Exam 2 Flashcards - Sedimentary Rocks
Exam 2 Flashcards - Sedimentary Rocks EAS 2600 A
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marinice Bauman on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EAS 2600 A at Georgia Institute of Technology taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Earth Processes in Earth Sciences at Georgia Institute of Technology.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
1 weathering of existing rock 2 Eros39on remo es sed39ments a a H from soucgce rock wl ilclc then avrey trans orte a a 3 e 39ments are I m e evepntually dnegosited into a sink 4Sediments are buried compacted and ithified through diagenesis to become rock rocks formed How much of the rock outcrops on the continent are sedimentary 75 Help reconstruct much of earth39s history give us clues to the past often contain fossils provide info about sediment transport Why are sedimentary rocks useful Why are Economic coal petroleum and nat sedimekntary gas iron and r03 5 aluminum Important groundwater What is weathering and what are the Disintergration and decomposition of a material at or near the surface 1 Mechanical tWO typeS 2 Chemical HOW does The breaking of mechanical mks intO smaller weather work pieces through a physical process How does chemical weather work The rock surface is dissolved or altered Minerals are charged by lost oraddedions Whats the difference between weather and erosion Weathering is the disinergration and decomposition of material at or near the surface while erosion is the dislodging of weathered rock and removal from source area usually from rain wind or gravity Process that moves sediments from their source and eventually to the sink of their environment windwaterglacier What is transportation 1 siliciclastic broken silica rock fragments formed by mechanical or chemical weathering 2 Chemical and Biological Sediments form from precipitation of ions or minerals from inorganic or organic means Name the different sediment types 1 Fluvial most common by water 2Alluvial gravity 3 Aeolian moved by wind 4 Glacial 5 Biological moved by creatures Name the 5 methods of transport 1 Size of sediment 2 Sorting of Sediment 3Rounding of sediment Strength and distance affects what 3 things The covering of sediments within a sink environment allowing them to be preserved What is burial The physical and chemical changes thatconven sediments to sedimentary rocks What is diagensis The stage of diagensis where sediments become cohesive rocks What is lithification What 395 Comp Decrease in compaction volume and porosity due to compression Gem and Chemical bonding of cementation individual grains What are sedimentary depressions filled with thick accumulations of sediments They are basi n3 SINKS for sediments Name a few 1 Rift Basin 2 types of Thermal sedimentary subsidence basin basin5 3 Flexural basin Name the 3 1hShorelline sgi39ciflastici types Of sedimentation 3 Marinechemical and biological sedimentary enVIronment Name types of 1 Lacks and continental inland seas 2 sedimentary Desert 3 Glacial environments 4 Alluvial Name types of shoreline sedimentary environments 1 River deltas 2 Beach 3 Tidal flats 1 Deep sea 2 Continental Shelf 3 Continental Slope 4 Organic Reef Name types of marine environments Carbonate deposits SIIICGOUS envnronments Name environments of chemical and biological evaporite sediements environments What are the 5 Beddmg cross bedding graded bedding ripple marks bioturbation stutures sedimentary structures formed during deposition When newer material is What is d 39t d I horiziatac lll over older Whatis Err33232 VI 055 with strong beddlng currents Abundantly found in continental slope and deep sea sediments deposited by deep muddy turbidity currents which hug the bottom of the ocean as they move downhill What is graded bedding What are ripple marks Bed surface features of wave motion Wh rocks produced by mechanical erosion their maternal IS solid particles d e classified by particle size mon roc 39 l d shale sandgtg rfelJ e conglonmerate What are Orattsbtzgtrquot bioturbation throth mduds and san san creat structures burrows e What are seg itanceked layers of n 39 bedd n g 5 different sequences structulgelseiin each What 2 rou s i are sedirgientgry i Detr39tal mka rocks classified and Chem39cal into rocks From very rapid limestone formation due to biologic activity Atoll How does the organic reef develop What is this called i What are the g 1 Lithicsimilar Compositional i comApkositionFtol he sourcje i 2 rose e spar an groups Of Quartz 3 Quartz arenite siliciclastic quartz sand 4 Graywacke sediments g Quartz and clays I i They are derived from material in solution and 39 g precipitates directly C h e m I precipitated from physical processes through life processes 5 i N f Limestone ame a 9W 5 t 5 mIcocrys a me examples of quartz evaporates chemical rock i and coal i i i i i
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