Essay questions and Vocab Terms
Essay questions and Vocab Terms HST 122 012
Popular in Survey of the History of the United States since 1877
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Emily Arne History 122 Exam 2 Study Guide Essay Questions 1 Describe the different manifestations of progressivism at the local state and national levels To what extent did progressives redefine the role of the state in American politics Answer The basic structure of modern government is a progressive one The idea of government taking a more active role in the lives of citizens and providing assistance and help to those who are in need of it is something that is present in government on all levels For example one could argue that middle class tax cuts is a progressive idea as it is providing economic relief to those who require it the most as middle class individuals are those who are mostly workers and individuals who are not working at the level of an industrialist One can even argue that the creation of a national service clearinghouse on the web of serve gov is an example of the government seeking to create a niche of public service in its own existence This is a highly progressivist idea The ideas of governments of Grover Cleveland which argued that government assistance quotweakens the national characterquot would be severely challenged in such a notion When Progressivism is seen on a local level it is based out of government helping those who need it the most Consider local governments that organize food drives or ask shoppers to donate a can of food to a food pantry These are Progressivist ideas in action as they help to bring out the notion that government can take direct and positive action in helping its citizens in creating a realm of promoting the general welfare 2 Describe the origins of environmentalism in the progressive era What caused the need for the movement What forms did environmentalism take during the progressive era Describe some of the forms environmentalism takes today and trace their origins back to the progressive era Answer The vast majority of environmentalism are progressive They are prohuman pro science and profree enterprise They not only differ with the reactionaries on tactics and style they also hold fundamentally different values The following is a brief summary Progressives are under no illusion that American Indian communities were Gardens of Eden or that the Indians lived at one with nature Alston Chase has described how Indian tribes set fires in order to drive hers of frightened buffalo over cliffs killing far more than the Indians could ever consume So extensive was the Indians use of re that they virtually created the treeless prairies of the Midwest long before the white man arrived and their zeal for hunting often decimated the quarry long before they depended upon to survive For example once Indian tribes acquired horses and ri es they almost wiped out the buffalo herds in some parts of Western America Some tribes were more environmentally responsible than others but on the whole Indians like other people appear to have used nature to their own ends constrained only by the technology available to them Nor are progressives under the illusion that medieval communities were good for the environment or for humans The use of livestock in agriculture ad of animal power in agriculture trade and transportation led to increased animal waster and significant water pollution contributing to the high rate of human mortality from infectious diseases In the 13th and 14th centuries navigation on the Thames was greatly impeded by human horse and industrial wastes Air pollution was so bad that England made coal burning for home heating punishable by death The replacement of the horse by the automobile was universally and correctly viewed as a major environmental improvement The modern city has different forms of pollution But it is certainly an improvement on the relatively tiny but incredibly filthy streets and waterways of medieval and Renaissance cities Unlike the reactionaries progressive environmentalists look to the future They hope to use human intelligence creativity and technological prowess to solve problems that have never been solved before 3 What were the major themes of Progressive reform How did each of the progressive presidents carry forward these themes Which of the progressive presidents was most progressive and which was least progressive Explain your reasoning Answer The 6 major themes in the progressive era was the shift from gilded age to progressive era reform five goals of the progressive era reform movement Theodore Roosevelt and republican progressivism William Howard Taft Roosevelt s prote ge outdoes his boss the election of 1912 progressives battle each other Woodrow Wilson s Progressivism There are many themes that were represented in the Progressive Era One of my personal favorites is the idea of power coming from quotthe bottom upquot The Progressive Era was one of the strongest in American History regarding the power of social activism on the most grassroots level possible This was not a time when power was seen as owing from government Rather it was a time when the word of the truth was found on the street in reality and using this as a rallying cry for change became one of the dominant elements the time period Another theme was the emergence of the news media as becoming the quotfourth branchquot of government Muckrakers like Ida Tarbell Upton Sinclair and Jacob Riis believed that it was their obligation and responsibility to expose corruption and collusion where it was and be able to express this to the public at large Works like The Jungle and How the Other Half Lives speak to this I would say that another theme that I nd persuasive in the Progressive Era was that it spoke to the idea of how democracy is an un nished experiment The goal of quotforming a more perfect unionquot was embodied during the Progressive time period in that social and political activists sought to speak for as many people as possible incorporating as many voices in the political and social discourse as possible They never relented in this for as long as one voice was being silenced Progressive activists saw an opportunity for the promises and possibilities of America to be recognized 4 What were Woodrow Wilson s Fourteen Points What Principles guided them How would you explain the United States Failure to ratify the Treaty of Versailles Answer Fourteen Points is a blueprint for world peace that was to be used for peach negotiations after World War I elucidated in a Jan 8 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms by US President Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson was guided by a principle of diplomacybased world peace His Fourteen Points tried to identify and deal with the major sources of con ict in the world so that future wars could be avoided The fact that the US did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles was pure politics Senator Henry Cabot Lodge a Republican knew that Wilson was out of of ce after his second term and did not want to hand the Democrats a public relations win right before the next election so he picked Article X to oppose the treaty with It said that members of the League of Nations were obliged to defend each other against attacks Lodge argued this would get us into another war While defending the Treaty on a whistle stop train tour Wilson suffered a series of strokes and the Treaty died when he did The fourteen points are 1 Open covenants of peace openly arrived at after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view 11 Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas outside territorial waters alike in peace and in war except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants III The removal so far as possible of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance IV Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety V A free openminded and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined VI The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing and more than a welcome assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy VII Belgium the whole world will agree must be evacuated and restored without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired VIII All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of AlsaceLorraine which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years should be righted in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all IX A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality X The people of AustriaHungary whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development XI Romania Serbia and Montenegro should be evacuated occupied territories restored Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into XII The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees XIII An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant XIV A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike 5 How did an expanding mass culture change the contours of everyday life in the decade following World War I What role did new technologies of mass communication play in shaping these changes What connections can you draw between the culture of consumption then and today Answer The First World War was a war that represented the cultural changes that would take place directly following it It was a war of new weaponry and new ways of communication However much like the new era of culture in the 1920 s it came to a standstill stuck in the trenches of some far off land After the sons brothers and husbands had left the country to serve the daughters sisters and wives were given the task of supporting them They made weapons and sent letters My grandmother was one of these women Born in 1899 she sent countless letters of support and affection to the soldiers and helped her mother around the house when she was away in the factories But after the war women were given a backseat once again The jobs that existed to make war materials had vanished and the men that wanted work after the war had arrived Forcing women like my grandmother and her mother out of work and leaving their husbands and brothers jobless throughout the next decade The new mass culture established national norms for things like dress social behavior and language Movies were the most prominent as new genres like gangster lms musicals comedies and the stars promoted by the studios became popular Then as now millions of Americans were fascinated with the stars and what they were and other gossip regarding their lives Other technologies like radio the phonograph and tabloid journalism created a mass national culture one that depended upon advertising and consumer consumption The 19205 were a golden decade for baseball as Babe Ruth and others embodied the new celebrity athlete 6 What were the key policies and goals articulated by Republican political leaders of the 1920s How did they apply these to both domestic and foreign affairs Answer In the 1920s there were three Republican presidents whose policies were largely similar to one another We can look at their policies and goals in terms of both domestic and foreign policies In domestic politics the main goal of the Republicans was to create a climate in which business could thrive The Republicans were not interested in continuing to regulate business in the way that the progressive presidents before them had Instead they wanted to help businesses Harding and Coolidge did this by reducing taxes and government spending and getting government out of the way Hoover wanted government to do more to proactively help business Their differences notwithstanding they all wanted to help American private sector businesses In foreign policy the main goal was to avert the possibility of another world war The US did this through such things as the Washington Naval Conference treaties that were meant to prevent arms races and the KelloggBriand Pact which outlawed war The US also tried to help Germany to pay the reparations forced on it by the Treaty of Versailles However this was meant as much to bolster the international economy as to prevent war Republican leaders promoted a closer relationship between big business and government which became the hallmark of both domestic and foreign policy These leaders promoted lower taxes for high incomes and corporations President Hoover promoted the associative state in which government would actively work to aid business These policies led to a concentration of corporate power and wealth 7 What were the underlying causes of the Great Depression What consequences did it have for ordinary Americans and how did the Hoover administration attempt to deal with the crisis Answer The concentration of wealth in the 1920s was so extreme with the very rich controlling a massive amount of all earnings while the vast majority of families earned less then 2500 that the consumer spending which had fueled the economic boom of the 1920s could not be sustained In addition stock prices far outran the actual value of the companies and when stocks began to decline many investors had to sell additional stocks leading to a stock market rout Hoover failed to fully understand the enormity of the depression He feared undermining individual initiative and therefore emphasized business recovery more then relieving the personal distress of Americans hurt by the depression Of course the Great Depression was seriously bad for the lives of many Americans They lost their jobs and often lost their homes Many of them had to go live in quotHoovervillesquot or try to travel to some other place in search of work like Okies to California The Hoover administration did more than any previous administration to try to deal with the crisis Hoover tried to improve things by creating more jobs with projects like the Boulder Dam project He also set up the RFC to try to loan money to big companies so they would hire more people He also tried to persuade people to do more charitable work to help those in need The problem was that the Depression was way worse than he thought and so this stuff was not enough The underlying causes were lack of economic diversity uneven distribution of wealth structure of the economy America39s position in the international economy and European debts The consequences were a massive increase in unemployment increase in homelessness the massive relocation of midwest farmers Dust Bowl non whitesminorities were even more discriminated and their jobs were displaced as whites took their jobs and women lost wartime gains Only one member of the household was allowed a federal job Hoover attempted to deal with the crisis through a monetary response Manipulate interest rates to spur private spending He wanted to convince corporations to voluntarily buyin to assisting economic recovery RFC Reconstruction Finance Corporations founded to provide assistance to banks railroads and corporations 8 Analyze the key elements of Franklin D Roosevelt s first New Deal program To what degree did these succeed in getting the economy back on track and in providing relief to suffering Americans Answer The New Deal s aim was twofold first restoring confidence in the American banking system and second providing immediate assistance to the American people In the Hundred Days a number of programs were initiated to provide government jobs for many unemployed particularly programs to preserve national parks and improve public works Other programs were designed to restore confidence in the banking system by providing federal guarantees to depositors In addition the Agricultural Assistance Act provided subsidies and price guarantees to farmers Although the New Deal did provide some immediate relief and stabilized the financial system it did not bring about an end to the depression The New Deal was created to restore confidence in American Economy It included the National Bank holiday Emergency Banking Act the Agricultural Adjustment Administration which would tell American farmers how much they should produce and provide subsidies for idle landlarge farmers were favored NRA TVA Federal Emergency Relief Administration which provided cash grants to states to prop up bankrupt relief agencies the Civilian Conservation Corps which let unemployed men from cities work on projects such as planting trees building reservoirs and more FDIC curbing irresponsible spending SEC regulating stock market There were attacks on the New Deal the far right the far left and dissident political movements For example Huey P Long advocated for a drastic wealth redistribution plan called the ShareOurWealth Plan It attracted a large following The New Deal was an attempt but it did little in the end and FDR had to launch the Second New Deal 9 Discuss the long and shortrange effects of the New Deal on American political and economic life What were its key successes and failures What legacies of New Dealera policies and political struggles can you find in contemporary America Answer One of the lasting effects of the New Deal was to develop a frame of reference where government could be seen as a source of help to its citizens in time of need Prior to the New Deal government had been seen as an instrument of foreign policy and whose intervention in the domestic realm was not one prone to wide expansion and in uence Even the Progressive Presidents worked on a model where government39s role was limited in comparison to the scope and depth of Roosevelt39s vision Upon the passage and implementation of the elements of the New Deal Americans came to believe that government could be used as a method of equalizing the playing field an instrument to help its citizens in times of needs and distress and as a source of refuge for all In the short term the New Deal helped to make the Depression less of a problem It did not really end the Depression but it helped Long term it has had huge consequences that we can feel today It got the government way more involved in the economy It got the government to start paying farmers not to produce things which still happens today It got the government to build dams and such the electricity I39m using to type this came from a dam made then Politically this changed our outlook It made us assume that the government was going to take care of us to give us things like Social Security to guarantee our bank accounts etc Right now we are going through some amount of con ict about these things how much the government should be involved in our economic lives especially like with the health care debate Vocab Terms Chapter 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Bohemian a native or inhabitant of Bohemia or a person who has informal and unconventional social habits especially an artist or writer Federal Reserve Act Federal Reserve Act ch 6 38 Stat 251 enacted December 23 1913 12 USC ch 3 is an Act of Congress that created and established the Federal Reserve System the central banking system of the United States and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes now commonly known as the US Dollar and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender The Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson Hepburn Act The Hepburn Act is a 1906 United States federal law that gave the Interstate Commerce Commission ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates and extend its jurisdiction This led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers NAACP The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP is an AfricanAmerican civil rights organization in the United States formed in 1909 by Moorfield Storey Mary White Ovington and W E B Du Bois31 Its mission is quotto ensure the political educational social and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discriminationquot41 Its name retained in accordance with tradition uses the once common term colored people Niagara Movement The Niagara Movement was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W E B Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter Jane Adams Jane Addams September 6 1860 May 21 1935 was a pioneer American settlement social worker public philosopher sociologist author and leader in women39s suffrage and world peace In an era when presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson identified themselves as reformers and social activists Addams was one of the most prominent reformers of the Progressive Era da B Wells da Bell WellsBarnett July 16 1862 March 25 1931 more commonly known as da B Wells was an American journalist newspaper editor suffragist sociologist Georgist and an early leader in the Civil Rights Movement She documented lynching in the United States showing that it was often used as a way to control or punish blacks who competed with whites rather than being based on criminal acts by blacks as was usually claimed by white mobs Theodore Roosevelt often referred to as Teddy or TR was an American statesman author explorer soldier naturalist and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909 A leader of the Republican Party he was a leading force of the Progressive Era Triangle Shirtwaist fire The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in Manhattan New York City on March 25 1911 was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city and one of the deadliest in US history The fire caused the deaths of 146 garment workers 123 women and 23 men who died from the fire smoke inhalation or falling or jumping to their deaths 10 Progressivism Progressivism is a broad philosophy based on the Idea of Progress which asserts that advancement in science technology economic development and social organization are vital to improve the human condition 11 Pure Food and Drug Act An Act for preventing the manufacture sale or transportation of adulterated or misbranded or poisonous or deleterious foods drugs medicines and liquors and for regulating traffic therein and for other purposes 12 Sherman Antitrust Act is a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law or quotcompetition lawquot passed by Congress in 1890 13 Social Darwinism Social Darwinism is a modern name given to various theories of society that emerged in the United Kingdom North America and Western Europe in the 18705 which claim to apply biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology and politics 14 UnderwoodSimmons act of 1913 The United States Revenue Act of 1913 also known as the Ta riff Act Underwood Tariff Underwood Act Underwood Tariff Act or UnderwoodSimmons Act ch 16 38 Stat 114 October 3 1913 reimposed the federal income tax following the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment and lowered basic tariff rates from 40 to 25 well below the PayneAldrich Tariff Act of 1909 It was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson on October 3 1913 and was sponsored by Alabama Representative Oscar Underwood 15 Settlement houses Settlement houses were important reform institutions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and Chicago39s Hull House was the best known settlement in the United States 16 Lester Frank Ward Lester F Ward June 18 1841 April 18 1913 was an American botanist paleontologist and sociologist1 He served as the first president of the American Sociological Association Ward was a pioneer who promoted the introduction of sociology courses into American higher education His belief that society could be scientifically controlled was especially attractive to intellectuals during the Progressive Era His influence in certain circles see the Social Gospel was affected by his opinions regarding organized priesthoods which he believed had been responsible for more evil than good throughout human history 17 William Howard Taft William Howard Taft September 15 1857 March 8 1930 was an American jurist and statesman who served as both the 27th President of the United States 1909 1913 and later the 10th Chief Justice of the United States 1921 1930 Vocab Terms Chapter 22 1 Allies n everyday English usage allies are people groups or states that have joined in an alliance for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out between them When the term is used in the context of war or armed struggle such associations may also be called allied powers especially when discussing World War or World War II 2 Central Powers consisting of Germany AustriaHungary the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria hence also known as the Quadruple Alliancell German Vierbund was one of the two main factions during World War 1914 18 t faced and was defeated by the Allied Powers that had formed around the Triple Entente after which it was dissolved 3 Doughboys Doughboy was an informal term for a member of the United States Army or Marine Corps especially used to refer to members of the American 4 5 6 7 8 9 Expeditionary Forces in World War I but initially used in the MexicanAmerican War of 184648 A popular massproduced sculpture of the 19205 the Spirit of the American Doughboy shows a US soldier in World War uniform Fourteen points Fourteen Points is a blueprint for world peace that was to be used for peace negotiations after World War I elucidated in a January 8 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms by US President Woodrow Wilson Imperialism a policy of extending a country39s power and influence through diplomacy or military force League of Nations The League of Nations abbreviated as LN in English quotSoci t des Nationsquot abbreviated as SDN in French was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War Liberty bonds A Liberty Bond was a war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I Subscribing to the bonds became a symbol of patriotic duty in the United States and introduced the idea of financial securities to many citizens for the first time Open door The Open Door Policy is a term in foreign affairs initially used to refer to the United States policy established in the late 19th century and the early 20th century as enunciated in Secretary of State John Hay39s Open Door Note dated September 6 1899 and dispatched to the major European powers Roosevelt Corollary The Roosevelt Corollary was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine articulated by President Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union address in 1904 after the Venezuela Crisis of 1902 03 10 Selective Service Act The Selective Service Act or Selective Draft Act PubL 65 12 40 Stat 76 enacted May 18 1917 authorized the federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into World War I through the compulsory enlistment of people 11 Versailles TreatyThe Treaty of Versailles French Trait de Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers It was signed on 28 June 1919 exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand 12 The Panama Canal is a 771kilometre 48 mi ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean via the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade There are locks at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal 26 metres 85 ft above sea level Vocab Terms Chapter 23 1 2 Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance was a movement that spanned the 19205 The Harlem Renaissance was the name given to the cultural social and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem New York During the time it was known as the quotNew Negro Movementquot named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke League of Women s voters The League of Women Voters LWV is an American civic organization that was formed to help women take a larger role in public affairs as they won the right to vote It was founded in 1920 by Carrie Chapman Catt during 3 4 5 6 7 8 the last meeting of the National American Woman Suffrage Association approximately six months before the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution gave women the right to vote Warren G Harding Warren Gamaliel Harding November 2 1865 August 2 1923 was the 29th President of the United States serving from March 4 1921 until his death Although Harding died one of the most popular presidents in history the subsequent exposure of scandals that took place under him such as Teapot Dome eroded his popular regard as did revelations of an affair by Nan Britton one of his mistresses The Jazz Singer The Jazz Singer is a 1927 American musical film The first feature length motion picture with synchronized dialogue sequences its release heralded the commercial ascendance of the quottalkiesquot and the decline of the silent film era Directed by Alan Crosland and produced by Warner Bros with its Vitaphone sound ondisc system the movie star Al Jolson performs six songs Herbert Hoover was the 3lst President of the United States 1929 1933 He was a professional mining engineer and was raised as a Quaker A Republican Hoover served as head of the US Food Administration during World War and became internationally known for humanitarian relief efforts in wartime Belgium Volstead Act The National Prohibition Act known informally as the Volstead Act was enacted to carry out the intent of the Eighteenth Amendment which established prohibition in the United States Calvin Coolidge was the 30th President of the United States 1923 1929 A Republican lawyer from Vermont Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics eventually becoming governor of that state His response to the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight and gave him a reputation as a man of decisive action The Scopes Trial The Scopes Trial formally known as The State of Tennessee v John Thomas Scopes and commonly referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial was an American legal case in 1925 in which a substitute high school teacher John Scopes was accused of violating Tennessee39s Butler Act which made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any statefunded school11 The trial was deliberately staged in order to attract publicity to the small town of Dayton Tennessee where it was held Scopes was unsure whether he had ever actually taught evolution but he purposely incriminated himself so that the case could have a defendant Vocab terms Chapter 24 1 2 The Bonus Army was the popular name of an assemblage of some 43000 marchers 17000 World War veterans their families and affiliated groups who gathered in Washington DC in the spring and summer of 1932 to demand cash payment redemption of their service certificates ts organizers called it the Bonus Expeditionary Force to echo the name of World War 39s American Expeditionary Forces while the media called it the Bonus March It was led by Walter W Waters a former army sergeant New Deal The New Deal was a series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938 and a few that came later They included both laws 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term 1933 37 of President Franklin D Roosevelt Fireside Chat Fireside chats is the term used to describe a series of 30 evening radio addresses given by US President Franklin D Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944 Father Coughlin was a controversial Roman Catholic priest based near Detroit at Royal Oak Michigan39s National Shrine of the Little Flower church He was one of the first political leaders to use radio to reach a mass audience as up to thirty million listeners tuned to his weekly broadcasts during the 19305 He was forced off the air in 1939 Fair Labor Standards Act The FLSA establishes minimum wage overtime pay recordkeeping and youth employment standards affecting employees in the private sector and in Federal State and local governments Covered nonexempt workers are entitled to a minimum wage of not less than 725 per hour effective July 24 2009 New Deal Coalition The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs in the United States that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 19605 The Second New Deal The Second New Deal is the term used by commentators at the time and historians ever since to characterize the second stage of the New Deal programs of President Franklin D Roosevelt Huey Long nicknamed The Kingfish was an American politician who served as the 40th Governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and as a member of the United States Senate from 1932 until his assassination in 1935 A Democrat he was an outspoken populist who denounced the rich and the banks and called for quotShare the Wealthquot As the political boss of the state he commanded wide networks of supporters and was willing to take forceful action Social Security any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income in the US a federal insurance program that provides benefits to retired people and those who are unemployed or disabled
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