Family life cycle Cycles challenged to be not because of age but the change in status Strati cationdivision into many similar layers or groups 0 Family life coursefocuses on how family adapts over time and the meaning of that 0 Eight stages Beginning families 0 Newly weds without children Childbearing families 0 Couples with young children Roles of each partner changes Preschool 0 Couples with children not yet enrolled in school Schoolaged Couples with children in elementary orjunior high 0 Determining children s social and educational capabilities Teenagers Couples with children in high school Launching center families 0 Couples with children leaving home quotEmpty nestersquot Couple whose children have all left home Aging Retired couples without children in home 0 Family careerfocus on families and individuals and how experience affects family development Sub careersspeci c events and how they affect individuals and family 0 Marital Parentchild unequal power Sexualaffects how individual relates to the family 0 Martial again Ends with death of spouse 0 Economic or social control passed to younger generation 0 Family stressors Life s pace competition materialism change economic social and technological sex violence location of living terrorism alcoholdrugs gender roles family survival 0 Family strengths Family narrativestories told and retold to help de ne history and character 0 Help to create sense of identity Communication Family values Managing the household 0 Involvement Respect 0 International Family Strength Model Appreciation and affection Care and regular communication Commitment Dedicate time Positive communication 0 Talk listen and learn Spending time Spirituality or religion Constructs hope and optimism Managing stress and crisis Provides micro social perspective 0 Individuals and small groups 0 Macro socialliving in communities and cultures Supportive environment Effective educational system 0 Academic social and cultural Religion Services for families needing assistance 0 Sponsored by community or government Safe secure and healthy Rich cultural heritage Meaning direction and inspiration Shared cultural meanings Understand history and circumstances Political stability 0 Do not worry about current government and what might replace it Stable economy Understanding of global culture and society 0 Scienti c method 0 Systemic approach to observe draw conclusions and test 0 Hypothesisexplanation of behavior that isn t proven but can be tested Must be able to be tested and measured quotIfthen statement 0 Six steps Ask a question Background research on topic Formulate hypothesis Test hypothesis and gather data Analyze and draw conclusion Write results 0 Research methods 0 Qualitative researchuses words to describe families and their actions Information provided by a single source Case studies lntense study of single case or a small number of cases with common characteristics In depth interviews and observations 0 Full context and details Exploratory allows an investigation before hypothesis formed Explanatory o quotIfthen prove or disprove Descriptivebegin with assumed pattern that is compared to case Ethnographiesattempts to describe quotfrom the insidequot of a group Participate in groups lives over extended period to understand and interpret events in groups lives Biased Familiarity leads to understanding Accuracy Trustdistrust Focus groupssmall group brought together to discuss subject of interest Flexible and honest answers Unstructured but require skilled leader Ethicsmeans of acting without con ict to the accepted principles of right and wrong that govern behavior of a profession Professionalcompetencefollowing quali cations pursue education utilize resources and ask for help Integritybe honest fair and respectful Professional and scienti c responsibilityfollow highest responsibility standards 0 Respect for rights dignity and diversity 0 Social responsibilityseek to advance sociology and serve the public 0 Political pressures 0 Controversy expensive Quantitative researchuses numbers to describe families and their actions Objectiver separate Experiments 0 Independent dependent and control variables 0 Random samples Disadvantageoutside forces Surveys 0 Limited perspective of groups Biased results 0 People with normally strong opinions are the ones to respond Observation 0 Must meet serve speci c purpose planned systemically recorded systemically related to general principles and be reliablevalid o Longitudinalobservation over time 0 Participant observersinteract naturally and do not reveal identity Nonparticipant observersstudy without being a part of the situation 0 Cross cultural Secondary case studies quotUnobtrusivequot Previously recorded studies analyzed in new ways 0 Cheap and large sample sizes Functionalism 0 See family as a group that affects individuals and larger socialcultural system while being affected by them Socializes children Places adults into parenthoodact responsibly 0 Study family structures and compares them 0 Con ict theory 0 People act out of self interest and cause con ict Power struggles and inequalities Symbolic interactionism 0 Product of day to day interactions and the meaning of such 0 Socially structured and vary in reactions to events CH 3 Communications Power and Con ict Communication 0 Verbal 0 Visual o Nonverbal Positive Emotional Messages 0 Eye contact physical touch Negative Emotional Messages Staring glaring crying Neutral emotional messages Vagueness often leads to confusion Facial Expressions o Innate Emotional Contagionemotional display spreads between two or more people 0 Yawning Touch can be dominant or affectionate Interpersonal Distance 0 Intimate15 ft or less 0 Personal15 to 4 ft 0 Social4 to 12 ft Paralanguage rhythm pitch or loudnesshow someone says things Gazing behaviordirectionamount of eye contact 0 Interest and affection Body Language Harder to control and more likely to convey true feelings Vary culturally 0 Marital satisfaction associated with good communication 0 Fundamental Components Cognitioncommunication in uenced by perceptions emotions and result of reasoning Context 0 Cultural backgrounds affect appropriateness o Interpersonal Communication Styles Sender sends message 0 Communication channelspeech gesture writing Receiverinterprets Interpersonal Gapsender s intentions differs from receiver s experience Sarcasm o Texting Lack of body language Communication channelmethod of communication Controlling Communicationreceiver not allowed to state opinions Egalitarian communicationfeedback welcomed Dynamicsender encourages receiver Relinquishing communicationreceiver may speak as much as sender Withdrawal communicationno interest in communicating o Widening of Family Circle Many types of relationships change how we communicate Race ethnicity sexual orientation and demographics in uence 0 Social and economics 0 Communication Patterns Debate of gender stereotypes Menaggressivedominant Womenpassivenurturing Communication patternsverbalnonverbal cues between two or more people Gender rolesexpected behaviors of malefemale not geneUc Womencommunicate just for the sake of it Mencommunicate to get something done 0 More instrumental 0 Historically o Menaggressive and unemotional o Womenpolite and diplomatic Modern day these roles are changing o Multigenerational Transmission of communication Patterns Scriptautomatic behaviors Multigenerational patterns of communicationpattern engrained and transferred to children 0 Research Findings About Communication Patterns Conversation orientationdegree of open exchange on subjects 0 High levelleads to more facetoface contact 0 Family Affection Patterns Affectionate communication nonverbal verbal and supportive affection 0 Problems and Solutions Negativity hurts feelings and hides shortcomings Poor listening skills Ego Need to communicate frequently 0 Clear direct honest LISTEN without prejudice Positivity Modelingexamples set by others that are used by typically offspring 0 Family Power 0 O O O O Patriarchalmale dominance Legitimatepower given to speci c family member Informational powerone family member knowing things that the others don t Referential poweraffection and bonding Coerciveuses or threatens to use physical or psychological force to impose will Expertspeci c expertise of member to make decisions Rewardphysical or psychological rewards after completing request Resourcecontrol of resource Egalitarian relationshipswomen in power 0 Only a possibility with resource theory How to Gain Power Better nancials and education Minimize rewards and negativity Get on the good side 0 Decision Making in Marriages and Families 0 00000 0 Appeal to authority and status Following established rules Values Discussion Default if no decision is made Outside factor Culture and ethnicity Con ict and Managing con ict 0 O O O Tacticsbehaviors used to carry out con ict styles How you handle the situation states how you are as a person Control Solution orientation women Noncontrontation men Suicidal ideationassociated with family con ict Con ict management Con ict Resolutionprocess of ended source of con ict 0 What is your goal Open dialogue Happy couples have 51 positive and negative comments 0 Types of Miscommunication O Kitchensinking Things keep adding up 0 quotTake out the trashquot quotWash the dishesquot Off Beam Tangents quotYou never say I love you heinousquot Mind Reading Making assumptions about goals motivations etc 0 quotYou re trying to make me mad because of yesterdayquot Yesbutting Agreebut quotYes But you re wrongquot Crosscomplaining Respond to request or complaint with a novel request or complaint 0 quotI hate that you don t kiss me goodbye hate that you don t make the bedquot Behavior description Always and never lstatements Specify your feelings Own your feelings quotWhen you swerved the car it made me nervousquot H M your mother is H M well 0 Good communication 0 XYZ statement quotWhen you bought that after we agreed it was too expensive I felt angryquot Adjusting to Divorce Theoretical Perspectives O O 0 Functional Theorypreserve social order Con ict theorycompetition over resources Symbolic Interaction Theorymeaning added to elements around them Cultural Family 0 Marriage and Family Therapy 0 Short term and focused on solutions Marital and family Mental and emotional Drug abuse and alcoholism Depression Obesity 0 Sometimes mandated by law 0 Review Questions 0 Which of the following is incorrect about Marriage and Family Therapy A Is a long term process Kunz 2012 p57 B Is focused on solutions C Doctors may treat one or many D It can replace jail time 0 Marriage and Family therapy is short term 0 What all can determine the power source of a family Income Social prestige Sex Educann All of the above Kunz 2012 p5152 Income social prestige and education all fall under the Resource Theory for family power Sex falls under the Coercive Powers 0 Traditional types decision making do not apply to all of the following EXCEPT Gay marriages Step families Vietnamese households quotLive inquot partners Kunz 2012 p53 0 All of the following except quotlive inquot partners are listed as outliers in decisionmaking Gay couples often strive for equality in the relationships rejecting traditional roles Stepfamilies join their families often without consulting their children Vietnamese households typically have women as the head of economic resources OOOOO W009 one Ch 4 0 Sex vs gender 0 Sexbiological differences 0 Gendersocial practices culturally de ned as masculine and feminine o Sexualitysocial practices relating to erotic desires pleasure and reproduction 0 Sex roleattitudes and behavioral expectations that go with being malefemale e giving birth 0 Gender roleculturally determined roles of malefemale quotWhat needed to be believed or known to be acceptedquot Normsexpectations for appropriate behavior 0 Androgynousperson with a balance of malefemale characteristics 0 Patriarchy and Sexism o Patriarchiessystem of male control over females Limited gender roles for women Double standards concerning sex 0 Matriarchyfemale control males Matrilinealpossessions and family heritage passed down on the female side Power normally shared in these groups 0 Sexismbelief that one sex is superior to the other Relationships Institutions 0 Sexual discrimination 0 quotGlass ceilingquotprevention of further power in the work for due to male suppression 0 Sexual harassmentquotunwelcome advances requests for sexual behavior and other verbalphysical conductquot 0 Process of Socialization o Socializationhow culture is passed from one generation to the next Continuous process 0 Families Parental Males more assertive Provides opportunities and expectations Immediate in uence of gender roles Sexual expectations differ between malefemale Siblings model accepted gender roles and sexual choices 0 School Reinforces but also combats gender roles Bias Title 9imprvment in athletic opportunities for college and beyond 0 Peer Groups ln uence walking talking political opinions sexuality personal dreams and gender roles 0 Mass Media Wide range of cultural in uences and gender roles 0 Gender roles and emotions Nature vs Nurture Womenmore emotional Menrough Hormones 0 Girls with higher testosterone prefer quotboy toysquot Mendesensitized feelings of distress Ignoredeny fear 0 More negative and aggressive More females entering STEM Gender Roles and Marriage Is It Better for Men than Women O Functionalismroles necessary for stability Housewife inferior Con ictmales try to retain dominance Wages Symbolicroles negotiated within family quotHisandher marriagequot Menbetter mentalphysical health jobeconomic prospects and less crime involvement Women housewife isolated Modern day More quality but still more work on the women 0 But greater esteem and satisfaction for women Adds stress to couples Single parentsone wage all the responsibility Sexuality and Sexual Orientation O 0000 Homosexualsattracted to own sex Recently accepted as a lifestyle Women more determined by sexual stimulation Heterosexualsattracted to opposite sex Bisexualsattracted to both sexes Asexualattracted to neither sex Pansexuala person displaying broad range of sexual attractions even those who are not male or female 0 The Effect of Sex on Health 0 O 0 Female genital Mutilation Womenless heart disease but more likely to die from a stroke more depressed greater life expectancy Meneasier to lose weight more narcissist higher rates of alcoholdrug abuse 0 What in uences a person s gender roles o Functionalism Require and support distractive roles lnstrumental men bread winner Expressive women economical social and educational decisions Socializes children and adults 0 Con ict Capitalism bred patriarchy 0 Middle class men bourgeoisie view women as economic bene ts 0 Symbolic internationalism People take on roles to meet expectations and needs 0 What effect do gender and sexual orientations have on individuals 0 quotGender bendersquot look clothing and mannerisms outside norms Ch 5 What is Friendship 0 Not regulated or codi ed o Dyadic relationshiprelationship between two people that often involves closeness or affection Shared activities Trust empathy loyalty and compatibility 0 Not usual exclusive and less verbal and physical affection than love more freedom to do own will 0 Six factor of good friendship Respect and trust Responsiveness or affectionatesupportive understanding of needs values and desires Capitalizationhappiness for friend s successes Social comparisoncompare beliefs and skills to know oneself better Social supportemotional advice and material support 0 Changes during life More intense relationships with people they share interests with Dyadic withdrawalquotweeding outquot of social groups from more meaningful relationships as romance develops o Onlineof ine friendships Of ine relationshipsinterdependent greater depthunderstanding and commitment Onlinetendency to be cautious 0 Unless with negative view of themselves Mixedmode relationshipsfriendships beginning online and proceeding of ine 0 Same quality as of ine relationships over time o Samesex and Crosssex friendships Boys and girls CAN be friends 0 New perspectives Blurring of gender roles 0 Proximity Friendships and romances grow out of interactions with those who are nearby Physical attractiveness o Stereotype beautiful is good 0 Beauty is in the eye of the beholder Hooking Up 0 Hooking upcasual sexual activity with no strings attached between heterosexual college students who are strangers or brief acquaintances Associated with the use of alcohol and higher parental income Neuroticismpersonality trait with negative emotions o Hookups and Dates Most signi cant difference lies in the timing of sex Datingsex prolonged and has potential romance more public and less expensive 0 Sexual exploitation common in both 0 Sexual double standard 0 What is Affection 0 Physical affection Associated with higher relationshippartner satisfaction Partners must identify and interpret styles Social in uences o Verbal affection Stereotypes Homophobiafear of homosexuals Father less verbally affectionate towards sons 0 Affection Exchange Theory Affection communication instrumental for survival and procreation o What is Intimacy o Intimacyfeeling of closeness that characterizes meaningful relationships Sharing of experiences thoughts and emotions Establish trust Autonomystate of independence and selfdetermination o Theories of Intimacy Dialecticcharacterized by tension with O intimacyautonomy Attachment caregivercareseekerchid gives affection based on what he received growing up Social exchangerelationship grows when rewards are greater than costs Circum exbalanced family systems more functional 0 Family cohesion exibility and communication 0 Intimacy and gender More feminine 0 Love 0 Emotionalsexual attraction enjoyment caring admiration and respect Cognitiveexpectations and decisions 0 Behavioraverbaphysica affection moral support and O giftsletters 0 In uence of culture and gender quotLovequot marriages vs Arranged Marriages Men are passionate women are compassionate PDAculturalvariations 0 Sexual Orientation Racial Differences and Love Societal forcesshared values religion and prejudice General Theories about Love 0 Triangulartheory Intimacy passion and commitment Intimacy is affectionsupportcloseness Passionsex o Commitmentmaintaining love 0 Eight fundamental types of love Nonlovehookups Likinghigh in intimacy but low in passioncommitment lnfatuationhigh in passion low in intimacy and commitment idealization Empty lovehigh in commitment but low in passionintimacy Rodo s parents l Romantic lovehigh in passionintimacy low in commitment Summer loving Companionate lovehigh in intimacycommitment low in passion Fatuous lovehigh in passioncommitment low in intimacy Consummate lovehigh in passioncommitmentintimacy 0 Color styles of love Erosoverwhelming passion long conversations and physical affection Luduslove is a game Storgelove based on friendship trust rst sex second Pragma ludusstorge love is realistic and pragmatic Mania erosludus love is possessive jealous needy Agape erosstorge love is focused on other s well being and spirit 0 Prototype Maternal parental sisterly romantic and brotherly Passionate vs Companionate Love 0 Passionateoverwhelmingencompassing ldealization and isolation Jealousy and obsession O Companionatebased on trustfriendship and involvement of shared activities Always considered a positive experience 0 How to Increase Love in Relationships 0 O O O 0 Evaluate partners for their true selves Openness Express needs but accept differences Spend time together Remember that there will be ups and downs o What are the theories behind love in marriages and families 0 Functionalismtransmit norms and value to future generations Monogamyprovides stability and procreation Marriage is a personal ful llment Con ictlove is in uenced by groupindividual having more power Can help relationship grow if you re willing to listen and negotiate Symbolic interactionismcouplesfamily use symbols to express their love Rituals How can couples address intimacy problems O 0000 Counseling for communicationinterpretation Rediscover physical affection Break routine Add humor Avoid comparison Ch 6 Sex and Fertility Sexual norms 0 Sexual normsrules and expectations of sexual behavior Prospectivewhat people should not do Prescriptivewhat to do 0 Cultural universalstraits common in every culture Example families are supposed to reproduce protect and nurture children Incest taboono sexual activities with close relatives 0 In America Do not like premarital sex babies outside wedlock and affairs 0 In uences on sexuality Associations with higher self esteem and sexual satisfaction Culture 0 Levels of permissiveness Circumcision Genital mutilation o Genital infibulationritual cutting of inner labia and surgical closure of the outer labia Contraception 0 Sexual attitudes and preferences Sexual double standard Samesex relationships Homosexuality becoming more tolerated Sexual Behavior and Satisfaction 0 Eating disorders on the rise to meet image of thinness 0 Health and sexual satisfaction People who consider themselves physically t are more likely to have sexual satisfaction Prescription Medicationscan cause erectile dysfunction and depressants decrease interest Cardiac Healthavoid sex after heart attack or heart surgery Depressionlack in interest and concern over one s ability to perform Alcoholdiminishes pleasure STDscondoms Stressloss of libido Pregnancymust need to be more creative with positions Menopausehormone uctuations Andropauseenergylibido loss depression and sexual dysfunction male menopause o Extramarital Affairs 0 Happen due to Impossible expectations of love and passion Can actually strengthen marriage after affairs happen and the expectations are gone 0 Mensexual o Womenemotional 0 Technology and Marital Relationships Cybersex Adolescent Premarital Sex 0 Sexting o More active teenagers Higher use of condoms More common to have sex early Increase of amount of sexual partners over a lifetime 0 Sexual abstinence Virginity pledgevow to remain sexually inactive until marriage Controversial as to if effective 0 Sex contraception and pregnancy Typically caused by ineffective use of condoms Low levels of affectionhigher risk of pregnancy Low education frequent changes of school attendance of schools with high levels of crime and low test scoreshigher risk of pregnancy 0 Fertility o Fertilityoccurrence of childbearing in country s population 0 Demography O 0000 O Describes fertility through crude birth rate 0 Annual number of children born for every 1000 people in population Childlessness increasing as more women are waiting to have children until later then cannot Replacementlevel fertility21 children Peak fertility years 2430 years Menphysical Womenemotional Cybersex and online irting 0 Teen Pregnancy 0 Lead to limited education limited jobs STDs Less opportunities for child and economic stability of the home STIsillnesses disease and infection that can be contracted through sexual and nonsexual contact of body parts uids Chlamydia Pelvic in ammation often unnoticed to relative lack of symptoms Gonorrhea Infectious disease spread through sexual contact and lactation SythE High contagious Spread through sexual intercourse and close body contact with infected individual Cancroid 0 Can facilitate HIV if untreated Human Papillomavirus HPV 0 Collection of viruses more than 70 that can lead to cervical cancer Pelvic In ammatory Disease 0 In ammation of the genital organs Herpes Simplex Virus Oralgenital herpes Can be passed through vaginal oral and anal sex 0 Can be transmitted during birth Trichomoniasis Affects women more and increases risk of HIV HIV and AIDS 0 HIVinfections cancers or low count of CD4 can lead to the development of AIDS 0 Transmitted via bodily uids into bloodstream 0 HIV prevalence estimate number of HIV pog ve1106400 0 HIV incidence estimate estimated number of new HIV 56300 0 Prevention Sexual abstinence Monogamous sexual activity Latex condoms Check ups and screenings Open conversation with partners and family 0 Sex Education 0 Comprehensive is best Encourage abstinence Responsible decision making Contraception and STls Dissipate prejudice about sexual orientations o Controversial government interference Abstinence only programs insuf cient Obama 0 Family planningbirth control to limit number of children 0 New programming for evidence based teachings and require only medically accurate 0 Family and Sex Education KIDS NEED HONESTY Sex and Sexual Reproduction Theoretical Perspective 0 Functional Control and regulate sexual reproduction to produce order 0 Con ict Women are to sacri ce their aspirations to take care of children Sexual bias 0 Symbolic lnteractionism Sex is a social constriction Learned sexual roles Sex Slavery and Sex Traf cking 0 Sex traf ckingforced commercial sex acts Debtbondageclaiming the person needs to pay off debts Traumatic bondingemotional attachment to pimps Review Questions All of the following are examples of things that can lead to less enjoyable sexual contact or sex in general EXCEPT a Alcohol b Pregnancy Kunz 2013 p 102 c Depression d Poor cardiac health Which STD includes in ammation of the genitals a HPV b Chlamydia Kunz 2013 p 105 c Cancroid d Gonorrhea Obama gained controversy in America by openly supporting a Abstinence ony programs b Abortion c Gay marriage d Safe sex education Kunz 2013 p 108 Women s peak fertility years are a 1825 b 1628 c 2430 Kunz 2013 p 104 d 2235 Herpes can be transmitted a Via birth Kunz 2013 p 106 b By kissing c During a wet dream d Sharing lip balm Ch 7 Choosing a Partner Courtship to Dating 0 Courtshippublically visible process with speci c rules and restrictions Normally under parental supervision and closely monitored Permission needed Look for work ethic and economic status versus passionbeauty o Datingwhen two people meet at a speci c time and place to participate in an activity Unsupervised Men to pay expenses and had control 0 Modern dating 0 Women empowered to initiate dates 0 Split the cost of dates 0 Sexual intimacy common 0 Increase in living together 0 Increase of casual relationships 0 Marriage Marketsystem in which partners evaluate the aspects and liabilities of potential spouses and choose the best 0 Supply of men and women 0 Preferences of characteristics 0 Resources offered to potential partners 0 Why do we date 0 Manifest company Maturationreached puberty Recreation Companionshipsoneonone communication Love and affection Mate selection 0 Latent functions Socialization Gain of selfcon dence Social status Ful lling ego needs Sexual experimentation and intimacy Business 0 Spend money when we date Types of Dating 0 Going steadyexclusive not thinking about marriage Short lived More about status and peer pressure Pack datingdating in small groups without commitment 5 6 people Provides sense of identityself assurance Avoids long term commitments Serious datingexclusive and usually spend most leisure time together Talk of a future together Where sexual intimacy often occurs Engagementpublic commitment to marriage Test of compatibility PreNuplegal document stipulating nancial arrangements in the even of divorce 0 Legally reinforce unequal power in relationship Disengagementbreakdown of engagement Partner Selection 0 Online dating 0 O 3rCI most popular place to nd romance Must be careful of lying and sexual diseases Most common reasons of use are divorce bereavement and relocation Will Facebook become a dating site Speed datingaccelerated for of dating in which men and women choose whether to see each other again based on interaction Focus on the physical Personal classi ed advertisement Professional match maker Relationship escalation model O 0000 lnitiation Experimentation lntensifying Integrating Bonding 0 Dating violenceact of violence within relationship physical verbal sexual and emotional 0 Date rapeforced sex on nonconsenting datepartner 0 Power struggle Sexual aggression among college students 0 Alcohol involved 75 o Assailant known 75 o Experienced an attemptedcompleted rape since age 14 25 o Assaults occurred during date over 50 o 60 of rapes unreported Difference in dating practice 0 Gender Dating script Womensubtle and indirect o Mendirect 0 Social class Most date and marry within social class 0 Upper classfocus on education marry later 0 Middle classfocus on socializing unsupervised daUng Lower class youth less likely to go on structured dates 0 Race lnterdatingpeople date outside of raceethnic group Homophilly still in hookups dates and long term relationships 0 Age Spouses tend to be 23 years apart in age 0 Sexuality Marginalized groupregulated status outside mainstream Theories of mate selection 0 Psychodynamicin uenced by childhood experiencesfamily background 0 Parent lmage people more likely to choose someone who reminds them of their fathermother 0 Ideal mate theorypeople develop model image of their mate based on childhood experiences 0 Needs theorypeople select mates whose needs are opposite but complimentary to their own 0 Exchange theoryuse the concept of rewardscosts to explain interpersonal attraction 0 Filter theory developmental processnarrows potential partners by ltering via Proximity propinquity Religion 0 Attractiveness Reciprocityliking those who like us 0 Desireattractiveness X probability of acceptance Social class Homogamydatingmarrying someone with similar social characteristics Heterogametedatingmarrying someone with different social characteristics 0 How do theorists view datingmate selection 0 Functionalists Marriage is stabilizing o Regulates sex procreation socializationeducation of children and protectioneconomic security Dysfunctions Dating in uenced by social values gender roles and demographics Sex ratio 0 Con ict theory Power struggles in society and individuals Mates chosen to minimize con ict 0 Consensus o Symbolic interactionism Qualities and physical characteristics in a partner 0 Creative dates 0 Family dates Bringing children along Family gatherings 0 Educational dates Learn new skills and enhance knowledge 0 Charitable dates Doing something positive for the community Showcases values and beliefs 0 Test reviews 0 When two people meet at a speci c time and place for a social activity Dating 0 most common way of meeting a partner Workschool o mates selected on rewardscosts Exchange theory 0 Propinquity is Geographic closeness Family Variations Ch 9 0 Families in the US 0 Psychological parentsadults servings as parents that are not biologically related to the parent 0 Postmodern familyterm to include all the family variations 0 Traditionalnuclear Husband wife and biological children 0 Under god Better nancial situations 0 Share costs and responsibilities Live longer 0 Lower cancer rates better mental health 0 Better sexmore often emotionally and physically satisfying 0 Single parent families Rise in singleparent adoptions Risks Lower income 0 Lack of educational resources Often in less quality neighborhoods 0 More responsibility 0 More stress Bene ts Stronger bonds 0 Sense of community 0 quotTake a village to raise a childquot Accumulation of skills 0 Nonresidential parents Nonresidentialfather Half do not give child support 0 Pay higher than a mother would 0 Less involvement Nonresidential mother 0 More visitation o Cohabiting family Cohabitationtwo unrelated adults of the opposite sex living in same residence Trial marriagetest of long term relationships 0 Share expenseshousing needs is convenient Prelude to marriage test of relationship before marrying Stage in marriage process postpone marriage to pursue other opportunities Alternative to singlehood no plan to marry Alternative to marriage live together and maybe procreate but prefer not to marry Indistinguishable from marriage indifference to marriage leads to lack of formalization Disadvantages Cohabitation effectmore likely to divorce 0 Religious stigma 0 Singles May be due to educational goalscareer lack of quotsoul matequot lack of time May have strong interestbeliefsfriendsfamilies Potentially loneliness Serial monogamysingle exclusive relationship after another 0 Samesex marriages Severely restricted Same sex marriagelegal marriage of same sex couple 0 Only one to give rights at state levels Civil unionlegal union of couple with legal rights Domestic partnershiprights to unmarried same sex couples DOMA States chose whether they would recognize gay rights or not Gay s children show no difference if not more caring to others 0 Blended families Stepparentchild relationship not recognized Biological parent loses rights to child if adopted by the other parent Creating stepfamilies Fantasyunrealistic expectations Immersionreality sets in Awarenessbegin to understand situations Mobilizationstepparents take rmer role in household Actioncouples work together and rebuild structure 0 Stepparent now a disciplinary Contactstepfamily begins to bond Resolutionrelationship solid and reliable o Stepparent is a con dant o Divorced families Divorce nal legal termination of marriage Nofault divorceno need to prove an affair neglect or cruel as causes of divorce Factors that increase risk of divorce Age Women s economic independence Religion Unhappinessdissatisfaction Children from divorced homes Identical twins 0 Polygamous families Polygamymarriage with one person and multiple spouses Polyandryone woman many husbands Polygynyone man many wives Bigamya married person continues marriage but marries another 0 Grandparent families Grandparent familychildren raised by grandparent Effects on grandparents Raise parental roles along with problems with agecircumstance Warmercloser relationship Effects on grandchildren 0 More supportcare Theories applied 0 Functionalism Nuclear family best Men instrumental Women expressive 0 Con ict quotHavesquot maintain status quo and control resources quotHave notquotack resources 0 Symbolic interactionism Interactions shape self 0 Family issues debated 0 Beauty pageants Miss California stated antigay marriage stance 0 Crown taken away for violating contract on promoting outside organizations Children and Parenting Choosing to Parent 0 Birthrate decreasing Waiting to have children 0 Childless amp childfree Child freevoluntary choice to not to have children Childlessinfertility issues DINKS double income no kidscoupes in high incomes no kids demanding careers desire to worktravelfocus on marriage 0 Pa renthood postponed Will for education professional nancial stability Shortened duration of child bearing years 0 Less children 0 Financial considerations Affordability of children Need for family labor 0 Other factors Infertility Educann Labor force participation Abstain from social activities Postpartum depression Contraceptionabortion Child care Millennial generationvalue parenthood above marriage 0 Generation X Heath 0 Mortality rate Maternal health 0 Environmental toxins Gay Surrogacy or pregnancy coparent Single parents 0 Single moms outnumber single fathers o Infertilityinability to conceive after one year of persistent unprotected intercourse or inability to carry pregnancy to term 0 Causes Postponing too long Menabnormality in sperm Morphed shape 0 Impaired movement 0 Low concentration of sperm Biological or lifestyle causes 0 Consequences of infertility Depression Suffer in sex life lsolation quotBabysellingquot selling children on the black market Fertility Technologies 0 Arti cial insemination Donors produce sperm through masturbation and inserted into female when she is ovulating Male partner s sperm put through a centrifuge to concentrate and insert into ovulated female 0 Surrogates and Donors Gestational surrogacybaby carried by another woman Surrogate embryo transferarti cial insemination to impregnate surrogate with donor or male partner s sperm Lavagefertilized egg removed and inserted into mother who carries it to term In Vitro Fertilization Drugs stimulate ovaries then spermeggs medically collected and tested 0 Successful ones reunited in a glass and transferred to a woman s uterus Expengve Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Single spermatozoon injected directly into egg and implanted into the uterus Nonsurgical sperm aspirationremoval of sperm from testes with a syringe Additional methods Contraception Hormone therapyincreases quality of menstrual cycle to improve fertility Cryopreservationegg and sperm can be frozen for later use Preimplantation genetic diagnosisembryos with desired sex implanted 0 Birth control methods Rhythm methodavoid intercourse during ovulation Vasectomy and tubal ligation Barrier methods Cervical cap Vaginal sponge Intrauterine devices Malefemale condoms Spermicides Chemical methods 0 Contraceptives in adolescents Abstinence only programming Stigma o Ending pregnancy before birth Voluntary fetal mortalityinduced abortion Medical abortionmifepristone followed by misoprostol induces abortion 0 Only can be performed up to 49 days into pregnancy Surgical abortionvacuum aspiration 0 Normally within the rst trimester Involuntary fetal mortality o Miscarriage o Spontaneous abortion 0 Stillborn Adoption 0 Adoptionlegally or voluntary takes the child as their own Closed adoptionbiological parents unknown Open adoptionadoptivebiologica in contact with another 0 Adopting stepchildren 0 Foster parentingcouple acts as the parents to children who cannot live at home 0 Pregnancy and Childbirth 0 Isolation and need for emotional support 0 Transition to Parenthood o Adjustment period 0 Caregiving 0 Marriage responsibilities 0 Parenting styles 0 O Indulgent permissive Little to no control and impose few restrictions and guidelines Authoritarian Fixed standards mold children emphasize obedience and punishment Authoritative Warmth support and acceptance Considered best Uninvolved Rarely give rules and offer little attention Factors In uencing Child s Wellbeing Active parentinghelping and spending time with children Emotional bondingemotional ties affection mutual respect and identi cation Gendered Parenting Styles Racial and Ethnic Differences in Parenting Styles African Americanself esteem and community networks Hispanicpermissive in early years then more authoritarian Close motherchild relationships Asianmore lenient then strict Devoted to education 0 Social Class and Parental Behavior 0 Bluecollar parent by consequences Middletry to nd motivation behind actions 0 Action is re ective of parenting Discipline Disciplinetraining to correct behavior Spanking o ParentChild Relationships 0 Child may take over parent s life 0 Maritaldissatisfaction Based on connectedness before having a child Family intimacy o Adolescenceteen years to adulthood How much freedom 0 Postparent years Struggle to transition Theories o Functionalism Modelingquotmonkey see monkey doquot Vicarious reinforcement 0 Con ict theory Con ict leads to adaptation in relationships Struggle for control 0 Symbolic interactionism How we see ourselves and how others see us 0 How do people handle fertility O O OO Stigmas Even with male infertility it involves complicated treatments on HER body lnadequacy Emotional withdrawal Stress Effects of Working Ch 11 o What are the effects of working and unemployment o Workphysical or mental activity that accomplishes or produces goods and services Money Sense of accomplishment and identity 0 Economic stress Children 0 Less effective parenting Less academic achievement 0 Depression and lower self esteem Spouse 0 Lower satisfaction Tensionhostility 0 Family economic pro le Labor force participation 0 Have a job or are looking 0 Less uctuation in participation in work force menwomen Occupation Indicates education income and residence 0 Issues with gender equality in work force 0 quotGlass ceilingquot o quotSticky oorquot women in jobs with low pay and no health insurancepension Gender gap in pay 0 quotGlass escalatorquotfast track for men in 0 women dominate elds Income 0 Real median incomedivides lower and upper class 0 quotThe hourglass economyquotlarge amount of money goes to elite little to poor and middle issqueezed Racial and gender differences Wealth 0 Includes assets The effects of work 0 O Intersections of work and family Gender time who does what Paid too much or not enough Effects of mothers working on children Con ict of work and family Work stress health and the family Emerging policies Workfamily con ict Roles con ict with one another Spillover Model Work quotspills overquot into family life Segmented Model Work and family do not overlap quotMyth of separate worldsquot WorktoFamily and FamilytoWork Model Reciprocal relationship with work and family Working Women 0 0 Increase in women but less pay quotThe Mommy Trackquot More exible careers for those raising families 0 Latchkey Children Children who care for themselves for some portion of the day 0 Boomerang Kids Older children who live on their own for sometime then return to living with their parents Balancing Family and Work 0 Communication between spouses Make arrangements to balance needs Second shiftwomen come home from work to manage household duties 0 Flexible employment 0 Sexual harassment Any quotunwelcome sexual advances requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of sexual naturequot 0 Unemployment Different reasons for unemployment Can lead to 0 Anxiety 0 Substance abuse 0 Sleep disorders 0 Depression Decrease in selfesteem and con dence 0 Suicidal thoughts 0 Divorce 0 Social class and socioeconomic status 0 Social classgroup in similar education income occupation housing and lineage SESuses formulas to quantify income education and occuanon Associated with stabilitysatisfaction in marital and parentchild relationships The upper class Top 5 of income in world Changed from quotold moneyquot to quotnew moneyquot Private and well educated Middle class From average income to just below upper class TV aimed at middle class Divided into upper and average middle class Working class Bluecollarjobs Lower class quotWorking poorquotwork low paying jobs not suitable for the family s needs Others live off of the government Poverty Relative povertydeprivation of some people in comparison to others Absolute povertylife threatening deprivation People who live in poverty Racial correlation Children under 18 0 Cities and rural areas 0 Single women Theories on poverty causes 0 Not working or lack of skills 0 quotCulture of povertyquotitte planning for future lack of commitmentwork ethic and dependence on government assistance 0 Lack of options to escape poverty Welfare system 0 Payment to poor Homelessness People themselves are responsible o Alcoholdrug abuse mentally ill unable to cope with society 0 Social changes 0 Poor economy and unemployment 0 Housing market 0 Domestic violence 0 How does social class in uence individuals and family 0 Functionalism Division of needs meets society s needs 0 Con ict theory Only two classes 0 Owners and sellers 0 Symbolic interactionism quotBirds of feather ock togetherquot 0 Will encouraging marriage reduce poverty 0 Promote young unmarried parents to wed 0 Doesn t acknowledge lack of suitable fathershusbands or that wages may be too low still when combined to meet poverty lines Family and Social Institutions 0 Education 0 Educationsocial institution by which society provides knowledge cultural norms and values 0 Families and educational outcomes More likely to succeed with structure homework and leisure time Strong roots in community 0 Church 0 Sports 0 Youth groups Race 0 Lack of exposure 0 Lack of opportunity to develop schoolwork Negative teacher interactions Unrewarding curriculum 0 Poor experiences with guidance counselors 0 Parenting involvement in education Cultural beliefs 0 Who attends school 0 Dominant language 0 Parental expectations Social structures 0 Family compositions o Roles Rate of population growth Economic in uences 0 Employment 0 Economic growth 0 Gross natural education products Political pressures Con icts with power 0 Sex education 0 Recent issues in education 0 School of choice 0 Moving to meet education standards 0 No Child Left Behind Homeschooling o Avoids negative in uences 0 Quality of schooling poor in public school 0 Want for religious curriculum 0 Success depending on the styling of the parents Religion 0 Adult education 0 Return to education Encourages children to go to coHege o Religionsocial institution involving beliefs and practices Sacred vs profane 0 Religious pluralismdifferent religions coexisting peacefully 0 Religion and family Politics Religious couples 0 Effective communication and con ict resolutions 0 Lower premarital sex Wives spend 45 more hours doing house work 0 Positive child development 0 Political systemsocial institution based on established set of practices for applying and realizing society s goals Liberals democratsgovernment regulation support and programs to reduce income inequality Conservatives republicansimited government 0 Political participation Low voter turn out 0 Political socialization Poitica socializationprocess by which people acquire political knowledge beliefs and values Parents partisanship Marriage and political socialization Typically match beliefs 0 Women lean more towards their husband s beliefs in early marriage 0 Bond remains the same or grows stronger The marriage gap 0 Marriage gapdisparities in those whom are married and who are single 0 Singles more democrat The Legal System 0 Family policyrange of services sponsored by the government affecting families 0 Covenant Marriage Strict regulations for traditional families and harder to dissolve 0 Gay marriage Gay marriagelegal union of same sex couples 0 Does not allow O 0000 Tax dedication Inheritance rights Social security Sickbereavement leave Family Medical Leave Act May leave for up to 12 weeks unpaid to care for spouse 0 Allows 00000 0 Gay adoption Prejudice 0 Child care Leave to care for partner s child Attend to needs of partner and children Relocation Family member status Credit union Subsidies and tax credit 0 Abortion Abortionspontaneousinduced termination of pregnancy Roe vs Wade Acceptance varies according to culture 0 United States Family Policy Theories o Functionalism Education and religion support society Meritocracyencompasses American values of freedom and opportunity 0 Social integration 0 Child care 0 Sense of community 0 Con ict BqusinequaHUes Standardized testing Private schools State funding Hnances Status quo o Symbolic interactionism Selfful lling prophecy Create our own reality 0 Family therapists response to increase in family diversity OOOO Recognize vulnerability of abused partner Hold abuser accountable Alter underlying factors of abuse Work with absentee fathers Ch 13 HDFS Stress 0 Family stressimbalance of demands and ability to meet demands Perception and resolvement determine if crisis or not Cope or manage o Circumstances that cause stress Reactions to stress 0 Types of stress Social readjustment rating scale 0 Higher scoremore stress Stressors outside the family 0 Managing stress ABCX Model of Stress Eventsituation o Rescources to cope Degree of stress 0 Low high crisis Perception Resiliency individual and group 0 Ability to function outside with stress Elasticityquotbounce backquot from trauma Buoyancyability to keep a oat despite chaHenges Recovery factors 0 Higher success with good communication and problem solving skills Be proactive Rethink reorganize reduce release and relax Theories of stress and coping Depends on perception of stress 0 Experiences are learning experiences 0 Violence and abuse 0 Family violence Intentional abusive behavior against family member 0 Domestic family violence Abuse against an intimate partner 85 women Women aged 2024 at the greatest risk Long term effects 0 STDs ulcers low birth weights PTSD low self esteem depression suicidal thoughts highrisk sexual behaviors Abusers Maybe abused themselves 0 Control freaks Continual cycle Onset of tension 0 Battering Remorse 0 Why many remain in relationship 0 Types of Violence and Abuse Love Fear Lack of resources Learned helplessness Forgiveness o Intimate partner violence Intentional violence or intimidation Can be an isolated and recurrent event Female victims 0 Three times more common than males 0 More likely to live in nonfatal partner violence 0 Wife rape Male victims 0 More likely to be victims in dating violence 0 Issue of control and dominance o More dominant partner is more violent o Rape culturequotmen cannot be rapedquot 0 Abuse in samesex couples More fearful of serious injury than heterosexual couples Threat of outing used LesbiantoIesbian abuse and violence 0 Similar to straight male abusers More about control than anything else Fusionintense emotional closeness and interdependence o Predictor of violence Gaytogay abuse and violence Cyclical and history of abuse common 0 Power dynamics 0 Siblingtosibling abuse Linked by socioeconomically stature of family Often mutual o Males more likely Predicted by parental discipline and loss of temper Power struggle Sibling sexual abuse 0 Parenttochild abuse and violence Social learning theory 0 Abuse is learned Social cognition theory 0 Child s interpretation may be less violent in actuality Family systems theory 0 Different traits and coping passed from family to family Trauma theory 0 How event handled affects extent experienced Parenttochild sexual abuse and violence 0 Long term effects 0 Hostility psychosis anxiety phobias depression 0 Medical problems Gastrointestinal problems pelvic pain somatization physical pain from psychological problems 0 Personal resilience affects survivor s functionality later in life 0 Childtoparent abuse and violence Monkey see monkey do Parent demandingness leads to backlash 0 Elder abuse Often takes place from caregiver or service provider in institution Victim usually reliant on person Somehow related 0 Teen dating and violence 25 of teens victims 0 10 reported 0 Managing and preventing violence and abuse 0 Break the cycle of abuse 0 Protection Protecting yourself 0 Safety plan 0 Notify workplace and request con dentiality Support 0 Seek help for abuser o Intervention model Theories explaining violence and abuse 0 Functionalism Helps attain social status set off change or warn community 0 Family interaction inhibits Structural family system interventions most successful 0 Therapy 0 Con ict Power and control lens quotIntimate terrorismquot 0 Symbolic interactionism Episodes explored to understand dynamics encounters and cycle Emerging of self Subjectivity and enhanced data on domestic violence 0 Financial and emotional support Determine the likelihood of leaving relationship Separation and Divorce 0 Statistical legal and historical trends in divorce 0 Separation Termination of marital cohabitation Types of separation 0 Divorce Trial separation 0 Live apart to decide if to continue relationship Living apart 0 Decided to not live together again Permanent separation 0 Property and debt given to those responsible for them Legal separation 0 Court proceedings 0 Separation agreement Legal termination of a marriage Stats Divorce rate has decreased in the past 30 years Nevada has highest divorce rate 437 custodial mothers and 562 custodial fathers separated or divorced Southern had the highest rate of divorce Divorcee s children living with mother more common likely below poverty level in a rented home Divorced women more likely to receive public aid Patterns of divorce Rises during major events Decreases with economic hardship Decreases with social stability Legal trends Canon law 0 Government combined with religious rules Sacred union Faultbased divorce 0 Partners had to prove violation of marriage Absolute divorce if proven 0 End to all legal ties Nofault divorce 0 quotIrreconcilable differencesquot Covenant marriage 0 Different set of legal ties in order to strengthen marriage 0 Premarital counseling 0 Lifelong pledge 0 Agree to counsel 0 Divorce risk factors Demographics 0 Education 0 Better equipped to handle situations Income Employment status 0 Lowstatus occupations more likely to divorce 0 Changedblended gender roles lead to increase in divorce Religion 0 Religious couples less likely to divorce Raceethnicity 0 African Americans more likely to divorce Poverty More accepted 0 Hispanic Family over individual 0 Less divorce Religion Society 0 Social integration 0 More community less divorce 0 Cultural o More sel sh Lifestyle Marrying too young 0 Less able to support 0 Less maturity 0 Lack coping skills 0 Premarital pregnancy 0 More likely to divorce 0 Premaritalcohabitation 0 May increase divorce likelihood Over 50 o Controversial o lntergenerationaltransmission o Combines many factors that leads to divorce 0 quotMonkey see monkey doquot Bohannon s six stations of divorce Emotional divorce 0 Withdrawal 0 Delay in nalizing divorce 0 Legal divorce 0 Husband wife state File petition respond wait court 0 Average cost 20000 0 Economic divorce 0 Ongoing argument for nancial matters Coparental divorce 0 Child custody nancesvisitations Community divorce 0 Friends leave 0 Separation from inlaws Psychic divorce 0 One spouse gains full independence Consequences of divorce for adults 0 Economic o Decline of standard of living Possible raise in men 0 Mental and emotional 0 Depression 0 Anxiety 0 Cumulative stress 0 Physical o More health problems 0 Higher mortality 0 Risky behaviors o Suppressed immune system 0 Relationship 0 Social isolation Consequences of divorce for children 0 Personal adjustment 0 Faster maturation 0 Parental con ict 0 Noncustodial parent 0 Interpersonal relationships o More likely to date early Premarital sex High risk partners Cohabit before marriage Divorce 0 Antisocial behavior 0 Deviant behavior 0 Cognitive functioning 0 Lower academic records 0 Higher dropout rates Selfesteem 0 Parental con ict and little family support Adjusting to divorce Adjustment affected by personal and contextual factors Positive outcomes of divorce 0 Children 0 More mature 0 Higher self esteem o Empathize well Exspouses 0 Increased autonomy and personal growth Theories of divorce 0 Social exchange Rewards outweigh costs of divorce 0 Divorcestress adjustment theory Stressful life transition where everyone must adjust Tension and anxiety 0 Con ict with former spouse 0 Financial difficulties 0 Pressure of sole parenting or loss of custody Reduced parental interaction Parental con ict Decline in income 0 Demographics measuring divorce 0 Measure of divorce Marriage to divorce ratio 0 Not accurate 0 Number of divorcing not the same as the ones marrying Crude divorce rate 0 Number of divorces per 1000 people 0 Represents total population le children and older singles Re ned divorce rate 0 Number of divorces per 1000 married women Age speci c divorce rate 0 Number of divorces per 1000 married women in each age category Standardized divorce rates 0 Single stat based on age speci c divorce 0 Add total divorces of all age categories 0 Divide by standard population 0 Multiply by 1000 Single parent families remarriage and stepfamilies 0 Modern families 0 13 of americans expected to marry divorce and remarry o 26 single parent households 0 types of singleparent families 0 births to unmarried women on the rise 39 0 families headed by mothers children better off if mother widowed higher education occupation happiness more likely to live in hazardous enviornments supportive mothering reduces teen delinquency o father involvement impact varies 0 African American Buffers delinquency and drug use 0 Asain AmericanHispanic Increases likelihood of problems More poverty 0 Families headed by fathers More money spent of takeaways More alcoholtabacco Earn less than married fathers Lower income 0 Less education 0 More reliant on public transfer programs More likely to have custody of sons than daughters 0 Challenges for singleparent families Greater risks of o Dropping out Unemployment Teen pregnancy Less income Child support issues Lifestyle changes 0 Moving o Reestablishing parental roles Adapting to stress Great need for coparenting o Binuclearfamilies Original nuclear family split in two 0 Dating and cohabiting after divorce 13 marry again one year after divorce dating 0 one year divorced children have met two new dating partners strongest contributor to well being in romanctic satisfaction mothers dating rates lower and slower than fathers younger adults more optimistic cohabitation more likely to cohabit than marry instability in remarried relationships around 65 greater than noncohabiters 0 white women more likely than black women to cohab 0 women with no religious affiliation nofew kids live in good communities are more likely to cohabit remarriage o 85 of divorcees remarry half within three years 13 remarried twice 0 3 three or more times age and sex Remarrying higher for men 0 Marriage pool decreases over time for women 0 More likely to have custody Race and ethnicity White women most likely to remarry Asain americans lowest rates of remarriage Social class Wealth increases men s chances of remarrying Women seeking nancial support Wealthy women less likely Children Reduce probability of remarriage Increases chance of divorce in new marriage Remarriage vs First Time marriage More cautious Introduction of entire network Renegotiation of rules Stepfamilies 0 Types of stepfamilies 13 of all children experience some type of step family before 18 motherstepfather family 0 mother s biological children fatherstepmother family father s biological family joint stepfamily one biological child of both at least one biological of only one complex stepfamily 0 both partner with children from previous relationships 0 structural differences all members have experienced important loss 0 loss of spouse or parent 0 potential angerhostility family members have histories renegotiate rulesstrategiestraditions parentchild bonds predate relationship between new partners 0 close bonds with parent 0 stepparent unwelcome biological parent lives outside the family 0 children caught in power struggle o jealousy children in stepfamilies are often members of two households 0 learn to function role of stepparent is ill de ned 0 hard to nd balance 0 challenges of building a stepfamily several stages of development loss of power and control no social model to follow 0 characteristics of successful stepfamilies 60 of remarriages end in divorce successful qualities 0 allow losses to be mourned o realistic epextations adult couples have strong relationships establish family traditions develop steprelationships cooperate with absent partner o redivorce in stepfamilies causes intrapersonal factors cultural interpersonal reliance on former partners Theories o Functionalism Blurred rolesresponsibilities o Triangulationoriginal family members to unite against outsider 47 years needed to renegotiate roles o con ict children compete for attention nances stretched time stretched children less cared for 0 or bene t from additional care 0 symbolic interactionism setting bounds and expectations 0 stepfamily foundation professional counseling via telephone 0 84 success rate 0 National stepfamily resource center Clearinghouse Factsstats 0 FAQ 0 Legal policies 0 Second wives club Resource community 0 Sharekidscom Online coparenting system Enduring Marriages and Families 0 Characteristics of an effective marriage and family 0 Americans and the family Prefer spending evening at home 0 Second watching TV together 0 Role of fathers With father interaction Higher self esteem Less depression Social acceptance Fewer behavioral problems 0 Depends on type of father More antisocial more problems 0 Higher intellect More problem solving 0 What is commitment o Triangular theory of love 0 Shortterm commitment Decision to love someone 0 Longterm commitment Maintain love over time 0 Types of commitment Personal Desire to maintain relationship 0 Determined by attraction to relationship partner and identity Moral Sense of duty Structural o Valuing time and energy in relationship 0 Commitment leads to fewer behavioral problems with children Children without more likely to enter insecure relationships and have less trust issues 0 Factor that affect commitment 0 Career and work Dualearner families 0 Both mother and father working 0 Complex juggle Commitment in both can lead to satisfaction 0 Without committing to both increased stress and dissatisfaction o Workfamily con ict Imbalance between roles Increased by gender differences 0 Role perception in marriage Tradition in uences role perception Newly in uenced by the individual 0 Willingness to sacri ce More likely if closely bonded 0 Family relationships and communication Need trust intimacy love and support Communication 0 Open exchange 0 Associated with less deviant behavior 0 Health Can be a problem to those who are emotionally unequipped 0 Cannot commit to being fulltime nurses without the relationships suffering Love and support associated with lack of family support 0 Attitudes and overall happiness Positivity May require change in personal goals 0 Less materialistic more happiness 0 Characteristics of effective marriages 0 Promote each other wellbeing o The only constant is change Must learn to adapt o 12 characteristics of successful marriages Listen talk be nice Help Cheer them on Bring souls together 0 Share morals and tolerance Remember trinity of happiness 0 Individual marriage and family Be sincere Marriage is fun Be together in the trenches Trust Divide and conquer Put yourself in their shoes Celebrate change 0 Skills for success Avoid 0 Personal attacks Contemptuous behaviors Defensive responses Engage Addressing issues 0 Taking a break to cool down 0 Proper communication 0 Listening 0 Characteristics of effective families 0 Successfully transmit values to children allowing success Originally deemed through churches 0 Starts with marriage Respectsupportspend time with children Cope with adversity 0 Take a cool down then talk 0 Value perspectives Spend time 0 International family strengths model Appreciated and affection Openly express love Commitment Positive communication Enjoying time together Spiritual health Effective stress management 0 The family of today and tomorrow 0 What is family Nuclear family 0 Controversy over if decline is helpful or harmful De nition affected by race and ethnicity o Rede ning the concept of family Demographics Cohabitation increase Attitudes and behaviors Marriage norm for those with college education and high income Younger generations 0 More likely to cohabit o Interracial Class race and ethnicity Changing de nitions 0 Gay rights 0 Family according to law Changing de nition 0 Many still only recognize nuclear Canada quotConjugal relationshipquot 0 Cohabiting and gay couples allowed rights 0 Families around the world Western world Birthrates decreasing Higher divorce rates 0 Extended households more common Nonwestern world 0 Nuclear households 0 Less stigmatized divorce 0 Less controlling with children 0 Less arranged marriages 0 Women still restrained against birth control 0 Gaining access to technology and information 0 Slowly westernizing 0 Future of the family How will tech change relationships Paradigm shift 0 Change in assumptions of which families are perceived Will monogamy be less popular Marriages and families in the 21st century US Families in Social Context 0 Religion Often support marriages and families 0 Clear positions on gender role premarital sex divorce and abortion 0 Implement counseling family centers and children programs 0 Work Rede ned gender roles Balancing work and family 0 Legislation Reuniting Families Act Prop 8 0 Leadership Obama s 0 Mass medias Average 42 hours a week using media 0 Increased to 53 hours Mass media and parenting o Promotes interest in parenting education Supervision Unrealistic expectations and representations Theories o Functionalism Response to collective needs Sexual regulation 0 Sex only with spouse and within marriage Socia placement 0 Con ict Look at patterns of power struggle Transitional families 0 Some members are in one place but relationships widely spread o Symbolic interactionism Society shapes the child 0 How does research de ne a successful family 0 Dysfunctionalfamilies Families not ful lling roles toward members and society


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