Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSC 1003
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kerrigan Unter on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Olson, L in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
PS31003 Exam 1 Study Guide Ch 14 Vocabulary Security dilemma the situation that states face when they arm to defend themselves and in the process threaten other states Anarchy the decentralized distribution of power in the international system no leader to center to monopolize power Collective security the establishment of common institutions and rules among states to settle disputes peacefully and to enforce agreements by a preponderance not a balance of power Interdependence the mutual dependence of states and nonstate actors in the international system through conferences trade tourism etc Polarity the number of states holding significant power in the international system Zero sum game Nonzero sum game Relative gains Absolute gains Selfhelp system the principle of selfdefense under anarchy in which states have no noe to rely on to defend their security except themselves Sovereignty an attribute of states such that they are not subordinate to a higher power either inside or outside their borders and they agree not to intervene in the domestic jurisdictions of other states Nation State the actors in the contemporary international system that have the largest capabilities and right to use military force Nationstate Nationalism Liberal nationalism a form of 19th century nationalism that focused on political ideologies and called for wider participation and the rule of law in both domestic and international politics Socialist nationalism form of 19th century nationalism that sought greater economic equality and social justice Especially in class and colonial relationships Militant nationalism form of 19th century nationalism that focused on cultural and racial differences and advocated an aggressive heroic approach to international relations hreden snn Treaty of Westphalia Preemptive war an attack by one country against another because the second country is preparing to attack the first Preventive war a war by one country against another that is not preparing to attack the first country but is growing in power and may attack in the future Selfdetermination nations right to autonomy in deciding their own domestic identities League of Nations universal institution founded after the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 the embodied the collective security approach to the management of military power Principle of unanimity a principle in international affairs that all nations regardless of size or identity participate in global institutions and decision making Credible threat Balance of terror a situation in which two or more countries use the threat of nuclear weapons to deter con icts Containment policy created by George Kennan theorizing the methods of the Soviet Union and their expansion of territory to create a buffer zone and the importance of the US to contain their expansion Kennan considered it too late for Eastern Europe but Western Europe and other parts of the world should be prevented form falling to communism D tente a phase of the Cold War beginning in the 1960s when the West initiated diplomatic overtures to Moscow Power capabilities vs intentions Truman Doctrine US policy that defined the Cold War in ideological terms Helsinki Accords a series of agreements between East and West in 1975 concerning arms control trade and human rights Arms race the competitive buildup of weapons systems Rollback John Foster Dulles s policy in the 195 Os of liberating the Eastern European countries from Moscow s control Mutual Assured Destruction the nuclear deterrence strategy that called for the dominance of offensive over defensive systems Perimeter deterrence Strongpoint deterrence Escalation dominance each side continues to escalate in their threats until the other side can no longer match it Firststrike capability ability to launch missiles towards another country the first time Secondstrike capability the ability to return fire when another country launched missiles towards the first country Bretton Woods system NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization western alliance in the Cold War Warsaw Pact communist alliance in the Cold War Notes Realism The International System Systematic structure is anarchic in the sense that there is no higher authority than the state Due to anarchic nature of the system states must operate in a selfhelp environment They must look out for their own interests first and foremost The State For realists the state is the primary actor in international politics states are rational selfinterested actors states are unitary actors in the sense that realists are not concerned with the internal characteristics of states realists will conclude that states are like units that have similar set of interests Power and Polarity realists argue hard power is what matters in the international arena the international system will be stratified based on the distribution of power which will affect state interests Firsttier powers will be primarily concerned with other firsttier powers secondtier with other secondtier and so on the polarity of the system is determined by the number of firsttier or Great Powers in the system 0 Multipower systems 4 or more Great Powers 0 Bipolar systems 2 Great Powers 0 Unipolar systems 1 hegemonic power tripolar systems are unstable and unbalanced Polarity is a secondary structure in the anarchic system which will constrain and in uence state behavior and will affect the overall stability of the system State Behavior as selfinterested actors state seek to insure their national interests interests are ranked hierarchically such that security interests are paramount states are powerseeking but realists disagree on how much power state will seek o Defensive realists argue states will seek to insure an equilibrium exists in the system si they will engage primarily in powerbalancing behavior 0 Offensive realists believe states will always seek to maximize power visavis other states in the system Competition and Cooperation in their interactions with others states will be primarily concerned with relative gains that is how much more or less they gain visavis the other state this is based on the assumption that international politics in a zerosum game one state s gain represents a loss for another state despite this cooperation is possible in the form of alliances However the durability of the alliance depends on what each state is gaining from the alliance what other states are gaining and whether the national interests of the participants are being met in general cooperation is difficult due to the fact that trust is low Cheating will be assumed according to the realists The Security Dilemma for realists this the primary dynamic that exists between states because cooperation and trust are difficult to achieve states will respond to the material capabilities primarily military strength of other states in the system based on the selfhelp nature of the system and the low level of trust intentions cannot be accurately communicated to opponents in one state increases its hard power capabilities other states will respond by increasing their hard power capabilities when other states respond by increasing their hard power the first state will once again increase its hard power creating in practical terms an arms race in essence the security dilemma refers to the problem that when a state seeks to secure itself as it must in a selfhelp system it inadvertently threatens other states potentially destabilizing the system and leading to con ict Liberalism and Identity Perspectives The International System liberals agree that the international system is anarchic but they argue that the effects of anarchy can be mitigated examine the process from the systematic process level of analysis focus on how interactions between states can foster cooperation and interdependence Interdependence refers to the complexity of interactions between states such that states forge a variety of ties between one another These can be political social cultural or economic when interdependence is high cooperation is easier and con ict is less likely because states are linked together to such a degree that con ict will be more costly Path Dependence an additional mechanism that fosters interdependent ties between actors certain outcomes can only come about by particular casual mechanisms as a certain path is pursued new outcomes challenges and opportunities often unintended emerge for liberals what is important is that when path dependence process reaches a certain point it cannot be turned back without significant costs Complex Interdependence for liberals this represents the most stable international system deep ties exist between actors which are reinforced by international institutions the shadow of the future the knowledge that actors will have to interact with no another multiple times will constrain actor behavior however interdependent ties must be maintained through trade diplomacy and other types of interactions If these ties weaken or become broken actors will believe they have reached the last move increasing the likelihood of con ict Actors in the International System liberals emphasize the role of both state and nonstate actors multiple actors in the system allows for multiple channels of communication deepening the interdependent ties that exist between them liberals will also be more likely to employ multiple levels of analysis Actor Behavior liberals generally apply the rational actor model to actor behavior the depart from realists in the sense that there is no fixed hierarchy of interests 0 Securest interests matter but such interests are not necessarily paramount 0 Depending on the actors involved and the issues are at play interests will vary Thus economic interests may be the most important given a particular set of actors 0 Power will also shift based on the issuearea and the actors involved Liberals will emphasize bother hard and soft power liberals further assume that international relations can be a nonzero sum game and that actors focus on absolute gains 0 If an actor gains something form an interaction it will be satisfied Mutual gains become possible further strengthening interdependent ties 0 Relative gains will still matter but disparities can be resolved through the process of bargaining 0 When con ict emerges as a result of differences in relative gain this is due to an unsuccessful bargaining process Trust and Cooperation when interdependency is high trust can be developed between actors such that intentions can be trusted One actor can say it is doing something and other actors will believe it with the possibility of trust and cooperation collective goods can be pursued Power and Knowledge theory developed by French poststructuralist Michel Foucault Foucault argues power is uid and depends on social context in international relations power whether hard or soft matters in the sense that the powerful are able to in uence the knowledge values and norms of the international system power is uid and ows through discursive relationships which in turn produces knowledge values and norms Actor Identity examines how actors construct their own internal and external identities which in uences their behavior in the international system actors can hold multiple identities where one identity may be more salient given a certain social context also examines the idea of relative identities which is how actors view themselves in relation to other actors in the system cooperation tends to be more likely where actors hold a shared identity such as the idea of the democratic peace The Levels of Analysis System structure examines the nature of the international system and how this in uences the behavior of actors process looks at the actual interactions between actors and what impact this has on behavior Domestic looks at internal processes and institutions in order to predict how an actor will behave internationally emphasizes institutional structures decisionmaking processes the internal organization of the actor and how various organizations within the actor interact with one another Individual focuses on leadership might examine the psychology or personality of the leader the institutional constraints on the leader and situations such as crises where these constraints might be relaxed Foreign Policy Level falls between the system level and the domestic level examines the decisionmaking by foreign policy elites assumes that decisionmakers need to appeal to audiences at both the domestic level and the system level emphasizes the idea that interests must be balanced between the international and the domestic Realism Multipolar and Bipolar systems The Balance of the Power System emerged after the Napoleonic Wars with the creation of the Concert of Europe sought to insure that no state would achieve hegemonic status as France had under Napoleon prevented a general European War until the outbreak of World War I The Great Powers Britain France Russia Prussia Germany after 1871 and Austria AustriaHungary after 1848 Rules of the Balance of Power System no state can be allowed to achieve a preponderance of power and become a hegemonic power states will continue to compete for power but their action is constrained by the other Great Powers Each state will act to insure that no other state gains too much This is motivated primarily by the security dilemma Alliances will be temporary and utilitarian to prevent any state from gaining too much Most importantly each Great Power must be willing to all with any other Great Power when the equilibrium of the systems is in jeopardy negotiation is better than fighting but war is seen as an acceptable tool of foreign policy if it is needed to maintain balance preservation of sovereignty and independence is limited to the Great Powers Each will seek to preserve each other s sovereignty However secondary powers can be divided if it serves the interest of maintaining peace presence of a balancer state Stability ofMultipolar Systems defensive realists argue that multipower systems are stable If states are engaging in power balancing behavior more players facilitates this tendency and states are more constrained offensive realists argue such systems are too complex and too prone to catastrophic miscalculation If states are engaging in power maximizing behavior simpler systems like the bipolar system are more stable The Alliance System a system of shifting entangling and often secret alliances between Great Powers and between Great Powers and secondary powers developed by Otto von Bismark with the intention of insuring stability in the balance of power system stability could be achieves by effectively constraining state action while still allowing states to compete for resources and power Causes of World War I German unification Completed with the end of the FrancoPrussian War in 1871 This war would definitely change the balance of power since France and Germany would become permanent enemies German fear of a twofront war Exacerbated by the FrancoRussian alliance in 1894 Russia weakness particularly compared to Germany Germany s development of the Von Schlieffen plan Outbreak of World War I proximate cause the assassination to Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian nationalists in Sarajevo Led AustriaHungary to issue an ultimatum to Serbia Serbia would accept all but one condition leading AustriaHungary to declare war the entangling alliances draw the Great Powers into con ict and Germany sets the Von Schlieffen plan in motion Germany fails to conquer France getting bogged down in trench warfare on the Western Front resulting in the twofront war Germany feared Realist Explanations preemptive war By 1914 a bipolar system had emerged in Europe Germany sought to act to restore a perceived imbalance in power between the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente Preventive war Germany sought to rectify a future imbalance namely an eventual increase in Russian power Power transition Germany sought to challenge Britain for hegemonic status responding to a progressive decline in British power Liberalism Collective Security Systems Collective Security and the League of Nations collective security organizations are international institutions tasked with managing insecurity and resolving con icts between states rely on the centralization of hard power as the last method for dealing with con ict 0 An all for one one for all approach where participants pledge Assumptions of a Collective Security Organization aggression is always wrong aggression is clearly defined such that all members agree on what constitutes an act of aggression equality of threat in the sense that members will come to the aid of any victim of aggression o Relies on the idea of peace as a collective good all states enjoy peace or none do Collective Security and Hard Power military force is generally seen as a last resort other tactics such as diplomatic pressure economic sanctions and other actions short of the use of force are pursued first to try to pressure the aggressor to withdraw 0 Assumes that interdependent ties exist such that an aggressor can be pressured using tactics such as economic sanctions to increase the cost of aggression such that the aggressor state will withdraw 0 Requires concerted effort on the part of the organization as a whole to be effective if military force is used all members are expected to contribute The League of Nations he first attempt at a collective security organization that would last from 1919 to 1946 during the interwar years it would prove ineffective the United States did not join Germany was excluded until 1926 and the USSR did not join until 1933 several institutional problems within the League would also limit its effectiveness Principles and Structure of the League principle of unamity 0 Every state had an equal voice in the League regardless of size or power 0 Any action taken by the League had to have unanimous consent 0 In essence each member exercised an effective veto power over any decision the Council and the Assembly 0 The Council consisted of 9 members 5 permanent 4 rotating 0 The Assembly was made up of all League members 0 No real difference between the two Could both debate the same issues and no special privileges rights or powers were given to one branch exclusively use force governed by the League Any use of force had to be authorized by the League Each member theoretically committed itself to punish any act of aggression against any member of the League Arms Control during the Interwar Years In additional to the League of Nations states sought to reduce or limit military power KellogBriand Pact in 1928 signed by most sovereign states outlawed war and the use of force in international affairs 0 Each country immediately declared exceptions US Japan and Britain signed Washington Naval Conference setting ceilings on naval power Great Britain and Nazi Germany signed an agreement in 1935 that Germany would limit ts naval power to 35 of Britain s cheating was rampant during this period starting with Rapallo Treaty between the Weimar Republic and the Soviet Union for liberals the lack of interdependency limited the possibility of developing trust leading most of these agreements to be unenforcable Challenges to the League of Nations The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 0 Declared an act of aggression by the League 0 Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1933 The Italian invasion of Ethiopia 0 Again declared an act of aggression 0 Sanctions imposed but only partial sanctions Italy still has access to steel oil and coal and could still use the Suez Canal The Spanish Civil War 0 Britain and France imposed a Neutrality Act denying the Spanish government the right to buy arms 0 Italy sent approximately 30000 soldier to aid Franco 0 Germany tested many of the tactics it would use in World War II in Spain o The Soviet Union would also aid the Spanish government with arms but this aid was partial directed towards Spanish Communists success of postWWII system today s lecture precold war systemgt gorbachev regan kennedy 2014 07 21 lecture Liberalism The Cold War domestic levels trade role of soft power on citizens spread of western goods free trade system benefits third phase of power gorbachev with societal and economic reform citizens demand reform collapse of the USSR Identity Nationalism and Con ict The Nation and the State Nation a group that shares some form of common identity such as language history ethnicity or culture The nationstate exists where a nation resides within the boundaries of a particular state This is usually the products of state attempts to unify a people by appealing to a peoples similarity through patriotism national holidays a national language or some other unifying characteristic The Nation and the Imagined Community where in the premodern world people identified with one another based on facetoface interactions with the rise of the modern state this is no longer possible as political communities increase in size individuals identify with others as members of the same nation even if they have never nor will never meet face to face Stories of Peoplehood National identity is based on the stories people tell themselves about who they are their history their culture and their place in the world this is a dynamic competitive process where multiple narratives engage in discursive interaction seeking to become the dominant narrative the type of story a people tells itself can serve as a predictor for con ict 0 Inclusive narratives revolve around the idea that any person can become part of the nation 0 Exclusive narratives focus on exclusion of the Other usually another group living in the same territory These types of narratives are more prone to con ict Nationalism and the NationState governments could appeal to a sense of national belonging to rally a population behind the government as the nationstate emerges national armies rather than mercenaries are used to fight wars in countries like Napoleonic France the people following the ideals of the Frech Revolution grant legitimacy to the nation increasing both the hard power and the soft power of the state Nationalism in the 19th century national minorities in the Ottoman Empire and AustriaHungary consistently pressured these states for independence other Great Powers frequently sided with these movements 0 The British backed Greek independence from the Ottomans in the 1820s 0 The Russians backed Slavic independence movements in the Ottoman Empire and AustriaHungary for the identity theorists such alliances were the product of a shared identity rather than calculations of power or advantage Types of Nationalism in the 19th century liberalism promoted the spread of democracy free trade and international institutions Britain was the most prominent example of a liberal state militant nationalism advocated national aggrandizement and expansion based on the idea of superiority if the state s national culture Bismark and Prussia were the strongest proponents of this nationalism Socialism emerged as an international movement that sought the overthrow of capitalism and existing forms of government Autocratic states were particularly threatened by this movement leading Prussia AustriaHungary and Russia to form the Holy Alliance to combat socialism Militant Nationalism and the Outbreak of World War I Bismark pursued an irredentist form of nationalism seeking to unify all German speaking people even if it meant taking territory from other states this was combined with a Social Darwinist outlook in the sense that German unification was about national survival and competition between Germans and French and Germans and Slavic peoples furthermore a strong sense of militarism pervaded German national culture Led Bismark to violate the rules of the balance of power system Shared identity rather than national security interests would also lead Britain to all with France in 1904 rather than with Germany Nationalism in the Interwar Years Wilson s 14 points included a doctrine of selfdetermination which states that national peoples should be able to govern themselves within their own territories led to the breakup of the Ottoman Empire and the AustriaHungary and the creation of many of the Eastern European states that exist today however national minorities still existed in these new states and the demanded to be allowed to join with their conationals the idea was that democracy would take hold in these new states but during the 1920s and the 1930s democracy would fail Germany and the Versailles Treaty the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I was punitive towards Germany 0 Germany was required to accept guilt for the war which included severe limitations on its military 0 Also required to pay reparations Germany viewed the Versailles Treaty as an affront and the new Weimar Republic immediately began seeking to undermine the Treaty The Soviet Union In 1917 the Tsar of Russian was overthrown replaced by the Provisional Government which was in turn overthrown by Lenin and the Bolsheviks who instituted a Communist government The Soviet Union negotiates a separate peace with Germany and pulled out of the war early To punish the new USSR the victorious powers excluded the Soviets form the new international institutions create at the end of World War I The Soviet Union like Germany would be dissatisfied with the postWorld War I settlement eventually leading the two to cooperate in the Treaty of Rapallo which allowed German military to test new weaponry on Soviet territory in violation of the Treaty of Versailles Ideology in the Interwar Years liberalism which sought again to spread free market ideas and democracy The Great Depression would undermine these attempts socialism was no longer revolutionary but emerged as socialdemocracy economically socialist but committed to democratic forms of government communisms was revolutionary and expansionists seeking through organizations like Comintem to spread revolution throughout Europe Fascism mirrored the militant nationalism of the preWorld War I era espousing national pride and the exclusion of the Other Fascist states like Mussolini s Italy and Hitler s Germany made irredentist demands with Hitler rising to power by appealing to German dissatisfaction with the Versailles Treaty
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