Intro to Humanities (HU)
Intro to Humanities (HU) HUMA 1100
Salt Lake Community College
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Keely Zboncak II on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HUMA 1100 at Salt Lake Community College taught by Paul Allen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 177 views. For similar materials see /class/225131/huma-1100-salt-lake-community-college in Humanities at Salt Lake Community College.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Odyssey Study Guide Nt I 9939er 0 O 0 What is the significance of the first line of this translation and how does it relate to all that follows How do the virtues of Odysseus differ from those of Achilles How are these differences related to the different spheres of action of the two heroes What aspects of social and political life in Homeric times are re ected in the Odyssey What is the purpose of the many allusions to the legend about the homecoming of Agamemnon Explain how Homer uses chronology in telling the story of Odysseus What outstanding personal qualities enable Odysseus to survive all his dangerous adventures and to surmount all obstacles to return home safely and regain his old status What are some of Odysseus s weaknesses When the warriors meet in the Iliad they typically announce themselves to their foes before combat begins In the Odyssey much of the drama comes from Odysseus s withholding of his identity How does this difference help to illuminate the different problems that confront Odysseus Many of Odysseus s adventures before his arrival in Ithaca involve women Why are these experiences important in the definition of his character and in the working through of his central project What role does Athena play in the Odyssey Why is she often considered its main female character 1 1 When does the dramatic climax of the Odyssey take place Is this before or after reunion of Odysseus and Penelope Why Who is Odysseus39 enemy and why What is Telemachus s problem Why is Odysseus s choice to raid the land of the Cicones Ismareus a bad choice What impression do you get of Odysseus from this encounter What do you think is Odysseus s worst action of his wanderings and why Why is the Odyssey a story read by so many after years and years Why is Odysseus looked to as a powerful representation of the mythic hero In what ways are the Iliad and the Odyssey similar In what ways do they differ In what ways can the Odyssey be described as a book that celebrates the subduing of nature by culture Study Guide to St Augustine s Confessions An interesting and informative website httpwww edn cklh 39 u Book I You might nd it helpful in your re ections on Book 1 to keep an eye out for a few especially important themes and to give a little extra thought to some crucial passages But don39t by any means feel compelled to restrict your attention to the things suggested here Passages to think about Sections 1 6 This is Augustine39s introduction to the Confessions The narrative of his life which will occupy the rst nine books begins at section 7 What prominent themes are introduced in these opening sections What does Augustine want us to know or be attentive to as we begin the work Why might Augustine think it appropriate or especially important to introduce these themes at the outset of the Confessions What do we learn in these sections about his reasons for writing the Confessions His plan for the work The audience he has in mind In modern autobiographies the writer usually embeds some implicit argument about how the reader stands to pro t from such an exercise in narcissism In a quotconfessionquot addressed to God how is the relationship between writer Aug and readers us otherwise negotiated What is the effect of putting us in the position of eavesdroppers What is Augustine39s role visa vis us and vice versa if we are not his quotof cialquot audience What books or texts seem important to him Section 1 The rst puzzle in a book and work full of puzzles quot which comes rst to call upon you or to praise you To know you or to call upon you quot Augustine loves to raise puzzles by means of series of questions in this wayiwatch for it throughout the Confessions What exactly is the puzzle See if you can explain it clearly without using interrogatives 0 Does Augustine offer a resolution of the puzzle If so what is it and what if anything does it tell us about the project Augustine is launching Sections 2 4 More puzzles about God s magnitude about God39s relation to space to places to persons 0 Try to explain what each of the puzzles is about What ideas or texts or common ways of speaking give rise on re ection to contradiction or absurdity Sections 5 6 Augustine nally begins actually to call upon God after thinking long and hard about whether it39s possible and how one can do it o What does he call on God to do Why Augustine introduces the theme of his quottalking speakingquot quottellingquot quot nding wordsquot having something to quotsayquotisee also the end of section 4 and the beginning of section 7 Why does Augustine want to speak What does he want to say Notice in section 6 the rst use of a word meaning confess39 here the verb fateor Themes to watch for God39s nature What does Augustine think God is like What grounds does he offer for his claims that God has certain attributes and attitudes Augustine39s human nature What does Augustine have to say about the nature of human beings generally their place in the created universe and their relation to God Sin What does Augustine think it is How does he characterize it What metaphors for it does he nd particularly attractive God39s hidden but unceasing providential care What actions and attitudes does Augustine attribute to God where his own development and wellbeing are concerned Discipline order authority vs lack of control disorder rebelliousness Unity vs multiplicity Criticism of his early formation What39s wrong with the educational curriculum The methods The teachers Parents Augustine himself Criticism of human traditions custom convention habit Why is Augustine so concerned see especially section 25 The prodigal son The rst explicit mention of the gospel story is in section 28 but watch for Augustine39s less explicit use of the story s images Book II Passages to think about Sections 1 2 Adolescent sins What kinds of sins does Augustine want to call attention to How does he characterize them What is their source How do they arise The word love in its various forms verb amare noun amor friendship amicitia occurs several times in these two sections Why How does Augustine develop in the rest of book 2 the ideas expressed using these terms here at the beginning Augustine says Your wrath was heavy upon meYour anger had grown hot at my doings sect 2 What does he mean What form does he think of God s wrath taking Sections 9 18 The theft of the pears Augustine devotes the entire second half of book 2 to re ection on a single incident the latenight theft of the pears What does he think is so important about this incident Why does it merit a full 10 sections of the text When Augustine asks What did I love in you my act of theft twice in section 12 once in section 14 again in section 16 what is the puzzle or difficulty he s trying to identify Is he able to nd an answer to that question A resolution of the difficulty When Augustine claims that the theft and the gangmentality were nothing section 16 what does he mean Themes to watch for Pay special attention to the metaphors Augustine uses to characterize his moral state and his activities Divine punishment of sin What forms does it take How does it work Restraint and disorder In what respects does Augustine think his adolescent self ought to have been restrained By whom How Friendship love and sex What roles do and should these things play in human life In what ways are they good and bad How are they corrupted Book III Passages to think about Sections 7 13 These sections mark a dramatic turn the rst signs of movement in a positive direction What exactly did Augustine get from Cicero s H ortensius What is Augustine s attitude toward philosophy after reading the encounter with Cicero How is philosophy related to God To Christianity What attracted Augustine to the Manichaeanism sections 10 ff Why did it seem to him a good place to pursue the quest Cicero had set him on Make two lists one containing the problems the 18 year old Augustine saw in Catholic Christianity either on his own or as a result of having been persuaded by Manichaean arguments another detailing the things the 18 year old Augustine is said to have been ignorant of or blind to where Catholic Christianity is concerned Note carefully the sequence of Augustine s intellectual in uences how is God suggested by and then excluded from theater and the view of life as theater now known as the theatrum mundi commonplace most famously exemplified by Shakespeare39s quotAll the world39s a stagequot What role does Cicero play for Augustine and is there anything weird and or ambiguous about this Note Augustine39s anatomy of sin which anticipates or inspires some of Dante39s detailed rendering in Inferno How does Monica39s dream fit into the scheme of free will quotchoicequot vs determinism quotfatequot Themes to watch for The three kinds of sin Lust of the esh sensuality carnal concupiscence lust of the eyes pride of life God s persistent mercy and punishment Metaphors involving direction Upward and downward inward and outward Reality What s real and what s not what things are more real than what other things Book IV V and VI Passages to think about Book 4 sections 7 15 Augustine39s re ections on the death of a friend lead him to a discussion of what sorts of things we value and how and why The death of the friend puts us on familiar territory Enkidu Patroklos How does this archetypal loss figure in the Christian narrative Why do you think the friend39s name is omitted Why is Augustine39s grief so severe How does he explain its severity What exactly does Augustine think the problem is in his grieving the loss of his friend Does he believe that he ought not to have grieved at all How is Augustine finally able to to move beyond his grief What does he do or what happens to him Book 5 sections 19 25 Academics leftover stumbling blocks from the Manichees Ambrose quotI had no hope that truth could be found in your Churchquot section 19 Why not What ideas or arguments kept Augustine from turning to Catholic Christianity after he lost interest in the Manichees What attracted Augustine to Ambrose What affect did Ambrose have on Augustine s attitude toward Catholic Christianity Book 6 sections 6 8 New attitude to the scriptures Augustine sees a new and important role for belief and believing What is that role How does belief contrast with seeing understanding and demonstration What does believing have to do with the scriptures Ambrose a new in uence what relief does he bring Augustine Why does Augustine make a big deal out of Ambrose39s silent reading which was not strange or wonderful in itself Book 6 sections 1822 Obstacles other than leftover Manichaean confusions hindered his progress towards Catholic Christianity what were they Why did they stand in his way What was their root or cause Themes to watch for Eloquence and literary accomplishment Who has it What is it What is its value Individual moral responsibility Augustine thinks it important that certain worldviews make it difficult to attribute moral responsibility to people for their actions Bodies and spirits How are they to be conceived Book VII Passages to think about Sections 1 and 4 7 Difficulties still standing in the way of a full return to Catholic Christianity What are they What progress does Augustine acknowledge having made on these problems Sections 12 7 and 23 and 26 The Platonist books What did Augustine find in them What did he not find in them What role did the Platonist books play in the ascents Augustine descibes in 16 23 26 Are these 16 23 26 mystical visions of God Sections 18 20 The nature of evil How does Augustine resolve the leftover Manichaean question about evil How is the discussion of evil here connected with the quotvisionquot in section 16 Sections 23 26 One last difficulty What39s the problem Themes to watch for EVIY Free Will The nature of the divine substance BOOK VIII Although increasingly common conversion is something of a new phenomenon in the Greco Roman world List the examples of conversion in this book Can you extract a theory of conversion In VIIIv St Augustine analyzes his interior struggle as the warfare of his con icting wills What is your view of the psychological authenticity of this passage Why does the issue of chastity and continence loom so large in Augustine39s conversion to Christianity BOOK IX Assess his mother39s role in St Augustine39s life Of what signi cance for him is her death BOOK X A martyr is literally a quotwitnessquot To what extent is Augustine a martyr and to what How does Augustine connect Books 1013 to the rest of his narrative Do you agree with Gail s analysis why there is a shift in the narrative Does this Augustine seem different to you than the protagonist in Books 19 If so what sort of conversion or change has he undergone How does this book teach us to behavelive after we have had a conversion experience On p 181 Augustine identifies the different people who might be in his audience What strategies does Augustine use to appeal to these different audiences Compare Augustine39s discussion of the quotauthentic happy lifequot to Plato s description of happiness BOOK XI What is Augustine39s theory of time Do you agree with it Give one example from your own life or readings that supports or disproves his theory Why does Augustine return to the discussion of language and writing at this point in his narrative How is Augustine39s conception of God related to his understanding of time Why does he return to psalms at the end of Book 11 Why is this a loaded example to choose What does it say about his book overall and our present relationship to his narrative BOOK XII Why is Augustine concerned with change and mutability How does this relate to Platonic thought Why does Augustine return to Moses as a gure to examine What are the rami cations of his choice What do we make of the parallels between their lives Is it egocentric of Augustine to think of his life typologically This relates to a larger issue in the Confessionsdo you believe Augustine39s effacement of the selfego How does Augustine explicate the bible What sorts of questions does he ask What sorts of assumptions does he make BOOK XIII Did Book 13 live up to your expectations for what Augustine39s lecture on Genesis might be If not why not If so what did you like about his lecture How does Book 13 wrap up the threads of Augustine39s narrative What are the threads of and tensions in Augustine39s narrative What themes does Augustine return to here What do you make of the last words of the Confession in light of your understanding of the intention of his work overall Study Guide for Dante s Inferno Background The Political Life of Dante Dante Alighieri was born in Florence in 1265 He was descended from a well respected family His hometown Florence was growing in greatness and riches trading in such goods as wool silk and leather Florence like the other cities in Italy at the time was under the jurisdiction of Rome Yet Rome itself was divided Both the Emperor and the Pope claimed political authority and thus Italy was divided between the partisans ofthe Emperor the Ghibellines and the partisans ofthe Pope the Guelfs As can be imagined such a situation caused chaos The Guelfs gained control of Florence in 1266 Dante39s family had been associated with the Guelf party for a considerable time In later years two sub parties of the Guelfs were created the Whites and Blacks Both claimed they were Guelf but the pope Boniface VIII sided with the Blacks Dante was a member ofthe Whites and a member ofthe government council ofthe city Dante soon found himself at odds with the Pope In 1300 Dante was exiled Thus he was forced to spend the rest of his life away from his beloved hometown of Florence The Pope39s sentence carried a harsh penalty should Dante ever return to Florence he would be burned at the stake Needless to say Dante never returned home but through the power of his pen he was to gain sweet revenge He lived with his friends and admirers and spent his time in exile writing The Divine Comedy The Love Lives of Dante Why quotlivesquot and not quotlifequot The answer to this question is a crucial one in understanding Dante and his work At the time of his exile 1300 Dante was a married man with four children He had been married some time between 1284 and 1292 to a woman named Gemma di Donati Gemma39s family like Dante39s was old and respected It is thought that their marriage was arranged Gemma neverjoined her husband after his exile although Dante39s two sons eventually did But to understand Dante and his work it is necessary to examine the influence of another woman Beatrice Polinari Like Romeo and Juliet the names of Dante and Beatrice will forever be linked Dante probably saw Beatrice only twice in his life the first time when he was a boy of only eight years old He glimpsed her again several years later and was delighted that she smiled at him Like Dante Beatrice was married probably also through a political arrangement In 1290 Beatrice died She was only 24 years old Her death brought Dante into great despair for Beatrice had become a wonderful symbol for Dante Dante used Beatrice as a symbol through out his works Beatrice a real woman became the allegorical symbol of God39s love divine revelation Christ salvation or a number of other interpretations Dante only saw Beatrice a few times in his life but she became for him a symbol of all that is good The Structure of the Divine Comedy The Divine Comedy is made up of 100 Cantos 33 in each section plus one extra in The Inferno It was written in the vernacular Italian not Latin in a verse form having three rhymes called terza rima The allegorical journey employing Dante and characters from mythology ancient Rome Virgilclassical reasoning Christian theology and quotreal lifequot Florence Beatricefaith The sinners in the Inferno are punished according to an elaborate scheme of divine retributionyou reap what you sow Important de nitions 1 allegory An expression by means of symbolic fictional characters and actions oftruths about human conduct and experience 2 terza rima An Italian form iambic poetry having sets ofthree lines the middle line of each set riming with the first and last ofthe succeeding ababcbcdc It was invented by Dante 3 epic poemA long narrative poem with an exalted style theme and hero Definitions from Lexicon ofLiterary Terms by Robert Anderson and Ronald Eckard An Important symbol The number 3 Examples 3 divisions of the Divine Comedy 3 types of sins 39 incontinence lack of control over our passions and desires violence vicious and fierce behavior fraud deception trickery or deceit Important characters 1 Dante the author and the main character 2 Virgil Dante39s guide through the lnferno and the Purgatorio The real historical Virgil was longdead even in Dante39s time Dante himself a poet had admired Virgil39s poetry greatly and so quotreincarnatesquot him to be his guide on the journey Virgil represents reason 3 Beatrice while not actually a character in the Inferno she does not appear until the Paradisio her influence is felt throughout the whole ofthe Divine Comedy She represents divine love or faith Dante attempts to unite the concepts of faith and reason the primary goal of medieval Scholasticism Why does Dante make himself into the epicheroic protagonist of his own poem Does this fit in with the medieval view ofthe human individual and hisher place in the universe Why Why not What may have been Dante39s motivations in writing the Inferno Do his personal desires and feelings lovehatred etc play a role in this endeavor Who does he place in hell Why Is there significance to this work beyond the expression of personal emotions and political or other opinions What was Dante39s position toward the religion of his time How about the pope How do Dante39s positions toward the Catholic faith and the papacy affect the composition of his poem Why does Dante place some of the popes in hell What practices of the Church of Dante39s time are criticized in his work What procedures does Dante employ for the expression of his views What specific dogmas are placed under questioning and scrutiny in the lnferno What about the notion that hell is forever notice the inscription on the gates of hell What ofthe case ofthe so called quotvirtuous pagansquot good people who were unfortunate enough to live before the times of Christ or did not practice Christianity and hence according to dogma had to go to hell Can anyone get out of hell Are there any characters in Dante39s narrative which are said to have escaped from hell What are the implications of such figures What symbolic meaning may underlie the literal representation ofthe spiritual life after death What is death anyway Is there only one kind Does one go to hell only after physical death How may one interpret the concepts of the quotfirstquot and the quotsecondquot death alluded to in the poem How might such interpretations differ from the conventional and literal understandings of the first and second deaths What images in the poem support such readings Why is Dante allowed to enter the underworld while still alive Why does he suggest that he entered hell quotmidway in our life39s journeyquot What may this imply regarding the character ofthe journey and its relation to the concepts of the first and second deaths Are there any other quotlivingquot characters in hell besides Dante What does this imply regarding Dante39s symbolism of hell and damnation When does one enter hell At what points is it still possible to get out When does it become impossible to escape What seems to be happening to the very structure and physical reality of Dante39s hell over time When did such a process begin What does it represent or allude to How might such images and issues relate to the concepts of the first and second deaths Any relevance to the concept andor interpretation of the Second Coming What is the relation between sin and punishment in Dante What is the meaning of the concept of contrapasso What is the significance of the three symbolic beasts which Dante encounters before entering hell What about the mountain which he is unable to climb How do these symbols relate to the issues of responsibility for Dante39s entrance into hell Why must Dante meet and speak with the souls ofthe damned How is this important or useful to him Why does Beatrice act as the protector and ultimate guide of Dante toward salvation Why is Virgil a pagan poet chosen to guide Dante through the underworld What does the choice of such guides suggest concerning the significance and messages of Dante39s work Is there any hope of salvation for someone like Virgil What is salvation according to Dante Why is Odysseus Ulysses placed by Dante in the underworld In what circle of hell do we find him see Canto XXVI What is his punishment In what ways does Dante39s work complete the story which Homer began How does such an ending fit in with Homer39s understanding of the character and life of Odysseus Why does Dante faint at certain points in his journey eg just before crossing the river of death Acheron during his encounter with the souls of the lovers Paolo and Francesca What may the fainting symbolize or suggest in those different occasions Why is Dante moved to pity by the stories of some of the sinners in hell Which sinners does he feel sympathy toward Why does Dante become so angry during the crossing ofthe river Styx where the souls ofthe angry are submerged in mud How about Dante39s behavior lying cheating kicking pulling hair toward the souls entrapped in the ice in the ninth circle of hell Is there a pattern or significance to Dante39s different reactions sympathy hatred pity anger etc to the various sinners he confronts What is the symbolic significance of Cocytus the frozen lake of ice at the bottom of hell What about the figure of Satan himself trapped at the center of the lake Is it surprising for the reader to discover that the bottom of hell is frozen solid What does the cold symbolize In what way does the place affect Dante What is the effect on the reader and on Dante of the discovery of the tears of Satan and the misery of his condition Does this in any way contradict the reader39s expectations Why must Dante physically embrace the body of Satan before his departure from hell
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