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POL1040 Midterm Review and Study Guide

by: Anthony Johnson

POL1040 Midterm Review and Study Guide POL S 201

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > Political Science > POL S 201 > POL1040 Midterm Review and Study Guide
Anthony Johnson
GPA 3.8
Introduction to Political Theory
Christine DeStefano

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Introduction to Political Theory
Christine DeStefano
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anthony Johnson on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL S 201 at University of Cincinnati taught by Christine DeStefano in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Political Theory in Political Science at University of Cincinnati.

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Date Created: 10/19/15
Short Answer Questions for Midterm POL 1040 Fall 15 Study Guide Matching 10 questions Quotations 8 questions 0 Preservation of style context and original wording 0 Identify them and explain the significance 0 What each piece represents in theory Multiple Choice 20 questions 0 Similar to the quizzes in class 0 Key concepts Short Answer 3 questions The Midterm will ask you to provide short answers 47 sentences to some of the following questions Five of these questions will appear on the midterm and you will be asked to choose three to answer 1 Explain and brie y evaluate Creon s position in Antigone He is the ruler of Thebes Oedipus39s sons Eteocles and Polynices had shared the rule jointly until they quarreled and Eteocles expelled his brother In Sophocles39 account the two brothers agreed to alternate rule each year but Eteocles decided not to share power with his brother after his tenure expired Polynices left the kingdom gathered an army and attacked the city of Thebes in a con ict called the Seven Against Thebes The Thebans won the war but both sons of Oedipus were killed leaving Creon as ruler once more serving as regent for Laodamas the son of Eteocles Creon gives Eteocles a full and honorable burial but orders under penalty of death that Polynices39 corpse be left to rot on the battlefield as punishment for his treason Antigone the daughter of Oedipus and J ocasta who is betrothed to Creon39s son Haemon defies him by burying her brother and is condemned to be entombed alive as punishment Antigone tells Creon that it is the duty of the living to bury the dead and that if a body is not buried then the one who died will wander around in nowhere aimlessly for all eternity Creon finally relents after advice from the chorus leader Choragos after Tiresias tells him to bury the body However when Creon arrives at the tomb where she was to be interred Antigone has already hanged herself rather than be buried alive His son Haemon threatens him and tries to kill him but ends up taking his own life In Creon39s old age a descendant of an earlier king of Thebes named Lycus invades Thebes and after killing Creon takes the crown Creon is pitted against Antigone who holds up the will of the gods and the honor of her family above all else and thus he appears to be against these values His behavior however suggests otherwise He aggressively preaches the concept of family honor to his son Haemon Creon also believes that his decrees are consistent with the will of the gods and with the best interests of the people whether true or not When a legitimate argument is raised against his course of action by Tiresias he is in fact completely open to changing course even before he learns of the deaths of his family members 2 In Apology explain why Socrates refuses to stop his philosophical activities Socrates imitates parodies and even corrects the Orators by asking the jury to judge him not by his oratorical skills but by the truth cf Lysias XIX 123 Isaeus X 1 Isocrates XV 79 Aeschines II 24 Socrates says he will not use ornate words and phrases that are carefully arranged but will speak using the expressions that come into his head He says he will use the same way of speaking that he is heard using at the agora and the money tables In spite of his disclaimers Socrates proves to be a master orator who is not only eloquent and persuasive but even wise This is how he corrects the Orators showing what they should have been doing all along speaking the truth persuasively with wisdom Although it is clear that Socrates was offered the opportunity to appease the listeners with even a minimal concession to avoid the penalty he consciously does not do so and his speech does not allow for acquittal Accordingly Socrates is condemned to death Socrates explaining that the highest task of citizenship is philosophy beauty knowledge and wisdom He refuses to give this away as he feels it is his duty to the State Confrontation with Crito causes him to then to change his mind and agree that his death sentence is the will of the State and therefore he will submit Problematic interests those people with power are actually some of the least wise in Socrates s analysis He never stops challenging those in power teaching the youth how to search for virtue and lives a hard life for this Understands himself playing a specific role in the State and advancing the mission of the State 3 What is the basis of human equality for Aristotle Are all humans equal Breaking the world down into component parts breaks the polis into parts finding human beings who are capable of deliberating He labels humans as political animals this is Aristotle s basis of human equality The polis is the selfsufficient entity in which deliberation occurs about not only living but living well Some people are slaves and less fit to rule Begins to establish by means of the polis who has the right to be ruled to rule etc Distinction between the polity as opposed to democracy The poor ruling for the sake of the poor Positive implications of democracy Doctrine of the Wisdom of the Multitude Many contributions of knowledge equates to a larger wisdom Larger supply and potential for wisdom but democracy still needs knowledgeable rulers Basically how will democracy function to ensure people will not rule for their own interests rather than ruling for the common good and the other 4 Explain the sources of con ict in the State of Nature according to Hobbes Robust natural law based on the State of War on the expectation that others are bound by it as well If they do not you have the right to do whatever is necessary to secure one s own life Includes attacking stealing punishing etc Rational to be aggressive and come into con ict with people human instrumental reason will tell people the instinct derived from the State of War reason tells that it s a bad way to live and one begins to seek a way out 5 Why is it important to Hobbes that the Sovereign not be a part of the contract of government Life is terrible under the State of Nature reasoning for a better way to exit the State of Nature which is a State of War is through a third party Resulting in a need for reasonable assurance that others will uphold their end of the agreement of the social contract Not binging in the state of Nature in Society a third party makes it binding Prevents others from breaking the agreement presence of a sovereign Natural Law for Hobbes is conditional and only holds up in civil society Sovereign is outside the contract of government not bound by restrictions of government and it can do whatever it wants 6 Why is the right to property so important for Locke Key is individualism instrumental conception of politics politics being for the individual to further our own good The value of living in a State allows us to protect our life liberty and property all of the good things that happen under civil society Freedom for Locke being non interference implying limited government By property he implies everything it enables you to do capital Enables social relationships convenience leisure basis for defining liberty freedom and the pursuit of happiness His justification as to where property comes from is problematic when establishing right to property in the State of Nature How did that come to be Everyone has an equal right to the Earth What gives one person the right to close off a plot of land We own ourselves and the things we do Mixing our labor with the natural world picking an apple makes it our own Money being the solution for his theory that we leave enough for everyone else are not wasteful and nothing will spoil Money and commerce allows us to avoid spoilage Labor and goods make the supply infinitely large uses this as his mechanism to define property prior to government because this allows us to resist a government to protect right to property unconditionally 7 What is the relationship between reason and Natural Law according to Locke Natural Law exists prior to civil society Consequence of civil society but binding even outside of society Locke has a substantive conclusion that it is a mirror re ection given to us by God and therefore binding in the State of Nature Stating that humans will come into con ict even if Natural Law is established in society an inconvenience to the State of Nature Makes property liberty and security far less secure in the state of nature Humans come together to be one body with common goal throwing out all individual freedoms to establish a government that protects those rights 8 Why is property a sign of human decline for Rousseau Human nature changes according to Rousseau Prior to society there are no needs desires and fears in the State of Nature We haven t encountered one another andor had society yet Simple needs no memory First contact development of reason language judgments differences among humans sense of more and less then leading to give us new means Society changes who we are as people Property as a symbol of this shift Binds us together in relationships of dependency Wealthy need poor to tend land and grant esteem while poor need wealthy for safety security and land needs humans cannot satisfy alone the rich telling a story that everyone is better off in society when really they benefit the most and constrainlimit individuals This leads his to see property as a downside and Total Loss of Freedom 9 How does Rousseau propose to encourage citizens to prioritize the General Will Seeks to highlight the wrongs of society but in a progressive manner He devises the social contract in which freedom is being free from constraint and free from dependency Free from things external to the common good This is how he feels society should be governed an objectively good thing that exists General Will and that humans should be forced to follow and abide by this The vote of all we can all be mistaken but all must follow Will How to create a populous for this Morals virtue habits of heart mind and association that teach a community the actual good of the General Will Not institutions not executive the people Being a participant in a civil society in which we govern ourselves within our general best interests and following the General Will that IS perfect freedom 10 Explain the importance of SelfGovernment in the Declaration of Independence 11 Explain the role of active citizenship according to the AntiFederalists and or Lincoln


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