HST111midtermIDs.pdf HST 111 - M001
Popular in Early Modern Europe, 1350-1815
HST 111 - M001
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Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Clarissa Jane Lee on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HST 111 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by C. Kyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Early Modern Europe, 1350-1815 in History at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Hundred Years War 1337 1453 con ict between French amp English kings Salic law Right to throne of France see Salic Law English created a new form of warfare combination of use of longbow and dismounted men at arms Battle atof Agincourt 1415 0 Henry V England led troops to victory over French led by Charles VI 0 French troops outnumbered English 0 Use of new method of warfare above was key to English victory French eventually were successful in driving English out Joan of Arc began the defeat of England Joan de Arc French peasant girl who claimed to have heard angelicdivine voices telling her to lead the French army to battle against the English Dressed herself in male attire coupled with short hair when she attended the French court Given command of French troops wins battle of Orleans Later captured by Burgundians who sold her to the English Accused of witchcraft In England she was tried and executed for heresy crossdressing and claiming to have heard God s voice Jacquerie 1358 revolt of French peasants Caused by excessive taxation and the ransom for King John s capture during 100 Years War Mercenary soldiers pillaged countryside and stole from peasants Peasants worked the land the belonging to wealthy nobles in exchange for protection idea of an established contract note this was not a written contract between peasants and nobles Since mercenary soldiers were pillaging countryside and stealing from the peasants there was a breach in the established contract agreement because there was no protection given by the nobles Uprisingrevolt as an effect of economic and fiscal issues Avignon site of French dominated papacy papacy moved under French control to a location close to their borders papacy was lavish corrupt and a place of greed and heavy taxation loss of spiritual faith because of lavishness and corruption Humanism Renaissance intellectual movement Search for uncorreupted classical texts Return torediscovery of classics Emphasis on education and learning foundation of schools and the cultivation of good citizens civicmindedness Good citizen actively participates in civil society educated humanists served the society and government of the community in which they existed E g Petrarch Canzoniere use of vernacular language Johannes Gutenberg German printer Inventor of the printing press Pioneer of moveable metal type Worked with partner Hust in mid15th century Mitte Gutenberg bible also referred to as the 46 line bible Invention of printing press revolutionizes communication of information Printing press allows standardization efficiency fewer errors in translation and copying See Collaboration during the Renaissance Encomienda 16th Century Spanish system of labour organization in colonies in the Americas system designed in Spain Theorised to grant some rights to those who tended to the land Not a system of land ownership In practice brutal system of repression similar to slavery o Partially a result of being geographically distant from Spain 0 Also due to the amount of authority assumed by Spaniards who colonized the area Did not apply to people of mixed race in the Americas System that when implemented lessened tribal affiliation for natives Perspective Renaissance idea of lifelike depiction Based on scientific and mathematical principles of proportion Discovery and creation of vanishing point Applying mathematical techniques to canvas and drawing in order to create realistic imagery photorealistic landscapes portraits etc See Paolo Uccello van Dyck Machiavelli Florentine political theorist ambassador and historian The Prince work of political theory written by Machiavelli from reading the classics personal experience as an ambassador and personal observations of society and politics 0 Does not propose an ideal theory of government but is instead based on political necessity and issues of human nature 0 Banned by the Catholic Church for being immoral work proposed that morality had no necessary harm in government Important philosopher of early modernity Read and published widely in classic work Uni cation of Spain Beginning emergence of Spain as a powerful empire Uni cation of two thrones Aragon Ferdinand amp Castile Isabella Result of dynastic union between two monarchs Beginning of Spanish Inquisition because of Ferdinand amp Isabella s extreme Catholic views Religious and ethnic cleansing of Spain 0 Expulsion of Jews from Spain 0 Moors Muslims Greeks driven out of Southern Spain Vasco da Gama Portuguese explorer First person to sail directly from Europe to India via the Cape of Good Hope Establishment of Portuguese power in India and Africa Signi cance of spice trade and its potential wealth Discovery of new lands Importance of trade in general not speci cally the spice trade and discovery globalisation s beginnings Predestination Protestant doctrine established by John Calvin Humans are inherently sinful but a small group will be saved ie the Elect A person s actual life does not affect whether or not they receive salvation Denies human free will acknowledges that God has a plan for humans Petrarch Humanist poet Father of the Renaissance Dedicated to resurfacing and translating Greek and Latin texts Establishment of vernacular language Italian as an art form in itself ie vernacular could match the beauty of classical languages Canzoniere 95 Theses written by German monk Martin Luther critique of corrupt Catholic Church Emphasis on reading the bible o the word of God is found in the Bible Attacked the sale of indulgences and the greed of the Church Questioned the authority of the papacy Questioned the necessity of the Church s hierarchy Originally written in Latin but quickly translated into vernacular languages and circulated because of the printing pressprint revolution Triggered protestant reformation Constantinople Istanbul successor to ancient Rome Largest wealthiest European city through the middle ages 1453 o Sultan Mehmet II reigns control over Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul meaning the City 0 Ottoman rule over Constantinople was established 0 Massive population increase 0 Divided into quarters for Christians Jews Muslims and Greek orthodox all given rights to their own religious practices and infrastructure as long as this took place within the speci c quarters Emphasis on toleration and inclusion
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