Everything for test 2: Psych
Everything for test 2: Psych PSY 1113
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by elzbietaag on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Notes for test 2 Psychology chapters 58 Psychology Chapter 5 State of Consciousness 0 What is consciousness gt Consciousness subjective understanding of the environment around us and our private internal world unobservable to outsiders Being aware Paying attention Responsive to the world Awareness of thoughts feelings sensations No one can tell you how you feel Highlevel consciousness Driving 0 Playing sports Lowlevel consciousness Walking 0 Eating 9 While watching tv 0 A lot of timesdriving Altered state of consciousness Drugs Hypnosis Meditation Low blood sugar or dehydration Subconscious awareness Sleeping Dreaming No awareness When you39re knocked out Anesthesia 0 Biological Rhythms gt Circadian Rythms biological process that occurs repeatedly on approximately a 24hour cycle Sleepwake cycle Body temperature 0 Morning people at night we re cold and in the morning we re cold 0 Night owls at night they re the warmest and In the morning they re the coldest gt Suprachiasmic nucleus Receives information about light from retina Distributes info to hypothalamus and reticular formation gt Problems with biological clock Psychology Blindness Jet lag problems with circadian rhythms as a result of ying through multiple time zones 0 Also affect other people who have strange work hours like policeman reman or doctors Seasonal affective disorder time of year can have a big effect on our circadian rhythms Tends to occur during the winter months gt Resetting the clock Spend time outside 0 Especially with jet lag Have your eyes absorb the natural sunlight so your brain can reset Hormone melatonin Vitamin D 0 Light boxes replicates the suns UV light Why and how much sleep gt Most people report sleeping between 8 and 9 hours per night gt Age is a factor You sleep less as you get older gt Adolescents sleep patterns change drastically delay in sleep pattern sleep debt made up for on the weekends gt Adaptive Evolutionary Function Safety Energy conservation gt Restorative Function Body rejuvenation and growth 0 Getting better and healthier gt Brain Plasticity Enhances synaptic connections Memory consolidation Helps the synapses reorganize overnight so you re smarter when you wake up in the morning gt What happens when you don t get enough sleep Irritable slower reaction times lower performance on academic and physical tasks Headaches Moody We become more emotional with things that don t normally bother us Lack of coordination Hard time interpreting facial expressions if we are tired and sleep depdved Less concentration O 0 Psychology Slower reaction times None of these effects are permanent they usually disappear in a few days Stages of Sleep gt A lot of what we know about sleep patterns come from EEG s on people when they are asleep and when they are awake gt Sleep consists of four distinct stages that occur in cycles of 90 minutes each Stages 14 and then REM sleep gt Stage 1 transition between wakefulness and sleep Rapid low amplitude brain waves Images still pictures not dreams gt Stage 2 deeper sleep Slower regular wave pattern Sleep spindles Only found during stage 2 sleep 0 We don t know why they re there People in early 20s spend about half their time in stage 2 gt Stage 3 deeper than stage 2 sleep Slower brain waves higher peaks and valleys gt Stage 4 deepest level of sleep Very slow regular brain waves Unresponsive to outside stimuli REM rapid eye movement sleep gt Sleep that occupies a little over 20 of an adult s sleeping time is characterized by Rapid eye movement Increased and irregular heart rate Increase in blood pressure Increase in breathing rate Erections in males Usually accompanied by dreams Person s body is typically paralyzed gt Paradoxical because lots of activity occurs in the body yet you are completely paralyzed We dream like we re livingbut we re sleeping If we weren t paralyzed we d get up and try to act out our dreams gt REM sleep is very important to our bodies Rebound effect spending more time in REM sleep after deprivation gt A few things to notice REM sleep stages become longer throughout the night Sleep gets shallower throughout the night dominated by stage 34 during the rst half 12 during the last half Psychology The rst half of the night we re in a deep sleep while in the second half we re in REM sleep 0 Sleep Disturbances gt Insomnia dif culty falling or staying asleep Occurs in 14 of Americans 25 Mainly caused by stress and it can go away once the stress goes away May be a problem of perception some people with insomnia are actually falling asleep and staying asleep they just don t perceive it that way Newer generations of sleeping pills may work on changing this perception 0 Highly addictive not effective 9 Last choice gt Sleep Apnea dif culty breathing during sleep Stop breathing several hundred times a night sometimes for as long as one minute Causes major sleep deprivation Weight and snoring are risk factors Possibly a cause of SIDS When a baby goes to sleep and doesn t wake up 0 They stop breathing in the middle of the night 0 Put them in a room with ceiling fans give them a paci er they re at a lighter level of sleep don t smoke etc Cure is a sleep mask that forces oxygen into the lungs all night gt REM Sleep Disorder lack of paralysis during REM phase of sleep They start acting out their dreams as if they re wide awake Very rare gt Sleepwalking very similar to sleep talking Common in children 612 years old about 18 of the population sleepwalk Probably due to change in the sleep cycle during this age 0 Boys sleepwalk more than girls Occurs in stage 34 deep sleep Factors are genetics overtiredness drugsalcohol use Sleeper is dif cult to wake because they re in a deep sleep but you can wake them up 0 They usually have no memory of the incident later 0 Sleepwalkers are not dreaming or acting out their dreams it doesn t happen during REM sleep Sleepwalking is usually not dangerous they can nd their way around 0 Exceptions stairs unfamiliar surroundings Psychology Children typically grow out of sleepwalking Can rarely last into adulthood gets more serious episodes of violence and even murder 0 The older you are when sleepwalking starts the more likely it will continue into adulthood gt Night terrors extreme nightmares that occur during nonREM usually stage sleep Occurs during stage 4 sleep very deeply asleep Fairly common in kids from 38 sometimes but rarely occurs in adu s Sufferers usually don t remember the episode later Unknown cause Scarier for the people around them than for the person suffering from it gt Narcolepsy uncontrollable sleeping that occurs while the person is awake Person goes from wakefulness into REM sleep very quickly Unknown causes possibly genetic Treated with a balance of medications Cataplexy hypnogogichypnopompic hallucinations 0 Dreams gt Unconscious wish ful llment Freud dreams represent unconscious wishes and hold symbolic meaning Latent content disguised meaning of dreams what you really want 0 What our unconscious is trying to tell us Manifest Content overt story line of dreams what you actually see 0 What you remember happening Freud would try to uncover the latent content by analyzing the symbolic meaning of the manifest content 0 Some symbols are universal while others are important only to you 0 Example ying dreams mean symbolize a wish for sexual intercourse gt Are dreams always symbolic Dreams about events around us Many psychologists today don t agree with Freud they don t think dreams are necessarily that symbolic Also people commonly dream about things really happening around them ex a doorbell in a dream turns out to be an alarm clock gt Cognitive theory dreams are subconscious cognitive processing We use information processing thinking and memory to process general daily information in dreams Psychology Dreams are dramatizations of real life gt Activation synthesis theory random electrical energy stimulates random memories Brains job is to make sense of things so it makes a story 0 Memories are random but the story may not be so it partially agrees with the other theories gt Nightmares negative Scary dreams Provides a quottrial runquot for handling emergencies Drugs gt Psychoactive drugs drugs that in uence a person s emotions perceptions and behaviors gt Tolerance the need to take more of a drug to achieve the same effect gt Drugs can result in dependence addiction Physical dependence Psychological dependence Why drugs gt Drugs activate the reward system in the limbic area of the brain producing powerful feelings of pleasure Almost all drugs act on dopamine receptors Strong drive to repeat the behavior gt Activation of limbic system is evolutionarily powerful and overrides frontal lobe control Depressants gt Depressants drugs that work by slowing down the nervous system Alcohol is the most common gt Alcohol initially feels more like a stimulant but acts as a depressant as more is consumed Intoxication euphoria decreased inhibitions Slurred speech decreased muscle control loss os consciousness Instability poorjudgment acts on aggression memory impairment Alcohol poisoning and death Alcohol and aggression 60 of homicides 65 of sexually aggressive acts against women Alcoholism physical and psychological addiction 0 More alcohol needed for effects 0 Possibly genetic self medication Barbituates common in older sleeping pills Nembutol seconal Tranquilizers reduce anxiety and increase sense of calm Xanax valium Opiates pain medication narcotics Morphine oxycodone hydrocodone Psychology Heroin LStimulants gt Stimulants drugs that affect the nervous system by causing a rise in blood pressure heart rate and muscular tension Caffeine is most common lncreased attractiveness Decreased reaction time Nervousness and insomnia Headaches and depression with withdrawal gtNicotine raises dopamine levels in the brain gtTolerance develops highly addictive gtWithdrawal effects include irritability cravings increased appetite sleep disturbances inability to focus gt Amphetamines stimulants used to boost energy stay awake or lose weight ncreases release of dopamine Diet pills meth Ritalin gt Cocaine amphetamine that blocks reuptake of dopamine 0 Hallucinogens gt Drugs that are capable of producing hallucinations Changes the perceptual process gtMarijuana classi cation is controversial Not physically addictive highly psychologically addictive May change brain chemistry Decrease testosterone production Potential lung damage Litte evidence that marijuana is a gateway drugquot Chapter 6 Learning 0 Learning gt A relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by expedence Not due in nature getting taller Not due to shortterm changes new shoes Not necessarily related to performance we know this gt Behaviorism theory of learning that focuses exclusively on observable behaviors gt Two types of learning Associative making a connection or association between two events Observational learning that takes place through the observation and imitation of another s behavior Psychology Consequen Stimulus Response er ce oz Classical Conditioning gt A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about thatresponse gt lvan Pavlov Scientists who studied digestion by measuring the saliva of dogs Discovered that dogs predicted the arrival of food led to salvation 0 After a while the dogs would salivate before the food even arrived the dogs could quotpredictquot when the food was arriving 0 They responded to the appearance of the experimenter or even the experimenter s footsteps gt Pavlov s experiment Pavlov set up an experiment to test his behavior He attached tube to dog s salivary gland He rang a bell then presented food repeated pairings Dogs soon began to salivate when bell rang even when food wasn t presented 0 At rst the dog would only salivate to the food the bell didn t eally mean anything to the dog 0 But after a while repeated pairings the dog would salivate to the bell too it associated the bell with the food even if no food was presented gt Neutral Stimulus a stimulus that before conditioning does not naturally bring about the response of interest Before conditioning you have two unrelated items a bell and a bowl of food 0 Dog doesn t do anything to the sound of the bell the bell doesn t trigger the behavior of interest so its called neutral gt Next the dog is given food Food is the unconditioned stimulus because the stimulus naturally causes the behavior no teaching involved 0 So the dog automatically salivates when food is presented a completely natural response gt Unconditioned Stimulus a stimulus that brings about a response without having been learned A natural innate response that is not associated with previous learning O 0 Psychology The dog salivating is called the unconditioned response because it doesn t have to be taught Unconditioned not learned gt Conditioned Stimulus A NS that has been paired with a UCS to bring about a response formerly caused only by the UCS gt Conditioned Response a response that after conditioning follows a previously neutral stimulus So conditioned learned The conditioned learned response is salivation Story of little Albert gt John B Watson conditioned a small boy to be afraid of rats Boy was 11 months old Wasn t initially afraid of rats neutral stimulus Unconditioned stimulus loud noises Fear generalized to other white furry objects gt Every time the rat was presented Watson would make a loud noise behind the boy unconditioned stimulus Soon he would fear the rat and cry whenever it was presented gt The fear generalized to other white furry objects white rabbits Santa mask Watson s white beard gt Albert was never treated he was never brought back to the experiment Same accounts say Watson was going to uncondition him but didn t have time Other accounts say that he knew the boy was leaving and had no plans to uncondition him Experiment often criticized for being unethical Albert s fear was never xed extinction Conditioning can create phobias One particularly bad experience or several repeated experiences can make us avoid something We can use this to our advantage in the case of therapy alcohol and illness for example or thumb sucking and bad tasting nail poHsh We also may be biologically primed to be conditioned easier to things that can harm us like food aversions after getting sick Conditioning in the media gt Advertising campaigns Pairing a product with something desirable increases our chances of buying that product gt Some have argues that classical conditioning is behind a lot of the opinions we have about products through advertising Associating a product with something desirable increases your chances of buying that product VVV Psychology 0 Examples think about soda ads bbq s evenings outor basketball 0 Another example research suggests that men are more likely to buy cars whose ads include scantilyclad women and since more men than women buy cars guess what we get gt Experiment Men are randomly assigned to look at car ads some with women some without They rated cars with women to be faster more appealing better designed etc all of which have nothing to do with women gt Take cars and women What s the neutral stimulus o The car What s the unconditioned stimulus o The women Neutral car plus unconditioned woman conditioned response liking the car more 3 Operant Conditioning gt Operant Conditioning a response from our environment to something that we choose to do In classical conditioning you are deliberately trained to do something ln operant conditioning you are doing something you would normally do and getting a response gt Based on the response we get from our environment we become either more or less likely to do the behavior again gt Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences Difference between classical and operant conditioning Classical is stimulus and response Operant conditioning is response and consequence Consequen SUnu us Response 3 39 C e lquot gt Thorndike s Law of Effect Responses that lead to more satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated We will do whatever gets us the best outcome example child throwing a tantrum over a candy bar Doing something and a good outcome repeat behavior oz The Skinner box Psychology gt B F Skinner was one of the rst and most famous psychologists to study operant conditioning Studied conditioning in rats he would out them in his skinner box which had a lever that released food pellets Animals would explore and randomly push the lever after a while and food would pop out Eventually the rat learns to press the lever repeatedly to receive food food is a reward which increases the chances of the rat pressing the lever gt Skinner Box Demonstrated that animals learn to obtain food by manipulating their environment within the box Shaping 9 Training a behavior by rewarding it 0 Animals can be trained to do some pretty cool stuff gt Skinner took it a step further he believed that everything we do is because we are conditioned from our environment through a process of rewards and punishments gt He believes humans are the same as animals in this way We really have no free will no freedom to make our own choices we re like PingPong balls bouncing around gt All behavior is a consequence of rewards and punishments Free will Superstitions Walking under the clock tower Just another example of operant conditioning 9 Random behavior cause and effect Reinforcement and Punishment gt Reinforcement increases the probability of a behavior occurring again food stickers grades anything rewarding Makes a behavior stronger Something that somebody likes Primary reinforce innately satisfying no learning needed 0 Food Secondary reinforce reinforcing because of its association with a primary reinforce Symbolic Stand for something 0 Money we can use it to buy things gt Punishment decreases the probability of a behavior occurring again electric shock spanking or timeout getting reprimanded by your boss gt These are not universal Psychology Punishment for one may not be punishment for another Studying is rewarding for some Food is rewarding An hour of studying every night then you get to go to chipotle Some might think chipotle is rewarding some might think its punishment 0 Positive and negative Positive and negative don t mean good and badit means added and taken away Positive any stimulus that is added to the environment something is given Negative any stimulus that is removed from the environment something is taken away Reinforcement and punishment can be positive or negative Fourtypes gt gt gt Positive reinforcement a stimulus added that increases the likelihood of a behavior MampM for going potty A paycheck Negative reinforcement a stimulus removed that increases the likelihood of a behavior 0 Making an A on the exam so you don t have to do the next homework assignment 0 Taking away a lower grade if you get perfect attendance Positive punishment a stimulus added that decreases the likelihood of a behavior 0 Adding more shock to the shock collar so the dog doesn t run away Detention adding more school 0 Washing your mouth out with soup when the kid says a bad word Negative punishment a stimulus removed that decreases the likelihood of a behavior 0 Getting your keys taken away because you broke curfew Abusing your kid leads to your parental rights being removed 0 Punishment or reinforcement gt Reinforcement is usually better Punishment tells us what not to do but not what to do instead Punishment may send the wrong message especially physical punishment gt Punishment is sometimes better Dangerous situations Immediate compliance It stands out something you remember for a long time Psychology 0 Schedules of reinforcement gt Schedules of reinforcement different patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior gt Continuous reinforcement reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs I want you to do it all the time gt Partial reinforcement reinforcing a behavior some of the time that it occurs Keep it going long term 0 You want the behavior to continue even without a reinforcement Four types of partial reinforcement schedules 0 Fixed vs variable 0 Every so often you know when its coming vs random 0 Ratio vs interval 9 Number of responses how many times to do something vs how much time has passed 0 Ratio schedules gt Fixed ratio schedule reinforcement is given after a speci c number of responses So you get a food pellet every 10th time you press the bar Realworld examples you get a free cup of coffee after you purchase 10 0 Behavior is produced in small spurts with short pauses after each responses gt Variable ratio schedule reinforcement is given after a varying number of responses A slot machine is the best example you may be rewarded after 10 responses on average but you never know for sure exactly when Tends to produce a high fairly steady response rate since you never know for sure when you ll be reinforced gt Fixed interval schedule reinforcement is given after a certain period of time Examples receiving a weekly paycheck or having a quiz in class every Friday Tends to produce low responses rates what you do doesn t matter you just have to wait for time to elapse gt Variable interval reinforcement is given after an average time Example having one quiz per week but not knowing which day it will be forces you to study all the time or your boss visits twice a week but you don t know when Tends to produce steady rates of reproducing More resistant to extinction because you re used to not being reinforced for a while and you never know whether the next response will be the one o Observational learning Psychology gt Observational learning learning through observing the behavior of another person a model Albert Bandura and the 8080 doll study gt Observational learning be innate Mirror neurons re when we observe another person s behavior Chapter 7 Learning 0 Memory gt Encoding initial recording of information First step in encoding pay attention Divided attention multitasking poor encoding Levels of processing theory the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed 0 Shallow processing physical and perceptual features are analyzed 0 The lines angles and contour that make up the physical appearance of an object such as a car are detected 0 Immediate processing stimulus is recognized and labeled 9 The object is recognized as a car 0 Deep processing sematic meaningful symbolic characteristics are used 9 Associations connected with car are brought to mind you think about the Porsche or Ferrari you hope to buy or the fun you and friends had on spring break when you drove a car to the beach Elaboration different connections that are made around a stimulus Memories are organized in networks of related concepts 0 Red leads to apple apple leads to beach beach leads to pina colada gt Storage information saved for future use gt Retrieval recovery of stored information gt Memory Storage Memories travel through 3 storage systems Sensory memory Snapshot system that stores sensory information with high precision for vey brief periods 0 We get rid of it in a second 0 We process it and it leaves Short term memory 0 Information is given meaning 0 Less complete representation than sensory memory Psychology 0 Information is held for 1525 seconds 0 Can hold 7 2 pieces of information o Chunk meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit gt A bunch of things put together to make sense Working memory 0 Working memory a mental scratchpad that allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks 0 Phonological loop speechbased information about language sounds Visuospatial working memory visual and spatial information 0 Central executive integrates information and communicated with longterm memory Long term memory 0 Permanent memory storage system 0 Unlimited capacity for information 0 Filed and coded so that we can retrieve it when needed in theory gt Systems of LTM Explicit memory conscious memory for speci c facts and information Sematic world knowledge 0 Episodic biographical life experiences Longterm memory systems Implicit expICIt nonconsciou conscious classical episodic sematlc PFOCEdUFa39 Pr39mm conditioning Implicit memory memory affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience Psychology 0 Procedural memory for skills Priming activation of stored information Neuroscience of memory Certain brain areas specialize in different memoryrelated activities Hippocampus consolidation of memories initial encoding of memories Amygdala emotional component Memory traces are stored throughout the brain Memory retrieval Retrieval cue stimulus that allows us to bring out information that is in longterm memory Two types 0 Recall retrieval of speci c pieces of stored information 0 Recognition comparing a stimulus with a series of possible choices Importance of context Encoding speci city encoding quotbig picturequot information at the time of learning Cuedependent sights smells etc o Sitting in the same desk Flashbulb memories Flashbulb memories memories centered on a speci c important or surprising event 0 Very vivid like taking a snapshot Not always accurate Flash and repressed memories Repressed memories 0 Highly controversial May occur in approximately 10 of abusetrauma cases 0 Motivated forgetting False memories Loftus quotlost in the mall studyquot 0 They asked people to participate in a study The researcher asks their parents if they d ever been lost in a mail if not then they are allowed for the study The come into the room and the researcher says we already talked to your parents and they said you d been lost in the mall when you were little They said it was a really traumatic event tell me about itquot At rst they mostly say that they don t remember that happeningbut one week later all of a sudden they know EVERYTHING about an event that never actually happened Remembering alters memory new information can sneak in o Misinformation effect Psychology gt Eyewitness memory Eyewitness memories are highly unreliable Reasons 0 Memory fades and can be altered by new information 0 Fear of a weapon interferes with processing other details 0 Leading questions from investigators contractedquot versus smashed Especially unreliable in children gt Why do we forget Failure to encode information properly Forgetting usually happens very quickly because we didn t really learn it in the rst place gt Interference Proactive interference information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material Proactive progresses in time Retroactive interference dif culty recalling information because of later exposure to different material Retroactive retrogresses in time gt Memory Dysfunctions Amnesia memory loss that occurs without other mental dif culties Retrograde lost memory for occurrences prior to certain event 0 Rare 0 Memories typically but not always return eventually Can be selective loss Anterograde lost memory for events that follow an injury 0 Info cant go from shortterm to longterm memory Memento 50 rst dates Chapter 8 Learning What is intelligence gt Intelligence allpurpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks to solve problems and to learn from experience gt Gfactor a single general factor for mental ability that was assumed to underlie intelligence in early theories More recent theories look at intelligence as multidimensional Sternberg s Triarchic Theory gt Analytical Intelligence ability to analyze judge evaluate compare and contrast gt gt Psychology Creative intelligence ability to create design invert originate and imagine Practical intelligence ability to use apply implement and put ideas into practice Gardner s Multiple lntelligences everyone has all 8 but they appear in different degrees gt gt Musial intelligence sensitivity to music sounds and tonal patterns Ability to beat out rhythms like to sing or play music like to listen to music etc Bodily Kinesthetic ability to think in movement and to use the body in skilled and complicated ways Dancers surgeons athletes actors people who move really well Logical mathematical thinking of cause and effect connections logical problem solving People who are very good at brain teasers logical games prefer to see things in a categorical manner Linguistic thinking in words and using language to express and understand complex meanings Sensitive to the meaning of words and their sounds infections etc enjoys public speaking writing reading strong vocabulary skills Interpersonal thinking about and understanding people high levels of empathy Sensitivity to the perspectives of others and can sense people s moods motives and intentions they interact well with others lntrapersonal thinking about and understanding the self awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses lnvolves selfre ection and monitoring your own thoughts and feeHngs Naturalist the ability to identify and classify patterns in nature Plants animals ecology outdoors typequot people boygirl scouts etc Spatial skills involving spatial con gurations Artists pilots and architects Measuring intelligence gt gt Validity does the test actually measure what it is supposed to measure Reliability does the test consistently measure what it is trying to measure You wouldn t expect to go in and take the SAT on Monday and score a 400 verbal and then go in Friday and score a 700 you expect consistency Standardization standards norms of test performance that allow scores to be compared Norming sample must be representative Psychology Validity of IQ tests has often been questioned because of cultural reasons 0 So it might not really be measuring intelligence it may be about how much you know about your culture gt Norms standards of test performance that allow scores to be compared top 10 etc Lets you know how you scored relative to others Assessing Intelligence gt Binet s Intelligence Test Tested people within age groups to identify the most and least intelligent First real intelligence test Believed that you needed to be identi ed within your own age group gt Mental Age the average age of individuals who achieve a particular level of performance Kids were assigned a mental age 0 Once a mental age is established IQ can be determined by taking into account both mental age and chronological real age gt Intelligence quotient IQ a score that takes into account an individual s mental and chronological age Cultural Bias gt Culturefair IQ test a test that doesn t discriminate against the members of any minority group Time limits Language Cultural conventions popular literature common features of everyday life For example asking questions about Shakespearian classics is probably not culturefair Just about impossible to create a culturefair test couldn t use language couldn t ask anything unique to the culture etc There are no culturefair tests just culturereduced tests In uence on intelligence gt Heritability estimates about 75 by adulthood How smart are we really gt DunningFreuger Effect people fail to adequately asses their level of competence or incompetence at a task and thus consider themselves much more competent than everyone else Differences in IQ scores gt Group differences On average African American schoolchildren score 10 to 15 points lower on IQ tests than white American schoolchildren Gap has begun to narrow Psychology 0 Originally it was proposed that it was due to genetics which its not Stereotype threat research people perform poorly if there is a known stereotype against them 0 In uences on Intelligence gt Flynn effect rapidly increasing IQ scores around the world 0 The intellectually gifted gt gt gt gt Intellectually gifted those who have IQ scores greater than 130 24 of the population Tend to be outgoing social and popular Can be gifted in one area but not in another Gifted students often become bored and frustrate in school if not given opportunities for enrichment
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