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Summary of all readings#1.pdf

by: Valerie Ho

Summary of all readings#1.pdf PHIL100

Marketplace > PHIL-Philosophy > PHIL100 > Summary of all readings 1 pdf
Valerie Ho
GPA 3.53
Introduction to Philosophy
Prof. Woody

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About this Document

I found it really hard to keep track of all the content in the course's readings, so I created a summary of all the readings that are assigned in class. It really helped me to remember the main poi...
Introduction to Philosophy
Prof. Woody
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Valerie Ho on Saturday January 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL100 at a university taught by Prof. Woody in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 88 views.

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Date Created: 01/10/15
PHIL 100 Summary of all readings Midterm 1 The Nature of Knowledge 1 What is Knowledge Plato quotWhat is Knowledgequot Socrates Difference between true opinion and Knowledge Knowledge is tied down by giving an account of the reasons why belief Examples 1 Comparing two men One that has went to city Thessaly and one who only has true opinion of the way amp 2 The statues of Diomedes This concept of knowledge is similar to the modern JTB concept of knowledge in its importance of justification Both requires justification in the form of reasoning or explanation to be considered knowledge JTB concept of knowledge and relationships of it with Socrates39 concept of knowledge 1 P is true An opinion or belief 2 S believes P is true The opinion is correct 3 S is justified in believing that P is true quotAn account of the reason whyquot They are all Individually Necessary and Jointly Sufficient for knowledge Gettier quotls Justified True Belief Knowledgequot Arguing against JTB you can have JTB but still no knowledge Examples 1 SmithampJones The person who39ll get the job has 10 coins in his pocket Smith believes that Jones will get it but unbeknownst to Smith he got the job and also coincidentally has 10 coins in his pocket thus Smith does NOT know 2 Smith39s proposition that quotJones owns a Fordquot and infers 3 other propositions of Brown39s whereabouts Boston Barcelona BrestLitovsk But unknown to Smith and by coincidence Jones is renting a car and that Brown is ACTUALLY in Barcelona Smith does not know that one of his inferred propositions are true even though 1 that proposition is true 2 Smith believes it is true 3 He is justified in believing that it is true from experiences and predictions Thus JTB does not give a sufficient condition for someone39s knowing for a given proposition Nozick quotKnowledgequot Also denials JTB Agrees with Gettier He thinks beliefs should track truth belief should go along with the truth Justification of a belief is only valid insofar as it reliably keeps track of what is true Similar to Gettier where he demolishes the Justification element of JTB Nozick39s theory S knows that P IFF i P is true ii S believes that P iii If P were false then S would not believe that P iv If P were true then S would believe that P When iii and iv holds S39s belief is said to quottrack the truthquot Example Person in the tank Dictator Argumentcounterexample to iii and iv 1 Person in the tank stimulated by a computer that he is not in a tank 2 Everyone believes that the Dictator is not dead as reported by the news but one person who survived and seen the whole process knows that the dictator is in fact dead Alternate worlds VS our reality Worlds similar to us but differ in some details ie truth of P Nozick39s subjective conditionals 1 In the closest possible worlds where P is false S no longer believes that P 2 In all other possible worlds where P is also true S does believe P if P is true in some close or similar possible world then Q is also true in that world The Nature of Knowledge 2 Can We Know Anything Descartes quotMeditations 1 and 2quot Skepticism demolish all his beliefs questioning critically our knowledge once one39s core beliefs are disproven the rest of their ideas crumble as well Undermining sensory experiences they are sometimes deceiving thus not trustable Examples 1st meditation Dream Evil demon deceiver 2nd meditation Wax Our perceptions of things around us are subjective and are judgements from our minds ie the physical features of a wax so it doesn39t matter if we39re dreaming or being deceived or not since quotCogito ergo sumquot quotl think therefore I amquot I am thinking that is why I exists Disciplines dependent on the study of composite things are doubtful While arithmetic geometry and things that deal only with the simplest and most general things contain something certain and unquestionable whether they really exist in nature or not Moore quotProof of an External Worldquot Argue against Descartes Uses his hands Two conclusive proof of the existence of external objects 1 A proof that to two human hands existed at the time when I held them up 2 A proof that two human hands had existed at a time previous to that at which I held them up Definition of Proof i Must come to a different conclusion as premise No begging the question ii Must be certain about conclusion iii Conclusion must be logically followed by premises Vogel quotCartesian Skepticism and Inference to the best Explanationquot Argue against Descartes by using Inference to the Best Explanation He tries to figure out how to determine what makes an explanation better than another but we can39t determine which theory is correct on the basis of evidence alone because for any given body of evidence there is always more than one theory that explains what we observe States that when choosing between competing hypotheses one should choose the hypothesis that better explains the available data simpler and rich content cogent RWH VS Evil Demon Hypothesis EDH is ad hoc purposely made for the sake of the argument and takes extra dimensions to prove the same specific point Comparison between RWH and CSH Real World Hypothesis Computer Skeptical Hypothesis Our reality seems real because it is produced simulated by a computer Brain in a vat not real Everything seems real because they are real trust our sensory experiences It is most coherent and regular best explanation lmpoverished no answer to where the computer came from No two things can be in one place Pseudo IBE Inductive Argument 1 Phenomenon Q 2 E provides the best explanation for Q 3 Therefore it is probable that E is true Cogent Strong and its premises true best explanation in Vogel39s perspective The Nature of Knowledge 3 Knowledge of the Nature of Reality Plato quotThe Allegory of the Cavequot Plato has Socrates describe a gathering of people who have lived chained to the wall of a cave all of their lives facing a blank wall The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them and begin to designate names to these shadows The shadows are as close as the prisoners get to viewing reality He then explains how the philosopher is like a prisoner who is freed from the cave and comes to understand that the shadows on the wall do not make up reality at all as he can perceive the true form of reality rather than the mere shadows seen by the prisoners Berkeley Selections from quotOf the Principles of Human Knowledgequot Idealism Reality is fundamentally mental as opposed to physical only ideas are real Sight touch smell taste hearing are all one thing The mindsoul perceives all of these sensory experiences as well as object of knowledge This is the existence of an idea to be perceived Thus no thoughts passion ideas sensations formed by imagination or whatsoever exists without the mind Esse est percipi To be is to be perceived things exists when feel and see it There is no substances other than spirits that can perceive colour figure or likequalities It is also impossible for us to have perceptions that are the same except for ideas Primary qualities Extension figure motion solidity number etc Secondary qualities Denoting other sensible qualities ie colours sounds taste etc Matter An inert senseless substance in which primary qualities do actually subsist But since these qualities are only ideas existing in the mind they cannot exist in an unperceiving substance thus mattercorporeal substance posts a contradiction Quote quotAbsolute existence of unthinking things are words without a meaning or which include a contradictionquot Since it is not possible to conceive the extension and motion of a body without its colours primary and Secondary qualities are quotinseparany unitedquot essentially the same conception they thus also only exists in the mind and nowhere else The ideas of sense are more strong lively and distinct than those of the imagination they have steadiness order and coherence Quine quotPosits and Realityquot Q Nature of unobservables and beliefs about them Molecules and atoms are unobservables you can39t see them We have to treat Molecular Theory as a tool since it is useful yet untrue thus don39t believe anything about it uine talks about three things Sense Data Evidentially Fundamental colours smell shape of shape They are the basis of your believes Physical Particles Naturally Fundamental ie Molecules atoms Commonsense bodies Conceptually Fundamental how we perceive and curve up the things around us The Nature of Humans Part 1 Minds p utnam quotBrains in a Vatquot Similarity is not sufficient to make something representative of something else But thoughts maybe able to since they have intentionality Example A picture of a tree Some humans in another planet that have not seen trees in their life and when a picture of a tree dropped in their world they will perceive it as being a strange object unknowing its functions If one human39s mental images was the exactly the same as our images of trees this image to them is not a representation of trees but only that of the mysterious picture Other details in the book Ryle quotDescartes39 Mythquot Argue against Descartes39 Dualism Using Category mistake The Official Doctrine A version of dualism No one can directly access the mind of another person The only things we can do is to infer from other39s behaviour and deduce what happens in other39s mind but this process is relatively problematic Body Mind External World Internal World Public available and knowing to all Private Secret to each individual In Space Occupies Space Not in space Body Mind Casually connected Bodies interact with each other Isolated They don39t interact they39re individuals CM When things or facts of one kind are presented as if they belonged to another Examples used Category Mistake 1 University 2 Parade of a division 3 British French and American Constitutions Thus you cannot describe the mind and body as individuals like how an uni is not a separate building to its colleges they are part of the uni The mind and body is thus not separated they are one concept existing and integrated together Jackson quotThe Knowledge Argumentquot Physicalism is false coz of Qualia QualiaQuale A quality as perceived and experiences by a person sense perceptions There are certain features of bodily sensations that no physical information can describe ie the experience of taste smell sound sight or pain The Knowledge argument for Qualia Examples used 1 Fred seeing two shades of the colour red 2 Mary being in a black and white room for her entire life Physicalism is incomplete in the sense that even if you were to have all physical information about a brain and a body you wouldn39t be able to know about a person39s experience Similarly if Mary was to step out of her room and actually see the world she will learn something new about colours and visual experiences thus her previous knowledge is incomplete and that the world is not only composed of physical objects The physicalist almost always leaves out qualities that are perceived or experienced by a person39s mind


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