Unit 2 Study Guide
Unit 2 Study Guide PSY 101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Gross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Unit 2 Study Guide Lecture 1 Lexical Decision Making Lab amp Addiction Long Term Memory network of associations 0 Can easily tell difference between real and fake words 0 Semantic Network 0 Not all entries in this network are as accessible 0 Generate most typical example that is strongly associated w category these are called prototypes Lexical Decision Task Reveals Associative Memory 0 Certain words PRIME other words suggests related info is organized in memory 0 Neural energy spreads to other close associations 0 Priming Effect Reaction times faster for related rather than unrelated words I FauxRelatedness increases response times to nonwords I For related words decisions are faster as the intervals of stimulus increases How is mental dictionary different than physical dictionary 0 Our vocabulary is over 40000 words and can tell instantly if a word is one we don t know 0 Dictionaries alphabetize words our minds categorize them into familiarity and concepts Drug Tolerance o Situational Specificity I Drug given in an environment and then given again in same and different environment more tolerant when given in the same environment 0 Classical vs Operant Conditioning I Classical re exive involuntary behaviors I Operant learning actions voluntary behaviors I Conditioned Stimulus cues accompanying the drug affect I Unconditioned Stimulus the pharmacological drug effect I Unconditioned Response The responses triggered by the drug I Conditioned Response Tolerance and cravings 0 Role of Context context cues I Drug onset cues I SelfAdministration Cues I Environmental Cues I Physiological Cues I Emotional Cues I Cognitive Cues o How is Lexical decision making related to Siegel s drug addiction article Lecture 2 Human Factors Psychology Human Factors Psychology applies insights on sensation perception amp cognition to real world problems 0 Investigate low sight sound taste feel and high how we think remember where language is found in the brain level human processes 0 Insights lead to better designs and enhanced comfort efficiency productivity and safety 0 Research in Color Perception change color of emergency vehicles from red to green because our eyes have increased sensitivity to the wavelength of lime green 0 Dark Adaptation Curve moving from bright to low light and after a certain amount of time on the scale the lower the curve the greater the sensitivity to light I Dark Adaptation takes about 20 min I When exposed to blue end of spectrum receptors suppress the release of sleep inducing hormones use bulbs of longer wavelength more yellow Gestault Psychologists Grouping Principles 0 Principles I Good Continuation I Proximity close together belong together I Similarity same look belong together I Group by Common Region Elements within same boundary belong together I Common Fate Group objects moving together 0 Whole is different than a sum of partsquot 0 Figure Ground Separation want certain part of image to stand out I Visual system separates images into background and a figure to focus on I Camou age blurs the lines between figure and ground Popout is a parallel search but you see the whole image at once features are NOT shared between target and nontarget 0 Search time in uenced by how similar the nontargets are to the actual targets 0 Distractors don t necessarily in uence response time Serial Search One at a time features shared through target and nontarget 0 Response time is in uence by distractors distractors increase the reaction time increases 0 In uences the search task slowed by checking nontarget features with target features Good designs rely on predictability humans act in expected ways 0 Redundancy and Consistency red is a stop or warning color redundant and stop signs always red and certain shape consistent Lecture 3 Ponzo Illusion Caused by Faulty Depth Perception Topdown Processing info ows from permanent memory mind fills in third dimension based on prior cues and knowledge 0 StimulusPictoral oneeyemonocular cues I Relative Size smaller retinal image is perceived as smaller image when compared to larger retinal image I OcclusionInterposition Closer objects block the view of distant ones we must fill in the missing pieces Law of Closure I Height in Visual field Location of something relative to the horizon I Less claritytexture Change in relative size or compactness I Light amp shadow Differences in how light shines on object I Linear perspective Lines converge things get smaller as they get more distant until they vanish o Twoeye cues cues that come from the muscular responses and adjustments made by the eye I Accommodation Changes to ciliary muscles that control the shape of our lens I Convergence Movement of eyes towards or away from each other which brings objects into focus on fovea Why people get sick in 3D movies eyes converge to follow image but also keep focus on the screen converging without accommodation is what causes stress I Binocular Disparity Retinal Disparity eyes horizontally separated and each sees a different image of the world due to this 0 Motion Cues gives us the keenest vision Bottomup Processing Information arriving from sensory systems constructs width and height from sensory information Retinal image preserves height and width but not depth 0 As we age our lens turns yellow 0 Lens changes shape to focus on image Depth perception is constructed Ponzo Illusion Perceive line in the distance as larger even though same size as line in foreground 0 When there are depth cues our judgments of length are overestimated Ames Room our retinal image does not change but the perceived distance does Moon Illusion Size of retinal image constant but surroundings change perceived distance in uenced if there are or are no depth cues Lecture 4 Human Factors Psychology 2 Mosquito Ringtone cannot be heard as you age we lose hearing about certain frequencies Picking a Voice for Siri and Army s Tank low frequency female voice that was digitized so it seemed more real and easier to understand Auditory Localization o Cues are I Time difference of sound arrival to each ear I Intensity difference of sound at each ear High frequency sounds easily blocked by headphones low frequency sounds go through amp around objects 0 Siren of fire truck can not be localized I Instead use BroadbandMultifrequency siren I Duplex Theory Low frequencies important cue time of arrival of sound between the ears high frequencies important cue is loudness intensity difference of the sounds at each ear I Single Frequencies spatially ambiguous I 3D sounds stimulate localization Problem Longlasting pain in hand from paper cut 0 Solution 1 Hit head against a Wall 0 Solution 2 Flood the gate with competing stimuli Gatecontrol Theory the extent of pain depends on the amount of input from sensory neurons passing through a neural gate to the pain centers of the brain 0 Solution 3 Electrical Stimulation Solution 4 Counterirritants 0 Solution 5 Analgesics binds to receptors on that brain and block the pain aspirin Bathing Suit Trick 0 Figure vs Ground Separation eyes focus on the bathing suit as the figure and ignore the naked body as the background 0 Spatial Frequency Our cones respond to colorful detail and this obscures the naked body 0 Viewing distance just looking at it normally see the patterned bathing suit but different angle and squinting can see naked body Foveal Vision lots of cones ability to see detail and cones are color receptors Peripheral Vision not capable of seeing visual detail rods low light movement and contrast Higher Spatial Frequency Pictures are sharper more detailed Lower Spatial Frequency less pixels per square inch less detailed Mona Lisa Smile portion hidden in low spatial frequency Pointillism many dots that make up a picture Gerbil couldn t pass a color blind test because rods outnumber cones but has close to 360 degree vision O Colorblindness instead of having three classes of cones 1 that absorbs red 1 that absorbs green amp 1 that absorbs blue one of the cones is not normal 0 As we age don t respond to traffic lights the same generally stop at Yellow lights Lecture 5 amp 6 Sensory Memory amp Attention Mind is like a Computer 0 Information Processing Theory they both take in information manipulate that info and produce responses to it o Encoding how info initially processed INPUT Storage placing info into memory 0 Retrieval locate in and retrieve something from memory OUTPUT I Recall trying to pull specific information from memory Essay Exams I Recognition Given physical information cues and using those to help find things in your memory Multiple Choice exams I Retrieval Failure when you know you know something but can t remember 0 Three Stages of Memory 0 Once you have sensory input I Sensory Memory Registers that Input remembers temperature taste sound pressure pain itch posture movement Capacity is large Duration very brief visual milliseconds amp auditory seconds Form is unprocessed sensory specific no control and decays quickly Transduction converts physical energy from the environment to a format in the brain Creating a Memory Visual Sensory Memory a brief perfect copy of external visual world this is how we see sparklers creating lines o Sperling s Findings Iconic Memory Mind preserves images and integrates them into memories large capacity but fades quick Auditory Sensory MemoryEchoic Memory echo that can last seconds Tactile Sensory Memory touching something and remembering the way it felt EX Game where you draw a letter on someone s back and they have to guess what you drew I Shortterm Working Memory Must pay attention to move info from sensory to here O Sensory information always there but only a portion of the info gets through Inattentionblindness attention taken away from driving leads to more shallow encoding Attention is limited can t process all stimuli at once and selective make choices on which stimuli to process and which not to DualTask Paradigm participants work on two things at once 0 Driving experiment the probability of missing a signal increased when on the phone 0 No difference between amount of distraction hands free or hand held 0 Book and radio listeners were unaffected o Strayer amp Iohnson talking on phone people took longer to respond to stop signals significantly slower when talking than when listening because dividing 2 tasks that are not compatible 0 Single task vs dualtask o Dependent Measure Incidental Recognition Memory what the drivers see remember while driving 0 Interference depends on driving conditions 0 Cell Phone conversations impaired memory of billboards I LongTerm Memory Lecture 7 Cognition STM with Numerical Memory amp Mental Rotation Labs Maintenance Encoding repetition Elaborative Encoding Make connections with other situations Short Term Working Memory holds small amount of info for short amount of time 0 Info held here recent sensory input recently retrieved items the result of recent mental processing 0 Phonological Store and Loop I Evidence for it Word length effect Phonological similarity effect Auditory Interference I Capacity of shortterm memory is limited Miller s Magical Number 59 items Chunking break things into categories to help increase capacity Pronunciation Time Length of rehearsal time decreases the amount of items one can remember o Visualspatial Sketch pad I Visual Codes are subjective impressions I Mental Rotation Can we hold mental images in our minds and rotate them Shepard and Metzler conducted Visual imagery research asked people to rotate images found mental images obey same laws of motion as real More rotation longer to rotate mentally Reaction time is proportional to degree of rotation o If took 1 second to rotate 90 degrees will take 2 to rotate 180 Men are better than women at Visualizing I Images are not static can imagine movement I Mental images obey laws of physical world I How did mental rotation experiment explore mental imagesquot in a scientific way I What are the implications of the mental rotations experiment
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