Chapter 10: Stress
Chapter 10: Stress PSYCH101
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Valerie Ho on Saturday January 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH101 at University of Washington taught by Dr. Lauren Graham in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 01/10/15
PHIL 100 Midterm 1 Key terms 10 11 12 13 14 15 Epistemology The branch of philosophy concerned with the study of knowledge Metaphysics The branch of philosophy concerned with exploring the fundamental nature of reality Premise Statements that are used to support a conclusion in an argument Conclusion The statement that one is trying to prove in an argument Argument A set of considerations presented in support of some claim Premises Conclusion Proof The evidence or argument that compels the mind to accept an assertion as true Valid argument IF the premises are assumed true the conclusion must also be true Only cares about the order not the content Inference Connection between the premises and conclusion Sound argument Premises MUST be true AND the argument must be VALID Unsoundness When at least one premises is false Empirical claim Describe states of affairs in the world determined by knowledge about the world Can be truefalse Normative claim Describe about values no consensus about their truth key ought should Logic Concerned with the principles of correct reasoning Socratic Method A form of inquiry and discussion between individuals based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to illuminate ideas Learner39s Paradox P1 Either S knows X or S does not know X P2 If S knows X then S cannot learn X P3 If S does not know X then S cannot learn X C Therefore S cannot learn X Valid argument but unsound Disjunction quotAquot or not quotAquot two extremes Necessary condition If X is necessary for Y then it is impossible for Y to hold without X holding The absence of X guarantees the absence of Y Sufficient condition If X is sufficient for Y then if X holds Y must also hold The absence of Y guarantees the absence of X Example for NC and SC 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Being 30 is necessary but not sufficientenough for being a senator Since all senators are 30 but there are people over 30 who are not senators Individually necessary and jointly sufficient Individually needed for knowledge while all are joined to form knowledge IFF if and only if JTB Account of Knowledge Justified True Belief Individually Necessary amp Jointly Sufficient i P is true ii S believes that P is true iii S is justified in believing that P is true Conditional claim A claim of the form quotif P then Qquot P Antecedent Q Consequent Modus ponens affirming the antecedent Example If P thequot Q If the cake is made with sugar then the cake is sweet P The cake is made with sugar Therefore Q Therefore the cake is sweet Modus tollens denying the consequent If P then G Not Q Therefore not P MP amp MT are 2 common argument patterns that include a conditional claim as a premise Both are valid deductive argument patterns Counterexample An example that shows the falsity of some theory or claim Entailment Logical sequence a cause ie valid argument when the premises entail the conclusion Logical consequence The relationship between statements that holds true when one logically follows from one or more others ie P1 ltSocrates is a Persongt P2 ltAII people are mortalgt C ltSocrates is mortalgt Propositions P1 and P2 immediately entail cause proposition C C is derived from P1P2 Certainty and doubt roles in Descartes39s reasoning Skepticism A proposition is certain if the subject has no reason to doubt its truth A proposition is doubtful if the subject has some reason to be unsure of its truth Cogito ergo sum Descartes quotI think therefore I amquot Methodological skepticism Cartesian Skepticism Descartes A systematic process of being skeptical about or doubting the truth of one39s beliefs Example Pt I know that there are trees only if I know that I am not deceived that there are trees P2 I do not know that I am not deceived that there are trees C Therefore I do not know that there are trees Sense perception Using our senses of sight hearing touch smell and taste to perceive colors sounds textures the world outside our bodies Example If the cake is made with sugar then the cake is sweet The cake is not sweet Therefore the cake is not made with sugar 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Imagination for Descartes We imagine only when we think about material things things that we perceive seem to perceive or could perceive with our senses He writes in the second meditation that quotimagining is nothing other than contemplating the figure or image of a bodily thingquot Begging the question The procedure of assuming what is at issue in an argument when the premises of an argument already quotcontainquot its conclusion Inference to the Best Explanation IBE When choosing between competing hypotheses one should choose the hypothesis that better explains the available data P1 Phenomenon Q P2 E provides the best explanation for Q C Therefore it is probably that E is true Allegory of the Cave Plato A extended metaphor used to compare the effect of education and to lack of it on our nature The Platonic Forms Plato39s theory of Ideas Ideas instead of the material world of change known to us through sensation possess the highest and most fundamental kind of reality Material substance corporeal substance Berkeley Physical things that has a body Primary qualities Objects that are independent and do not rely on subject judgments such as extension figure motion solidity etc Secondary qualities Properties that produce sensations as colours sounds tastes etc Idealism Everything that exists is entirely nonphysical Dualism Some things are physical and other thins are nonphysical Body vs Mind Materialism The view that the world is entirely composed of matter Empiricism Sense experiences allow the acquisition of knowledge oppositerationalism Rationalism Opinions and actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response Posit Something put forward as a useful assumption or startingpoint but not necessarily true propose Category mistake Ryle When things or facts of one kind are presented as if they belonged to another Qualia Raw Feels A quality perceived and experience by a person stimulated from the senses subjective Physicalism The doctrine that the real world consists only of the physical world Consciousness Where thought and experiences exist 47 Phenomenal experience Our first person view of the surrounding world private PSYCH 101 Chapter 10 Stress Health and Human Flourishing Stress Stressor A challenge or a threatening event Stress reaction Physical and Emotional responses Stress The process of perceiving and responding to stressors 3 types of Stressors l Catastrophes Unpredictable largescale natural disaster ie earthquakes floods wildfires storms ll Significant Life Changes ie Marriage Leaving home death of loved one may cause stress lll Daily Hassles ie Irritating housemates long lines in stores email spam etc STRESSORS Stress Reactions Reminder Sympathetic Nervous System causes arousal increase heart rate respiration Fightorflight response An emergency response activating the sympathetic nervous system that mobilizes energy for responding to a threat General Adaptation Syndrome GAS Selye39s concept of the body39s adaptive response to stress in 3 stages alarm resistance exhaus on 1 Alarm ll Sympathetic Nervous System activates Heart rate rises 2 Resistance v High blood pressure temperature and respiration Adrenal glands releases stress hormones to bloodstream 3 Exhaustion Happens when there39s a constant stress More vulnerable to illness Tendandbefriend when under stress People provide support to others bond with and seek support from others Stress Effects and Health Psychoneuroimmunology Psycho Neuro Immune The study of psychological neural and endocrine processes combine to affect our immune system and health The Immune System Four types of cells keeps us healthy 1 amp 2 Lymphocytes white blood cells B lymphocytes Release antibodies that fight bacterial infections lemphocytes Attack cancer cells viruses and foreign substances Even quotgoodquot ones such as transplanted organs 3 Macrophage Identifies traps and destroys harmful invaders and wornout cells 4 Natural killer cells Attack diseased cells such as those infected by viruses or cancer Immune System Malfunction S 1 Overreacting Responding too quickly Attacking the body39s own tissue Allergy 2 Underreacting Allowing a bacterial infection to flare Effects on Immune Systems Surgical wounds heal more slowly in stressed people Stressed people develop colds more readily Low stress may increase the effectiveness of vaccinations Because stress hormones drain energy away from diseasefighting white blood cells Stress and AIDS The greater the stress HIVinfected people experience the faster the disease progress Thus reducing stress can actually help control AIDS Stress and Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease The clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle By plucking a hair and measuring it39s cortisol a stress hormone level we can predict the chances of future heart attack Type A Friedman and Rosenman People that are competitive harddriving impatient verbally aggressive and angerproned Type B Friedman and Rosenman People that are easygoing and relaxed opposite to Type A Type A are more likely to suffer from heart attacks because they are always quotcombat readyquot Their Sympathetic Nervous System is always active and it often redistributes bloodflow to the muscles pulling blood away from internal organs As a result the liver can39t remove cholesterol and fat from the fat like it normally does leading to excess cholesterol and fat circulating in the blood and deposited around the heart Coping with Stress 1 Problemfocused coping Used when we feel a sense of control over a situation and think we can change the circumstances OR at least change ourselves to deal with the circumstances more capably 2 Emotionfocused coping When we cannot change a situation and reach out for support and comfort Success in coping with stress depends on 1 Personal control 2 An Optimistic outlook 3 Social support 3 Finding meaning in life39s ups and downs 1 Personal Control Our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless Learned Helplessness Passive resignation an animalperson learns when unable to avoid repeated aversion events May lead to rising stress hormones blood pressure while weakening immune system People thrive and do better when they live in conditions of personal freedom amp empowerment External Locus of Control The believe that chance or outside forces control our fate Internal Locus of control The perception that we control our own fate Having freedom Learn better perform better behave more helpfully Selfcontrol The ability to control impulses and delay immediate gratification 2 An Optimistic Outlook Optimism Anticipating positive outcomes expects the best and that their effort will lead to good things Pessimism Anticipating negative outcomes expects the worst and doubts their achievements There39s a positive correlation between optimism and living and long life Oxytocin A gene that enhances the socialbonding hormone Released when cuddling massage and breastfeeding in humans 3 Social Support Feeling supported and loved by friends promotes both happiness and health It also helps stress coping Social Support can help us fight illness 1 2 It calms our cardiovascular system lower blood pressure and stress hormone levels It helps foster a stronger immune functioning Because stress steals diseasefighting energy from the immune system social support helps reboots it Stronger support system Greater resistance to cold viruses 4 Finding meaning in life39s ups and downs Managing Stress Effects Aerobic Exercise Relaxation and Meditation Faith Communities and Health 1 Aerobic Exercise Sustained activity that increases heart and lung fitness Helps fight heart disease Heredity and environment interact Physical activity can weaken the influence of genetic risk factors for obesity It can also reduce stress depression and anxiety Counteracts depression in two ways i Increases arousal ii It increases the brain39s serotonin activity cognitive functions including memorylearning 2 Relaxation and Meditation Relaxation provides relief from headaches high blood pressure anxiety and insomnia Type A heart attack survivors reduce risk of future attacks by relaxation Mindfulness meditation attend to inner state without judging it Meditation lowers anxiety depression sleeping problems while improving immune system functioning 3 explanations to these positive changes i Meditation strengthens connections among regions in our brain focus processing and reflection ii lt activates brain regions associated with reflective awareness ie prefrontal cortex that aids emotion regulation iii Meditation calms brain activation in emotional situations 3 Faith Communities and Health Faith factor Positive correlation between religiously active people to life span Religiously active people demonstrate healthier immune functioning fewer stress hormones and longer survival 3 factors explaining this trend i Healthy lifestyles Smoke and drink less ii Social Support support network iii Positive emotions Stable worldview a sense of hope for the longterm future Happiness Tough challenges esp early in life can foster personal growth and emotional resilience Resilience The personal strength that helps most people cope with stress and recover from adversity and even trauma Happy people More decisive and cooperate more easily healthier energized and satisfied with their lives Feelgood do good phenomenon Our tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood Subjective wellbeing Our feelings of happiness and satisfaction with life The short life of emotional ups and downs Over the long run our emotional ups and downs tend to balance out Same for the course of the day Earlymiddle day highest positive emotions Wealth and Wellbeing Economics growth in wealthy countries has provided no apparent boost to morale or social wellbeing Money can39t buy happiness Because happiness is relative i Happiness relative to experiences Adaptationlevel phenomenon Our tendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level defined by our past experiences We then notice and react to variations up or down from these levels different colour temperature But this adaptation level can change adjusting to new experiences ii Happiness relative to success Relative deprivation The perception that we are worse off relative to others Predictors of Happiness lnterplaying between nature and nurture Personal history culture genes outlook recent experiences
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