PSY2012, Exam 3 Study Guide
PSY2012, Exam 3 Study Guide PSY2012
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Carstens on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY2012 at Florida State University taught by Melissa Shepard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views.
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Date Created: 03/23/16
Chapter 6: Learning A relatively permanent change in thought or behavior that results from experience o Does not include reflexes Major Types of Learning o Conditioning Classical Conditioning Making associations with involuntary responses Ivan Pavlov noticed his dogs salivate when eating food, so he gave them food with a bell and then they began salivating with the bell and without food o Unconditioned stimulus: Stimulus that elicits an automatic (“unconditioned”) response Dog Food o Unconditioned response: Automatic response to a stimulus that does not need to be learned Salivating with the food o Conditioned stimulus: Initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response due to association with an unconditioned stimulus Bell o Conditioned response: Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus Salivating because of the bell Processes o Acquisition: the initial learning of an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus o Extinction: Repeated presentation of the CS without the UCS will eventually eliminate the response to the CS o Spontaneous Recovery: When the CS briefly regains its power to elicit the response o Generalization and Discrimination Stimulus generalization: Tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to the CS Stimulus discrimination: Ability to distinguish between the CS and other stimuli Operant Conditioning Involveds increasing or decreasing the likelihood of a voluntary response Learning is controlled by the consequences of behavior (rewards and punishments) Positive reinforcement: When the frequency of the behavior is increased because you provide something pleasurable Negative Reinforcement: When the frequency of a behavior is increased because you take away something that’s annoying Positive Punishment: When the behavior is decreased by giving a bad response to the behavior Negative Punishment: When the behavior is decreased by taking away something pleasurable How to figure out a problem: o 1. Identify the target behavior o 2. Determine whether you want the behavior to increase or decrease o 3. Determine whether a stimulus was added or taken away to produce a change Schedules of reinforcement o Continuous: When behavior is reinforced every time it occurs o Partial: When a behavior is reinforced only some times Ratio: Based on # of responses Interval: Based on time that has passed Fixed: Giving a reward after a fixed amount of behavior is done Variable: Giving a reward on an irregular basis Fixed Ratio: Reinforcement is provided following a regular number of responses Variable Ratio: Reinforcement is provided after a varying number of responses Fixed Interval: Reinforcement is provided for producing the response at least once following a specified time Variable Interval: Reinforcement is provided for producing the response at least once during an average time interval, with the interval varying randomly o Cognitive Learning Latent learning Not directly observable (reading your textbook) Observational Learning (social) Learning by watching other people’s behavior and their consequences Modeling: imitation of behavior Insight learning Learning from an “ah-ha” moment Chapter 7: Memory Retention of information over time 3 kinds of memory o Sensory memory Extremely brief Two types: Iconic: Visual information Echoic: Auditory information Most information never enters short-term memory o Short-term/working memory Comes form sensory memory Functions: Brief memory for material that you are currently processing (trying to remember something) Keeps information active and accessible to you o When you are trying to make sure you remember something, it is active Helps coordinate ongoing mental activities Capacity Typically limited to 7 (+/- 2) items Rehearsal: repetition strategy that maintains information in working memory Chunking: A strategy in which you organize information into meaningful subgroups (phone numbers) o Long-term memory Contains memory from experiences and knowledge collected over a lifetime Distributed across various parts of the brain Will fade without rehearsal or use in short-term memory Two types: Explicit/ declarative memory: Memories we retrieve intentionally with conscious awareness o Semantic: Factual information o Episodic: Events from life/ Experiences Implicit/ non-declarative memory: retrieval independent of conscious awareness o Procedural: motor skills and habits o Priming: Familiarity with stimulus leads to better memory o Conditioning: One stimulus comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus o Habituation: Responding less strongly to repeated stimuli Three stages of memory o Encoding stage There will be stimuli in our environment that you have to pay attention to The value of attention, rehearsal and effortful processing help encoding Encoding processes: Visual, Acoustic, Semantic o Storage: Keeping information (maybe by repetition) o Retrieval: Recalling information Recall: Generating previously remembered information (an essay test) Recognition: Selecting previously remembered information from an array of options (multiple choice test) Relearning: Faster learning of previously learned information Levels of processing: o Visual: Remembering what something looks like o Acoustic: Remembering what something sounds like o Semantic: Remembering what something means Encoding Specificity Principle o Recall is better if the retrieval context and environment is similar to the encoding context and environment Retrieval cues o A way to remember a previously remembered word o Retrieving: Process of bringing information from your long term memory into your short term memory o Memory illusion: adding wrong information that may seem to fit, but wasn’t originally included Memory errors o Schema driven Memory: Remembering something based on mental links that weren’t actually there (memory illusion) o Misinformation effect: Having a fictitious memory because of a memory received after the memory occurred o Source-monitoring studies: When you mix up the source of your memory Memory problems o Anterograde Amnesia: Inability to form new long-term memories o Retrograde Amnesia: Ability to form new memories, but inability to retrieve old memories Memory enhancing strategies o Minimize interference and distraction o Elaborately process targeted information o Use mnemonic devices (chunking) o Study repeatedly Long-term potentiation: Reviewing multiple times makes the neural pathways in your brain stronger o Get adequate sleep o Mentally reinstate context Matching mood/ environment of learning to studying o Test yourself after a delay Chapter 10: “Womb to Tomb” Developmental Psychology o Studies how behavior changes over the life span Bidirectional influences o Children’s development influences their experiences and vise versa o Influences of early experience myths Infancy determinism: How you end up as an adult is determined by your first three years of life Childhood Fragility: Children are very fragile creatures so if they have a traumatic experience, it will effect the rest of their lives o How do changes in our development occur? Continuity view: Developmental changes are uniform and gradual Stage view: Changes in development can be very rapid with measurable, different stages Methodological Considerations o Cross-sectional design: measures people of different ages to look at age differences Cohort effect: Sets of people who lived during one period can differ in systematic ways from another set who lived another time period o Longitudinal Study: Records observations of the same people throughout their lives Time consuming and costly Cognitive Development o Explanations for how we learn, think and communicate over time o Theories 1. Stage like vs. gradual changes in understanding 2. Domain-general vs. Domain specific Domain-general: General overarching changes in cognitive development that affect various types of development Domain-specific: Cognitive changes occur within domains 3. Principal source of learning (theories focus on different sources) o Schemas Our mental representations of the world How we organize and interpret incoming information (mental filters) We do not need to teach children schemas Assimilation: New info is interpreted in ways that fit existing schemas Accommodation: Existing schemas are adjusted to fit new info Piaget’s Stages: As children age, they advance through different stages o Sensorimotor stage From birth to age 2 Babies originally lack object permanence but develop it o Preoperational Stage Age 2 to Age 7 Learn to construct mental representations of experience and learn symbolic behavior Children tend to be egocentric and lack the understanding of conservation o Concrete Operational Stage Age 7 to Age 12 No longer egocentric and develop understanding of conservation Become capable of logical reasoning Understand reversibility o Formal Operational Stage Age 12 and on Capable of abstract reasoning and hypothetical situations Vgotsky o Different children develop different skills in different domains at different rates o Parenting structures facilitate learning and development Social Development o Harlow and monkeys (monkeys prefer cloth over wire mothers) o Attachment A deep emotional bond that we first develop with our primary caregivers Secure Base: Where children feel comfortable testing the world because they know they can return to rest if things go wrong Attachment Styles: How infants react when separated from their primary caregiver Secure Attachment: upset when mom leaves and happy when she returns Insecure-Avoidant attachment: Indifferent when mom leaves and returns Insecure-anxious attachment: Panic when mom leaves and mixed emotions when she returns Parenting Styles o Permissive: Lenient, little discipline and very affectionate o Authoritative: Supportive but clear and firm limits o Uninvolved: Neglectful and ignoring Chapter 14: Personality o Reflects both out genes and experience o Individual differences and underlying processes Personal tendencies and coping patterns o Two approaches to studying personality Idiographic: Identifies unique characteristics of one individual Nomothetic: Identifies general laws that govern all individual’s behavior Psychoanalytic Theory o Assumptions Unconscious Motivation Psychic Determinism Symbolic Meaning o Structure of Personality Id: The most primitive part of personality; driven by the “pleasure principle” Superego: Represents rules and ideals pressed upon us Conscious: guilt/ should-nots Ego-ideal: ideals/ should Ego: Our conscious self; driven by the “reality principle” Trait theories o Trait: A relatively stable predisposition to feel and act in a certain way o The Five-Factor Model Openness to Experience Conscientiousness Extraversions Agreeableness Neuroticism Each trait occurs on a continuum o Social Cognitive Theory Individuals and their situations always work together Reciprocal determinism External Locus of Control Controlled by your environment Internal Locus of Control Is able to control your environment
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