Study Guide test 4 - py 352
Study Guide test 4 - py 352 PY 352
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Helen Hardin on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 352 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jeffrey Parker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psych in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
PY 352 Study Guide Learning to think and create Growth and Cognition Three dimensions of cognitive process and development 1 An expansion from purely a sensory and motor world to the use of symbols 2 An expansion from idiosyncratic and fanciful ways of thinking to rigorous and disciplined thinking 3 An expansion from thinking about the real and concrete to thinking about the non existent hypothetical and abstract Infant senses 39 Smell 0 Present at birth 0 Has preferences 0 Sensitive to mother s odor such as milk 0 Sweet salty bitter tastes already developed 0 Likes sweet the most 0 Touch and pain 0 Touch stimulates re exes 0 Likes being touched 0 Also experiences pain 0 Hearing 0 Can hear extremely well 0 Can hear high frequencies 0 Distance improves over time O Vision 0 Sensitive to light 0 20100 at birth 0 takes 6 months for Vision to develop fully O depth improves over time Complex thinking in infants 0 intermodal coordination O intermodal perception integrating the senses O crossmodel transfer learning by one sense and transferring to another sense Infant s Implicit Knowledge 0 Implicit knowledge cannot be articulated and is not represented explicitly in the head of the thinker I HabituationDishabituation Method 0 0 What do infant s understand about the physical world This method is used by looking to see if an infant seems surprised or not surprised by some event If they are they don t understand it and if they aren t they do understand it The assault on infant ignorance 0 Baillargeon O O O O 0 Demonstrated how Piaget was wrong Infants understand permanence and the solidity of objects without having to learn it like its hardwired Built a drawbridge type thing and placed an object in the path of the bridge Infant s reactions determined if they understood If they weren t surprised that the bridge passed through it but they were surprised 0 Infant Implicit Understanding O Infant s recognize these principles I Continuity I Objects exist continuously I Solidarity I Objects are sold I Contact I Objects must make contact I Gravity I Objects will fall without support I Inertia 0 Objects do not change motion abruptly without force 0 Implicit Knowledge of The Self O O 0 Does my cat know he exists Does he know he s a cat Multiple selves William James I Private Self 0 Private inner lives 0 Dreams perspectives body sensations O Takes a while to realize other don t know your private self I Extended Self 0 Progressing along an autobiographical timeline 0 We are present day versions of someone of our past 0 Having a sense of past I EcologicalInterpersonal Self 0 Sense of self in the environment 0 Separate from environment I Subjective self 0 Known automatically 0 Evidence that infant s have a subjective self I They cry when others cry I Mimic others I Perceive control over their movements I Recognize themselves in photos or movies Use landmarks to guide Not conclusive however shows a sense of agency 0 Agency understanding that one can be the cause of events 0 Root of master motivation desire to affect or control one s environment 0 Rouge Test I Place a small spot of makeup on the forehead of an infant and see if they respond to it in the mirror I Before 15 months no recognition of self in photos or mirror 0 Consequences of selfrecognition I Participation in social activity I More emotions I Cooperation and empathy Mental Representation and Symbol Use 0 Representation of objects ideas images actions events and concepts 0 Manipulating mental images by organizing categorizing reverse engineering and more 0 Mental representation can be contrasted with untuitive knowing and perception Benefits of mental representation 0 Do not have to act overtly 0 Fast exible 0 Less error prone O Mobility 0 Creativity I Symbolic Use 0 Icons pictures numbers letters and more 0 Communication tool 0 Language 0 Extremely important to growth of the human species When Children Start Mentally Representing Things and Using Symbols 0 Evidence from language development 0 Attend to language from birth 0 Babbling helps 0 Holophrases O Multiword phrases 0 Dual Representation 0 Viewing a symbolic object as and object in it s own right and as a symbol 0 Scale models maps toys 0 Children have difficult with maps because they have to distinguish what parts have real counterparts O MakeBelieve Play 0 Contributes to cognitive development 0 Language imitation dual representation 0 Sensorimotor I Play with actions 0 Constructive I Play with building and creating I No imitation 0 Simple Pretend I Use of objects in place of others I Imaginative I Selfdirected at first but then social and cooperative 0 Substitute Pretent I Play that involves significant substitution for objects 0 Sociodramatic I Play that is advanced I Elaborate scripts I Details From Idiosyncratic to Disciplined Thinking 0 Second of our major shifts in dimensions of cognitive growth 0 First was from nonsymbolic to symbolic thought The Age of Wonder and Magic 0 Age 36 creative thinking Personal Intuitive Flawed Inconsistent Whimsical Nonsequiturs abrupt right turns Arbitrary Confusing reasoning Animism Egocentrism OOOOOOOOOO Operational Thought Preoperational Piaget Operations 0 Structures for rulegoverned logical mental action Conservation tasks 0 Demonstration by Piaget that children of preoperational age struggle with conservation tasks which require understanding of quantitative properties of an object is not changed by superficial changes in appearance 0 Centration I Tendency to focus on one aspect of the situation 0 Static thinking I Tendency to attend to outcomes rather than things that produce them 0 Operations I Transivity I Helps us problem solve due to recognition I Compensation 0 Allows us to understand how one aspect can account for a change in another Reversibility 0 Allows us to work a problem backwards Heirarhial Reasoning I Understating how things are nested one within another I Perspective Taking 0 Ability to distinguish between one s own perspective and someone else s perspective 0 From PreOperation to Operational Thought I Children s thinking is now more organized conforms to rules and logic I Yields stable predictable answers
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