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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bri Perl on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SPH-R314 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Jennifer Piatt in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Data Based Decision Making in Public Health at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Study guide 8am scantron ll in the blank no word bank 150 pts 48 mc questions 25 pts each know different levels of data nominalordinalratiointerval identify what type of data a question is KNOW Research process The Difference Between Evaluation and Research 0 Evaluation systematic collection and analysis of data to address criteria and make judgments 0 quotAgency specific 0 Purpose is when looking at a speci c program 0 Facilitated by human behavior and how human behavior haschanged 0 Knowledge is gained by agency and event organization Evaluation criteriaevidencejudgement 0 Evaluate to provide evidence we are doing something well when we have a problem we need to address and when we have no idea what the consequences of our programing are 0 5 P39s Program Quality alignment w missiongoals consequences Participants satisfaction motivation changes in attitude demographics Physical Place facilitiesequipmentcleanliness Personnel largest expenditureperformance appraisal I Policy evaluating how goals of an organization are operating 0 Research systematic process of collecting analyzing an interpreting information of data to answer a theoretical 0 quotProviding a theory across a populationquot 0 Purpose speci c data collection looking at the outcome across the population 0 Adding to a body of knowledge tries to prove or disprove a hypothesis tting data to a theory or generating a theory from data Facilitated by someone who has a masters or PhD 0 Knowledge gained Across an entire industry 0 Research research questionsevidenceinterpretation 0 Types Quantitative Assign numbers to an experience a quality generates numerical data or information that can be converted into numbers 0 Ex is a place for social acceptance social acceptance increased a little bit Qualitative Research generates non numerical data Focuses on gathering mainly verbal data rather than measurements Seeks to understand human behavior and the reasons behind them Mixedmulti methods research 0 Both qualitative and quantitative data help to prove an idea Controversial style 0 Mixed blends both methods seamlessly Multi uses both but discusses them separately 0 Scienti c lnquiry Traditional research aligns with this Logical research design analysis and conclusions should follow linear logical patterns Objective research should steer clear of subjective and normative claims to knowledge in favor of observable measurable data Systematic validity and reliability are important 0 Reliability Validity History of Ethics 0 Ethics 0 Deal with moral duty and proper behavior 0 Types Individual Professional Virtue Research Ethics Nuremburg code 0 Experiments on concentration camp prisoners 0 Criminal proceedings against 23 leading German physicians and administrators 0 SET THE FOUNDATION FOR ethics in research Thalidomide 0 Something given to women to help them sleep during nausea o All of women had children with many disabilities 0 Never approved by FDA Tuskegee Syphilis Study 0 600 low income African males 400 were infected w syphilis and monitored for 40 years 0 Subjects were not told about disease when cure came available the study was continued and participants were denied treatment 0 Ethical Guidelines 0 Nonmale cence quotDo no harmquot Physical psychological Right to privacy con dentiality o Bene cence Reporting the bene ts 0 Respect No coercion Informed consent 0 Purpose of experiments all information on document can lead subjects to exactly what you re researching risks involved right to terminate participation in experimentinformed consent may cause bias in the participants response 0 Honesty No deception Plagiarism Fraudcheatingfalsifying results 0 Justice Equity and fairness to participants 0 Competence You are trained to do what you re not doing 0 Plagiarism 0 Using others ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information Always give credit when using other ideasfactsinformation Quote written workparaphrase spoken or written words 0 Role of institutional board 0 Enforce ethical issues privacy consent harmrisk 0 Identify the problem de ne problem and criteria quotresearch qISquot 0 Review Information gather info about how others approached probquotliterature review 0 Designing the Study develop a plan select a sample data collection methods plan for analysis 0 Collecting data surveying interviewing observations 0 Analyzing Data frequencies central tendency themes percentages 0 Drawing Conclusions interpreting the results understanding what it means what are recommendationsgeneralizations 0 Reporting the research visualwrittenverbal 0 Literature Review 0 Finding sources of information in books journals reports and reading and evaluating them to see how they t with the proposed research questions 0 An evaluative report of info found in literature related to your selected area of study 0 Should describe summarize evaluate and clarify the Hterature 0 Should give theoretical base for research and help you determine the nature of your research 0 APA Citations EvidenceJudgment Types of Data and Methods 0 Dependent variable changes 0 What you are trying to understand explain or predict affected by the independent variable 0 Independent Variable 0 Used to manipulate the dependent variable 0 Levels of Measurement 0 Nominal categorical shows difference mutually exclusive quotis there a height difference 0 Ordinal rank ordered attributes quotwho is the tallestquot Lucy is taller o lnterval equal space between the attributes no meaningful zero quotHow much taller is Lucyquot Lucy is 5 in taller 0 Ratio equal space between the attributes a meaningful zero quotHow tall are theyquot Lucy is 55 Andrea is 50 Surveys Scales and Developing Good Questions 0 Basic Steps in Developing a Questionnaire 0 Question type past present future 0 Types of measurement instruments used in recreation and leisure industry 0 Surveys 0 Open Ended o No preformed answers 0 Pros answers are endless responses are less in uenced Con lack of uniform responses 0 Closeended with ordered forced choice 0 Scales and ranking collects quantitative o Closedended unordered 0 Seek speci c answers ordered or quanti ed value likert semantic ranked multiple choice or checklists o Easily coded and analyzed 0 Partially closeended questions 0 Provides options but gives opportunity to write an answer 0 Ex other please explain 0 Nearly ease of close ended but room for more information con in between of having a lot of variance in response and just a little detail 0 Semantic Different format 0 Assess attitudes and responses and are assigned numbers with bipolar adjectives ranked 0 Constructs subtopic 0 Things we construct a meaning or understanding of unable to see touch hear to de ne Ex satisfaction happiness selfdetermination 0 Measure constructs through participants attitudes feelings and emotion 0 Concepts we try to measure but can never really full understand in the social sciences Ex the two constructsconcepts we are trying to measure are safety and healthy lifestyles Construct Safety 0 ex crimeperception of crimephysical safety 0 items questions make good measurement Items 0 Measure each domain better items are written 0 Often use these on scales force choice 0 Everyone is going to explain the conceptconstruct differently so we develop items to try to get to the core of the meaning 0 0 Questions 0 The main question items we turn into questions Sampling Techniques 0 Population 0 Big group or area likely we could get a response from ALL of the population every person in an industry 0 Sample 0 A section of a population that represents a larger group 0 Sampling error 0 Differences between the sample and the population that exist only because of the observations that happened to be selected for the sample 0 Non Sampling error 0 More serious due to mistakes made in the acquisition of data or due to the sample observations being selected improperly 0 Appropriate sampling 0 Size doesn t not equal representativeness o Depends upon the speci cs of your evaluation 0 Relevant population can select sample in numerous ways 0 Probability Best sampling you can get hard to do RANDOM SAMPLING randomization involved everyone has equal chance of being asked to participate o Nonprobability 0 Type of sampling that we did not random Probability 0 Simple random sampling 0 All cases have equal probability of being chosen randomly selected from a group all people have an equal and independent chance of being selected into the study group Ex attendance rates are down at sporting events and you want to determine why use Randomized Sampling Ex last 3 seasons fan attendance has declined at NBA games and you want to determine the reason 0 Strati ed random sampling 0 Ensure proportionate representation from particular groups gender age activity involvement and then conduct random sampling 0 Sample measure proportions of population multiply size of groups in population by 20 o Gives you a better chance of getting the data ex At your hotel there were many inquiries about childrens programs especially during the summer months and you need to nd out if there is a needinterest 0 Systematic sampling 0 Choose a random starting sample among the studied population and pick every n th sample from the population list after that Ex every 10th person 0 Cluster sampling 0 A population is subdivided into groups then one group is chosen as the representative sample 0 Select groups not individuals Ex looking at the effect of musicians on attendance at different stages at oapaooza Nonprobability o Purposive sampling 0 Selecting a sample because it is believed that this sample will best represent the total population Ex The TR student club wants to partner with SRSC to start a wheelchair basketball league on campus and want to determine of this partnership would be bene cial for students on campus 0 Participants are selected for speci c reasons Ex study of adult softball with same people enrolled in softball league 0 Quota sampling 0 Collect the rst x number of people that pass by a given area 0 Set of how many people of each demographic you want to sample even if it isn t representative of your population need to know proportions of characteristics ex sexethnicity Expert sampling 0 Select people due to the belief that they have the needed information for the project Ex There has been a decline in special event bookings by corporations at your hotel and you want to know why 0 Snowball sampling 0 Ask samples to recommend other acquaintances to ll out the survey 0 Convenience 0 Sample that happens to be available for evaluation use group that is available at that time o Cant generalize because you aren t getting at the more dif cult people hotel leave card only the really angryhappy people will respond Ex there have been several complaints by families staying at the Disney resort on customer service You want to get more info in order to choose a correct course of action 0 Expert Sampling 0 0 Individuals are sampled based upon your perception of them as experts for their opinions about the population 0 Snowball sampling 0 Start with one person who then refers you to others and so on o Happens with fragile data 0 Ex femaile prostitues and the effect it has on their lifestyle Data Collection reading a few questions 0 Individuals with different ability levels Children and youth Older adults Cultural differences Individuals with low SES 0 3rd Grade reading Level Protects rights of people going through the study HAS to go through this 0000
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