Review for Exam 1
Popular in Psychology 2100
Popular in Psychlogy
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Keziah Notetaker on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 14407 at Brooklyn college taught by Alison Barren in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Psychology 2100 in Psychlogy at Brooklyn college.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Study Guide Exam 1 Social psychology Alison Baren This guide is simply a topic list You should know these topics and be able to apply them If you only memorize de nitions you will not do well on the exam Introduction To Social Psychology ways What is Social Psychology de ne The scienti c study of how people s thoughts attitudes and behaviors are in uenced by factors in the social world whether they are real or imagined Folk Wisdom and Common Sense and how Social Psychology differs from it Attempts to predict behavior and mental states in daily life Frequent disagreement in statements ex opposites attract Philosophy and how Social Psychology differs from it Study of fundamental problems connected to reality existence knowledge values etc Social psychologists address many of the same issues but attempt to answer them scienti cally Sociology and how Social Psychology differs from it Focuses on group level variables eg culture socioeconomic status Social psychologists are more concerned with how individuals are in uenced by their interpretation of social environments Personality psychology and how Social Psychology differs from it Looks at the role of individual differences to explain how people feel and behave in distinct Focuses on personality and how personalities interact in given situationsenvironments Social psychology Experimentally based science using the scienti c method Scienti c Method Research method for investigating phenomena acquiring new knowledge and evaluating and integrating previous knowledge Social Psychologists emphasize the power of the situation The Two Basic Human motives driving thoughts and behaviors 1 Need to feel good about ourselves selfesteem approval 2 Need to be accurate social cognition approach 3 Other motives Biological Drives Need for control Hedonism Desire for pleasure 0 Understand the importance of the power of situational in uence Bystander Effect Help decreases as the number of bystanders increases everyone assumes someone else will call for help Behaviorism Understanding behavior based situational factors e g rewards as reinforcement and punishment weaknesses behaviorism ignores the individual s role in behavior and people s own thoughts feelings and attitudes Gestalt psychology Focusing on people s perceptions of the objects and events in the world Kurt Lewin is the founding father of modern experimental social psychology and helped make the leap from Gestalt principles of object perception to perceiving people s motives and behaviors Historical Events in uencing the development of Social Psychology World War II Nazi takeover and widespread persecution Many Nazi s were deemed psychologically healthy Several studies followed to examine the power of social context ie Milgram Selffulfilling prophecy Expectations about someone s traits in uence how they act In turn these actions elicit the behavior that is expected confirming the beliefs Crosscultural research ie Individualistic vs Collectivist Cultures Individualistic Culture West Privacy Freedom Individual goals come first Collectivist Culture East Family Honor Consider the group when making decisions Fundamental Attribution error Blaming behavior on personality vs the current situation Methodologies The Scientific Method Form a questionreal world observations current theories Search the literature nd relevant literaturescientif1c articles reviews books Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2 Form a hypothesisstatement assumed to be true for purpose of testing its validity tentative can be tested empirically by collecting data 3 Create an operational de nition De ne all relevant variables and constructs with a statement of the precise meaning of a procedure or concept within an experiment 4 Collect and analyze data Collection surveys observational research experimental research analyze based on the question of interest 5 Propose andor revise theory Based on the outcome did you support your hypothesis propose a new theory updatevalidate start over 0 Correlational Research including advantages and disadvantages Focus on prediction from knowing X can we predict Y correlational methods examine associations between two or more variables not cause and effect Correlational coef cient Ranges from 1 to 1 correlations are positive when two things go in the same direction either up or down correlations are negative when two things cause each other to go in opposite directions Advantages Useful when unsure of cause and effect relationship Disadvantages Don t know if a is causing b b is causing a or c is causing a and b O Observational Research including advantages and disadvantages Focuses on description and answers what is the nature of the phenomenon Used to describe and measure people s behavior in everyday situations Direct Observation Observation of behavior watching someone walk Indirect Observation Observation of something leading you to infer something about behavior eg footprints O Surveys including advantages and disadvantages Reporting of people s thoughts feelings desires and actions Be careful to use random selection Direct Questioning Identifying speci c behaviors Indirect Questioning Agreeing to behaviors but not directly saying which behavior was engaged in Advantages Easy to obtain data on many topics inexpensively sample large segments of population response to sensitive subjects if anonymous Disadvantages Inaccuracy of responses wording of questions 0 Experimental Research KNOW how to identify Independent and Dependent variables Focus on causality and answers is variable X the cause of Y Direct intervention by researcher Examining FactorsVariables Independent variable Causes behavior Dependent variable Measure of behavior 1 Ask a question ie Do women eat less when they want to appear attractive Search the literature women overestimate how thin men want them 3 Hypothesis women who are in the presence of a desirable male compared to undesirable will eat less 4 Operationally De ne Independent and dependent variable 5 CollectAnalyze Data 6 Either establish a theory or come up with a new hypothesis Operational De nitions Internal and External Validity Intemal validity The degree to which one can validly draw conclusions about the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable Extemal validity The degree to which results can be generalized to other situations eld research or people using a representative sample Ethics know what the IRB does The APA Code Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct Covers ethical principles of all activities that psychologists are engaged in The Institutional Review Board IRB 0 Must abide by laws FDA etc Approves all research on humans Checks for technical validity Tries to minimize risks to participants Considers risks in relation to bene ts At least 5 members Milgram s Study httpwwwsimplypsychologyorgmilgramhtml New frontiers of Social Psych Social Cognition make schema in What is Social Cognition How we think about the social world and select interpret remember and use information to judgements about the world Automatic Thinking Schemas including stereotypes Availability Priming Heuristics Mental shortcuts people use to make quick judgements rules of thumb Accessibility Availability Heuristic make a judgement based on the ease with which we can bring something to mind Priming The process through which a schema can be made accessible via eXposure to that subtle ways Automatic Thinking Representativeness heuristic Classifying something according to how similar it is to the typical case Automatic Thinking BaseRate Fallacy People tend to ignore the probability of a given event Flying is still the safest form of transportation despite all the crashes that are reported ie 911 Controlled thinking Counterfactual thinking Controlled Thinking Conscious intentional voluntary and effortful o Relies on time motivation and effort 0 Tends to be more accurate Counterfactual ReasoningThinking The tendency to imagine alternative outcomes to various events Which can in uence how people experience those events Controlled thinking Thought Suppression and Ironic Processing White bear experiment Contrast Effects Framing Impression Formation Primacy Trait Negativity bias and Implicit Personality Theory impression formation Perceptual con rmation and the Selffulfilling prophecy Social Perception order to them words behavior What is Social Perception The organization identification and interpretation of sensory information plus social cues in understand our social environment The study of how we form impressions of other people and how we make inferences about Nonverbal behavior Nonverbal Communication How people communicate intentional and unintentional Without Includes appearance facial expression tone of voice gestures body positionsmovement use of touch and eye gaze Helps express our emotions attitudes and personality Facial Expressions Encoding and decoding explain how they are functional evolved universal and culturally varied Humans encode express nonverbal behavior and decode interpret meaning of nonverbal through facial expressions Expressions are 0 Functional Express emotion Convey attitude Communicate personality 0 Useful in physiological reactions Fear enhances perception an overall increase in awareness and disgust decreases perception look of disgust involves closing off nostrils o Evolved Increase survival Increase ability to accurately perceive and communicate information o Affect Blend Facial expression with parts of the face expressing emotions which are considered abnormal or different for those parts making interpretation difficult ie Smizing smiling through the eyes instead of the lipsmouth 0 Cultural Differences in Implicit Personality Theory Ideas of which traits go together partially depends on our culture Develop over time and with experience like all schemas Example The term Artistic is defined as creatively skilled but is associated with the words intense creative and unconventional Example The term Shi gu is defined as worldly wise but is associated with the words socially skillful reserved and devoted to family 0 Display Rules and Emblems Display Rules Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display ie smiling eye contact Emblems Nonverbal gestures that have well understood definitions within a culture usually direct verbal translations ie OK hand gesture when ipped is called ipping the bird and synonymous with the middle finger in Australia 0 Attribution Theory internal and external attributions A description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people s behavior Intemal Attribution O The causes of behaviors are driven by personal factors and are dispositional o From individual traits ability effort or personality Extemal Attribution O The causes of behaviors are driven by outside factors and are situational 0 Assume that most people would respond the same way in that situation 0 Errors in attribution Perceptual Salience SelfServing Attributions Belief in a just world Perceptual Salience Seeming importance of information that is the focus of people s attention connected to external attributions Selfserving Biases People are motivated to feel good about themselves 0 Successes will be due to internal dispositional factors we always want the credit 0 Failures will be due to external situational factors it s never our fault 0 Once again Fundamental attribution Overestimating the role of personal causes of behavior and underestimating situational causes of behavior The Self 0 Know the four major components of the self underlined below SelfKnowledge SelfControl Impression Management SelfEsteem o Selfrecognition and the mark test or red paint test A test used to determine whether a child has developed the ability of self recognition yet The child is placed in front of a mirror then a bit of paint is put on one of their cheeks If they have developed self recognition they ll see the paint in the mirror and reach up to touch that area on their face with their hand If it hasn t they will just touch the mirror as if their re ection is another child 0 Cultural and Gender Differences in defining the self How you define who you are can vary depending on culture and gender Independent mainly applicable to Western cultures Def1ne self in terms of internal thoughts feelings and actions Interdependent mainly applicable to Asian cultures and anything besides Western internal pTOCCSSI Def1ne self in terms of one s relationships to other people 0 Relational Interdependence More common in women Def1ne self in terms of their close relationships spouse lifelong friendships O Collective Interdependence More common in men Def1ne self in terms of memberships in larger groups Selfknowledge defining it and Introspection Beliefs about who we are Selfawareness theory When people focus attention on themselves they evaluate and compare their behavior to their standards and values Motivation intrinsic vs extrinsic and OverJustification Effect Intrinsic Motivation 0 The desire to engage in an activity because of internal enjoyment not rewards or outside pressure 0 People with intrinsic motivation report higher levels of psychological wellbeing Extrinsic Motivation 0 The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards not because it s interesting 0 People with extrinsic motivation report lower levels of psychological wellbeing and negative satisfaction in life Overjustif1cation Effect Receiving external rewards for a given behavior can undermine intrinsic motivation 0 Example Kids were split up into two groups for drawingart One group was rewarded with candy after while the other were all just told great job Later on during free time when given several options for activities the kids who were told great job were more than twice as likely to choose drawing than those who received candy TwoFactor theory of emotionmisattribution of arousal TwoFactor Theory of Emotions Emotional experience is a result of a 2 step selfperception 1 Experience physiological arousal 2 Seek appropriate explanation for arousal 0 It is important to note that we use cues from social situations to assist in factor 2 0 Social Comparison Theory upward and downward social comparison We learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people Downward Social Comparison Comparing to people who are worse than us 0 The goal here is raising selfesteem 0 Example If you get a B on a test you ll look for someone who got a C or worse Upward Social Comparison Comparing to people who are better than us 0 The goal here is selfevaluation and enhancement 0 Example If you get a B on a test you ll look for someone who got an A so you can ask how they studiedwhat they did differently O SelfControl Selfregulatory resource model The ability to be in charge of one s own thoughts behaviors and emotions o Impression Management ingratiation and selfhandicapping behavioral and reported 0 Impression Management Attempting to get others to see you the way you want to be seen Self Promotion Tendency to want others to think you are good usually unrealistic Self Verification Tendency to want others to perceive us the way we perceive ourselves even if it is negative a very realistic thought process 0 Strategies for Impression Management Ingratiation Using attery or praise to make yourself likeable to others 0 Selfhandicapping Creating obstacles to your own success so that potential failure can be blamed on external factors Behavioral People acting to reduce success ie not scheduling study time Reported Less extreme ready made excuses ie I m not feeling well 0 Selfesteem defining it pros and cons narcissism People s evaluation of their own self worth and the extent to which they view themselves as good competent and decent Advantages of Self Esteem Motivates us to persevere in tough times 0 Positively correlated with psychological well being Disadvantages of Self Esteem There aren t any known disadvantages to the healthy confidence someone who has good self esteem Disadvantages of In ated Self Esteem Narcissism Respond poorly to criticism and rejection o Engage in destructive behavior 0 More likely to engage in addictive activities due to an overcon dence that they won t become addicted betting drinking
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