Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSC 1003
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kerrigan Unter on Monday October 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Olson, L in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
PSC 1003 Exam 2 Study Guide Terms The end of history an idea advanced by Francis Fukuyama that the spread of democracy had brought an end to the Violent struggle among nations for equal recognition The clash of civilizations a thesis advanced by Samuel Huntington that past and future global con icts can be traced along fault lines between nine major world civilizations Neoconservatism Power transition theory a school of realism that sees hegemony as stabilizing and war as most likely when a rising power challenges a previously dominant one and the balance of power approaches equilibrium Power balancing a school of realism that sees hegemony as destabilizing and war as most likely when a dominant power emerges to threaten the equilibrium of power among other states Unipolarity Peacekeeping activities UN actions devoted to monitoring ceasefires and separating combatants in third world con icts Peaceenforcement activities UN actions intended to compel countries by force or threat of force to follow the terms of UN resolutions Most favored nation treatment Human rights rights concerning the most basic protections against human physical abuse and suffering International Court of Justice ICJ the UN s main judicial institution to arbitrate disputes among nations Universal jurisdiction the claim of a single state that it can prosecute perpetrators of war crimes anywhere in the world Compulsory jurisdiction Spillover World Trade Organization WTO Notes Liberalism and the PostCold War World The Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait The first challenge to the new sense of optimism after the fall of the Soviet Union For liberals this example represents how collective security is supposed to work 0 Iraq invades Kuwait a clear act of aggression o The US submits a resolution to the Security Council for authorization to come to Kuwait s aid 0 After Security Council approval the US and a broad coalition of supporters attack Iraqi forces in Kuwait o The mission concludes once Iraq withdraws 0 Iraq is contained through a sanctions regime to insure it is deterred from similar action in the future However future challenges would not fit this mold particularly as the UN began to transition from peacekeeping duties to peaceenforcement activities The UN and International Security The UN Charter authorizes UN intervention in a con ict in 2 distinct ways Peacekeeping authorization o Authorized by Chapter 6 of the UN Charter 0 Requires the consent of both belligerent parties in a con ict 0 UN forces are sent in to serve as a buffer between belligerent parties while a ceasefire or a peace is negotiated 0 Either party can withdraw consent requiring the peacekeeping force leave Peaceenforcement authorization 0 Falls under Chapter 7 of the UN Charter 0 Allows the UN to send a military force into a continuing armed con ict to enforce a UN Resolution Somalia First significant challenge would be in Somalia undergoing a famine and governmental collapse after the ouster of Siad Barre Country torn about by competing warlords who used food assistance as a tool for solidifying power In response to public pressure the UN with US support intervened to provide food aid This limited mandate quickly fell victim to mission creep o The US began taking sides directly opposing Mohammad Farah Aideed a powerful warlord in Mogadishu Would lead to the Blackhawk Down Incident the death of several American servicemen and an American withdrawal The failure to resolve this crisis led to ongoing instability in the region including the rise in piracy the emergence of alQaeda inspired radicals a takeover of the government by an Islamist group and a subsequent Ethiopian invasion The Breakup of Yugoslavia Sparked in 1989 by Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic s turn towards nationalism Also exacerbated by Croatian President Franjo Tudjman s increased nationalist rhetoric Began with the secession of Slovenia followed by Croatia Croatian secession involved some con ict between the Yugoslav army and Croatian separatists In 1992 BosniaHercegovina the most multiethnic province sought to secede Both Serbian and Croatian separatists in Bosnia supported by their respective conationals began seizing territory and engaging in ethnic cleansing The International Response to Yugoslavia The UN response was in general ineffective A peacekeeping force was sent to Yugoslavia under Chapter 6 authorization to allow a resolution of con ict in Croatia In Bosnia both Chapter 6 and eventually Chapter 7 authorizations were granted giving UN forces a more active role in protecting civilians At the height of the war the UN set up safeareas in Srebrenica Zepa and Gorazde in Eastern Bosnia where refugees were promised protection 0 Serb forces overran the UN positions and in Srebrenica massacred 8000 Bosnian Muslim men and expelled 25 30 thousand women children and elderly The Resolution of the Yugoslav Con ict For much of the war the United States stayed out allowing the UN and European forces to deal with the issue After mounting public pressure however the US took a more active role The US acted through NATO rather than the UN engaging in air strikes of Serbian targets coordinated with a new BosnianCroatian alliance against Serb forces For many liberals NATO s intervention would prove instrumental and prove that regional collective security organizations could be more effective than the UN Rwanda The greatest failure for the UN in the 1990 s A Chapter 6 peacekeeping force was in place to implement a peace accord reached between Hutus and Tutsis The death of the Rwandan president would spark the genocide Westem states particularly the US would refuse to expand the UN s mandate so the forces on the ground could take a more active role in protecting Tutsi civilians In the end the UN and the West would stand by as the most rapid genocide in history occurred Liberal View of Ethnic Con ict Ethnic con ict is not the product of ancient hatreds spontaneously resurging For liberals elite manipulation of weak institutions is the primary cause of ethnic con ict Building institutions at the domestic level is most effective approach to prevent ethnic con ict Economic Interdependency While the hope for using collective security organizations to prevent con ict was called into question during the 1990 s liberals will argue that strong interdependent ties have been created Technological developments such as the communications revolution and the Internet have facilitated economic ties The integration of the global economy has convinced most states that participation in free trade is the best path towards development and economic growth Terrorism and Ethnic Con ict De ning Terrorism political in the sense that it seeks to effect political change used as a tactic by nonstate actors deliberately targets noncombatants or civilians explicitly rejects international norms and conventions which binds states Purpose of Terrorism seeks to coerce a government and a broader society to effect changes by demonstrating a willingness to strike anywhere and at any time 0 Not interested in military victory against a state 0 Actual target of the terrorist attack is less important than the broader effects it will have on the government and the society 0 Democracies are generally targeted more often than nondemocratic states reaction of the government is also an important consideration for the terrorist group Types of Terrorism categories of terrorism can be distinguished based on the level of destructiveness and the purpose of the terrorist attack demonstrative terrorism 0 Seeks to call attention to the group s cause 0 Loss of life is usually low but property damage is often high destructive terrorism 0 More aggressive in the sense that civilians are targeted and the loss of life is often high 0 Still attempts to mobilize support within the potentially sympathetic population through more precise targeting suicide terrorism 0 Most aggressive in the sense that it is indiscriminate and only seeks to in ict damage 0 No attempt to mobilize support within the population 0 Often alienates potential supporters Technology and Terrorism technological developments and the strength of terrorist groups go hand in hand 0 Many refer to the contemporary manifestation of this phenomenon as the dark side of globalization technological developments in uence the types of attacks terrorist groups carry out and the destructiveness of the attacks 0 After the invention of dynamite this became a preferred weapon for anarchists Globalization and Terrorism communications revolution the 1990s is the latest example of terrorist groups using technological development to their advantage 0 Allow transition to network based on organization 0 Can operate more effectively transnationally due to the fact that territory is less necessary 0 Loosely connected cells can operate independently o Introduces problem of lone wolf terrorist Realist view of terrorism while recognizing terrorist groups as nonstate actors realists will maintain a statecentric approach Robert Pape The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism examining the individual motivations of the terrorist tells us very little must focus on the group as a rationalactor a group will be more likely engage in suicide terrorism if the benefits outweigh the relatively low costs Pape argues terrorist groups are successful when 0 Attacks are part of coordinated sustained campaign 0 Nationalist goals such as the removal of an enemy from a territory are pursued o Democracies are targeted 0 Enemy is willing to give concessions such as when no vital national security interest is involved Ethnic con ict as an Emerging Problem Intra state con ict has become far more common since 1990 than interstate con ict within the context of globalization such con icts are often seen as a fragmentary dynamic existing simultaneously with the integrative dynamic that exists at the system level not simply a backlash to integration as many ethnic groups in con ict take advantage of the technological developments of globalization Ethnic Groups share a common identity based on a cultural traits historical experience or common descent demands of ethnic groups can be material political andor cultural ethnic groups make diverse demands 0 Minority peoples often seek access to state institutions 0 Ethnonationalist groups often seek exit from existing states and from secessionist movements the causes of ethnic con ict can be traced to a variety of sources including relative deprivation demographic stress sociocultural factors a history of ethnic tension and state failure Realists and Ethnic Con ict apply the security dilemma at a domestic level to understand ethnic con ict groups in a society will act as rational actors but calculations of power and the assessment of threat posed by other groups will be different 0 Ability to mobilize group as a cohesive unit increases the power of one group and potentially threatens others 0 In ethnic con ict because small arms are the primary weapon each side assesses threat and calculates power based on the assumption of offensive advantage Preemptive strikes are particularly tempting under these conditions 0 Geographic dispersion of the group is another factors and will affect the types of demands made and the nature of the con ict If a group is concentrated in a specific area secessionist demands are often made If a group is dispersed this increases the threat felt by the group and often leads to ethnic cleansing o Likelihood of outside intervention Realist Solutions following the logic of the security dilemma balancing power between groups is the best solution advocate separation of the groups to prevent further con ict 0 Assumes ethnic identity is hard wired and immutable Reconciliation is not possible Critics argue that this policy rewards aggression Human Rights Universal Human Rights vs Cultural Relativism individual human rights conceived as universal in that they apply to all persons critics argue that this is a Western notion of human rights and its disregards nonWestern culture 0 idea of Asian values rooted in Confucianism 3 Generations of Human Rights first generation Civil and Political Rights 0 Right to free speech assembly the right to vote the right to practice religion second generation Social and economic rights 0 Right to a living wage health care education housing third generation group rights o Emphasizes rights of minority groups to do things like teach their native language and practice their customs 0 Also includes the rights of women seeking to protect them from forcible marriage female genital mutilation honor killings The Human Rights Regime a regime is a set of rules and norms that remains in place without single formal institution to enforce them with regard to human rights multiple actors work at multiple levels of analysis to enforce human rights norms includes NGOs states and IGOs such as the United Nations and the ICC Nongovernmental Organizations play an important role in human rights regime at both the system and the domestic level at the system level advocate for specific policies draw attentions to issues offer alternative channels of communication mobilize mass publics internationally at the domestic level mobilize at the grassroots level often take the place of the state in provision of services The Role of States participate in international institutions that promote human rights promote human rights in bilateral and multilateral negotiations usually by linking human rights to other issues such as trade trangovernmentalism 0 An emerging trend in cooperation between government agencies 0 Response to the rise of global problems and the lack of effective international institutions Transgovernmental cooperation can address these issues while at the same time remaining accountable to domestic level constituencies GO 5 The United Nations 0 Arguably serves as the legislative side of the human rights regime 0 Passes treaties such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights setting forward the standards for the human rights regime 0 Through Chapter 7 peaceenforcement humanitarian intervention is a possibility The Regime at Work the human rights regime is most effective when all actors participate at multiple levels of analysis The case of South Africa 0 The UN stripped South Africa of voting rights and put economic sanctions in place 0 MNCs divested from South Africa 0 NGO s mobilized publics in the West to pressure their states to cut ties with the South African regime o The ANC in South Africa supported the sanctions regime International Institutions and International Law The World Trade Organization Founded in 1995 the WTO represents the transition from the GATT regime to a formal institution Specifically intended to manage disputes between states and the bolster the free trade regime at the system level Each member of the WTO is required to extend mostfavored nation status to all other members of the WTO 0 MFN treatment is a principle of nondiscrimination which states that each country must extend to all other members the same trade relationship it has with its best trading partner 0 Exceptions to this policy are made with regard to integrated regional blocs such as free trade areas where tariffs within the area are zero but states maintain their own barriers to trade or common markets where internal tariffs are zero and a single tariff covering the whole common market is put in place WTO Dispute Settlement The purpose of the WTO is to maintain a level playing field where each member has an equal opportunity to participate in global trade Members who believe unfair trade practices are being pursued by other members can bring disputes to the WTO 0 Since 1995 the WTO has resolved several hundred disputes between states while the GATT only resolved around 300 from the end of WWII to 1995 If a state loses a dispute it has 3 choices 0 Alter the offending law and drop the barrier to trade 0 Compensate the other state with trade concessions in another area 0 Accept retaliation through the imposition of equivalent barriers by the winning state International Law Differs from domestic law in 2 important ways 0 No effective executive power at the system level that can enforce law 0 Generally lacks a reliable way to enforce compulsory jurisdiction where individuals can be compelled to appear in court or face punishment Despite these facts there are international laws in place some more effective than others Several new developments in international law have occurred over the past decade Universal Jurisdiction In the late 1990 s several European national courts asserted a right to universal jurisdiction arguing that domestic courts could try foreign nationals for certain crimes regardless of where the crime occurred Focused on crimes such as genocide crimes against humanity and war crimes First tested in 1998 by a Spanish judge named Baltasar Garzon who indicted Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet for the murder of several Spanish citizens during the coup in 1973 Later adopted by Belgian courts but was dropped after individuals began seeking to put political leaders on trial Hybrid Courts Most commonly used in postcon ict situations where domestic courts are weak or nonexistent Courts are set up with both international and domestic judges to address crimes committed during the con ict Allows justice to be carried out domestically with the assistance of foreign judges Facilitates the development of domestic legal systems The International Criminal Court The first permanent tribunal tasked with trying individuals for certain categories of crimes The ICC differs significantly from the International Court of Justice ICJ or World Court 0 The ICJ is an arbitration body where only states have standing to bring cases and where both states much consent to ICJ arbitration o A relatively weak institution that hears few cases and generally does not deal with major issues The C C s Jurisdiction Asserts compulsory jurisdiction over individuals above the age of 18 Can prosecute Genocide Crimes against humanity War crimes Also sought to prosecute crimes of aggression I Vaguely defined with no precedent so ICC cannot currently prosecute this crime but it remains open as a possible future category The ICC does not have universal jurisdiction It can only prosecute crimes Occurring in states that are signatories to the ICC treaty Committed by nationals of member states Occurring after July 1 2002 The rst 2 can be overridden if a state that is not a member of the ICC accepts the court s jurisdiction or if a case is referred to the court by the UN Security Council The ICC usually takes cases from failing states who lack functioning courts Functional ism War is caused by relative economic disparities between states In the economic realm technical experts develop habits of cooperation leading to the transcendence of state loyalty and the development of shared interests Continuous cooperation between experts creates functional units then formal institutions which spills over into political cooperation Economic disparities lessen and likelihood of con ict is reduced F unctionalism and the EU Began in 1951 with the European Coal and Steel Communities Created a free trade area in coal and steel between France and Germany monitored by a supranational bureaucracy Purpose was to remove two critical contributors to military production from national hands Once these industries are integrated spillover begins to occur Solving one problem leads to new problems that need to be solved through further economic integration The benefits of integrating coal and steel can only be fully achieved when other sectors of the economy are integrated Leads to a path dependent process where economic integration increases Would eventually lead to the creation of the European Economic Community and the common market The Goal of F unctionalism For David Mitrany one major theorist of functionalism this process allows actors to sneak up on peace Low level noncontroversial cooperation necessitates increasing levels of cooperation and integration in a path dependent process that locks actors in and increases the cost of removing themselves from the process Neofunctionalists introduce an identity element In addition to economic integration neofunctionalists argue that individuals should be encourage to transcend national identity and adopt a regional identity in order to further reduce the likelihood of con ict Once economic integration is complete with the creation of the EEC the next challenge is political cooperation leading to the creation of the European Union The European Union Founded in 1992 with the signing of the Maastricht Treaty Creates a single European market with the free movement of goods services capital and labor Based on three pillars with an overall goal of continued and further integration Economic Foreign and security policy Police and judicial cooperation Currently 28 members with 5 candidates Iceland Macedonia Montenegro Serbia and Turkey and 1 applicant Albania Goals of the European Union Overall goal is an ever closer union To join the EU a state must meet several criteria Stable democracy Respect for human rights A stable market economy that can compete within the EU Accept obligations of membership including the acceptance of relevant EU laws over national laws EU seeks to insure that states harmonize upward in terms of the variety of standards and regulations put forward by the EU The EU is also committed to improving living standards throughout Europe and will engage in redistributive policies to assist newer less developed members
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