Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide CPSY 230
Popular in Human Relation Development
Popular in Psychlogy
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chelsea Ross on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CPSY 230 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Indovina in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Human Relation Development in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Study Guide for Exam 2 Chapter 5 Psychology and Physical Health Health psychology how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation prevention and treatment of iHness Summarize evidence relating behavioral patterns Type AType B and characteristicsdiseases 0 Type A personality includes a strong competitive orientation impatience and time urgency and anger and hostility Heart disease wear and tear on cardiovascular disease Up and down of heart rate and blood pressure may create wear and tearing their cardiovascular systems Selfimposed stress and intense reaction to stress More likely to drink alcohol and coffee smoke individuals with aboveaverage hostility scores were twice as likely to have atherosclerosis than were those with belowaverage hostility scores Type B personality is marked relatively relaxed patient easy going amicable behavior More prevention and less risky behavior Less hurried less competitive and less easily angered Evaluate the strength of the relationship between stress and illness eg suppressing feelings and stress may lead to negative feelings depression etc 0 O O O 0 Depression doubles one s chances of developing heart disease Stress is related to but not casually linked to cancer Stress and its resulting strong emotions seems to tax the heart Even brief periods of stress can trigger acute cardiac symptoms such as angina chest pain Depression doubles one s chances of developing heart disease Depression also seems to affect how heart disease progresses and is associated with worse outcomes in cardiology patients Losing weight in a healthy manner 0 O O Sharply reduce food consumption Sharply increase exercise output Simultaneously decrease food intake and step up exercise output in more moderate ways Describe AIDS and summarize evidence on the transmission of the HIV virus o Disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and disabled by the human immunode ciency virus HIV 0 Transmission Contact with bodily uids usually blood or semen Behaviors that increase risk of contracting HIV Not wearing a condom Sharing needles Anal sex Summarize data on patterns of alcohol use and the health risks and social costs of drinking 0 About half of adults in the United States drink 0 Health risks amp social cost The hangover headache dizziness nausea vomiting Lifethreatening overdoses o This is especially problematic when alcohol is mixed with a sedative or narcotic drugs Poorjudgment reduced intellectual functioning Poor motor coordination Increased anger Alcohol dependence or alcoholism Chronic progressive disorder marked by a growing compulsion to drink 0 Impaired control over drinking that will eventually interfere with health and social behavior Explain the concepts of drug tolerance physical and psychological dependence and overdose 0 Drug tolerance a progressive decrease in a person s responsiveness to a drug with continued use 0 Physical dependence when a person must continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness when drug use is terminated o Psychological dependence exists when a person must continue to take a drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving for it o Overdose an excessive does of a drug that can seriously threaten one s life Hallucinogens Narcotics Sedatives Stimulants Marijuana Effects and Risks o Narcotics drug derived from opium that are capable of reliving pain Effects 0 An overwhelming sense of euphoria Nausea Drowsiness Constipation Slowed respiration Risks Psychological and physical dependency o Sedatives sleepinducing drugs that tend to decrease central nervous system and behavioral activity Effects 0 Motor coordination suffer badly Producing slurred speech and a staggering walk 0 Judgment is impaired Intellectual functioning becomes sluggish Risks Leading causes of overdoses in the US Psychological and physical dependence 0 Stimulants drugs that tend to increase central nervous system and behavioral activity Effects 0 They produce a buoyant elated enthusiastic energetic feeling accompanied by increased alertness Increased blood pressure 0 Muscle tension Sweating ResUessness o Unpleasant feelings of irritability anxiety and paranoia Risks Stroke 0 Heart attack 0 Other forms of cardiovascular disease 0 Marijuana the hemp plant from which marijuana hashish and THC are dedved Effects 0 Emotion perception o Slight impairment in cognitive functioning Perceptualmotor coordination Risks Transient problems with anxiety and depression in some people 0 Respiratory and pulmonary diseases and probably lung cancer 0 Impairments in attention and memory when user is not high 0 Hallucinogens a diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience Effects 0 Distort perception o Impair intellectual functioning Produce fear anxiety and paranoia called a quotbad tripquot Risks Pyschoses depressive reactions paranoid states Chapter 6 The Self Summarize the ndings on ethnicity and gender regarding selfesteem 0 Members of minority groups have lower selfesteem than majority groups Asians Hispanics and Native Americans than Whites African Americans have higher selfesteem than of whites White males are higher than white females Minority males have lower selfesteem than minority females Males scored higher on selfesteem then females White girls have lower selfesteem than minority girls OOOOO Understand how individualism and collectivism in uence behavior 0 lndividualism involves putting personal goals ahead of group goals and de ning one s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group memberships o Collectivism involves putting group goals ahead of personal goals and de ning one s identity in terms of the groups one belongs to 0 Know examples of individualistic and collectivist countries lndividualistic North American amp Western European Collectivist Asian African Latin American 0 What is US considered lndividualistic Know the de nition of and factors that shape the selfconcept 0 An organized collection of beliefs about the self 0 Your beliefs about your personality those things than come to mind when you think about yourself and what you believe to be true about yourself selfschemas that shape your perception Michelangelo phenomenon o sculpting a person into reality the ideal self of a loved one Baumrind s parenting styles 0 Authoritative parenting uses high emotional support and rm but reasonable limits high acceptance high control 0 Authoritarian parenting low emotional support with rigid limits low acceptance high control 0 Permissive parenting high emotional support with few limits high acceptance low control o Neglectful parenting involves low emotional support and few limits low acceptance ow control Methods of selfenhancement downward comparisons selfserving bias basking in re ected glory selfhandicapping o Selfenhancement the tendency to seek positive and reject negative information about oneself o Downward comparisons a defensive tendency to compare oneself with someone whose troubles are more serious than one s own 0 Selfserving bias the tendency to attribute ones successes to personal factors and one s failures to situational factors 0 Basking in re ected glory the tendency to enhance one s image by publicly announcing one s association with those who are successful 0 Selfhandicapping the tendency sabotage one s performance to provide an excuse for possible failure De nition of selfregulation o The process of directing and controlling one s behavior Chapter 7 Social Thinking and Social In uence Know the ve sources of information people use to form impressions of others Appearance Verbal behavior Actions Nonverbal messages Situations OOOOO De ne attributions and explain when people are likely to make them 0 Inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior others behavior and events 0 People make attributions when others behave in unexpected or negative ways when events are personally relevant and when they are suspicious about another person s motives 0 Internal attributions when people attribute the cause of others behavior to personal dispositions traits abilities or feelings 0 External attributions when people attribute the cause of others behavior to situational demands or environmental constraints Snap judgments versus systematic judgments o Snap judgments are made quickly and based on only a few bits of information and preconceived notions 0 Systemic judgments when a person takes the time to observe the person in a variety of situations and to compare that person s behavior with that of others in similar situations Differentiate between 0 O Selfful lling prophecy occurs when expectations about a person cause him or her to behave in ways that con rm their expectations Actorobserver effect The tendency to attribute our own behavior mainly to situational causes but the behavior of others mainly to internal dispositional causes Selfserving bias tendency to attribute one s successes to personal factors and one s failures to situational factors Fundamental attribution error the tendency to explain other people s behavior as a result of personal rather than situational factors Selfregulatory attribution process of directing and controlling one s behavior Con rmatory bias the tendency to seek information that supports one s beliefs while not pursuing discon rming information De nition of stereotypes o Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group Primacy effect occurs when initial information carries more weight than subsequent information Explain how quotoldfashionedquot and modern discrimination differ o quotOldfashionedquot overt discrimination has declined in recent years but a more subtle quotmodernquot form of discrimination has emerged 0 Modern discrimination when people privately harbor negative attitudes toward minority groups but express them only when they feel such views are justi ed or that it s safe to do so Reducing prejudice cognitive strategies intergroup contact 0 Cognitive strategies make an effort to override stereotypes by using 0 controlled processing Stereotyped thinking of others becomes a mindless habit even for individuals who have been taught to be tolerant of those who are different from themselves lntergroup contact Superordinate goals goals that require two or more groups to work together to achieve mutual ends 0 Can reduce intergroup hostility Describe Milgram s research on obedience to authority 0 Demonstrated that people s tendency to obey is strong even if they are asked to harm another person Differentiate between footinthedoor the lowball technique and doorinthe face 0 Footinthedoor technique involves getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later 0 The Iowball technique involves getting someone to commit to an attractive proposition before its hidden costs are revealed 0 The doorintheface technique involves making a large request that is likely to be turned down in order to increase the chances that people will agree to a smaller request later Distinguish between prejudice and discrimination and give an example of each 0 Prejudice a negative attitude toward members of a group Competition between groups 0 Discrimination behaving differently usually unfair toward the members of a group Not liking one group based on preconceived notions Chapter 8 Interpersonal Communication Components and features of the communication process 0 The sender person who initiates the message 0 The receiver person to whom the message is targeted o The message the information or meaning that is transmitted from the sender to the receiver 0 The channel through which the message is sent the sensory means through which the message reaches the receiver 0 Noise or interference any stimulus that interferes with accurately expressing or understanding a message 0 Context in which the message is communicated the environment in which communication takes place List ve general principles of nonverbal communication 0 Nonverbal communication conveys emotion communicate feelings without saying a word Ex a look that kills 0 Nonverbal communication is multichanneled information may be transmitted through gestures facial expressions eye contact and vocal tone at the same tine o Nonverbal communication is ambiguous receivers may have difficulty determining whether nonverbal messages are being sent intentionally A shrug or a raised eyebrow can mean different things to different people 0 Nonverbal communication may contradict verbal messages a person may proclaim quotI m not angryquot Even though their bodies show that they re furious o Nonverbal communication is culturebound nonverbal signals are different in different cultures Ex in Tibet people greet their friends by sticking out their tongues Differentiate between kinesics proxemics and paralanguage o Proxemics the study of people s use of interpersonal space 0 Kinesics the study of communication through body movements Observers may be able to tell an individual s level of tension or relaxation or whether a person s expressed remorse is sincere and genuine or merely fabricated quotcrocodile tearsquot o Paralanguage includes all vocal cues other than the content of the verbal message itself Ex grunts sighs murmurs gasps and other vocal sounds Ex how loudly of softly a person speaks how fast they talk and the pitch rhythm and quality of their speech Selfdisclosure definition and role in relationship development 0 Selfdisclosure the act of sharing information about yourself with another person 0 For intimacy to develop in a relationship a discloser must feel understood and cared for o Varies over the course of a relationship 0 ln established relationships people are less likely to reciprocate disclosures in the same conversation Communication apprehension 0 Anxiety caused by having to talk with others Oneonone encounters and speaking into front of groups Styles of managing con ict 0 Avoidingwithdrawing low concern for self and others When con ict arises the avoider will change the subject defeat discussion with humor make a hasty exit or pretend to be preoccupied with something else 0 Accommodating low concern for self high concern for others They feel uncomfortable with con ict Instead of ignoring the disagreement they bring the con ict to a quick end by giving in easily 0 Competingforcing high concern for self low concern for others Turn every con ict into blackandwhite winorlose situation Will do anything to emerge victorious from confrontations Can be deceitful and aggressive using verbal attacks and physical threats 0 Compromising moderate concern for self and others Acknowledges the divergent needs of both parties Willing to negotiate and to meet the other person halfway Each person gives up something so both can have partial satisfaction 0 Collaborating high concern for self and others lnvolves a sincere effort to nd a solution that will optimally satisfy both parties Encourages openness and honesty Assertive versus aggressive o Assertiveness acting in one s own best interests by expressing one s thoughts and feelings directly and honestly o Aggressiveness focuses on saying and getting what one wants at the expense of others feelings and rights Describe four barriers to effective communication 0 Defensivenessan excessive concern with protecting oneself from being hurt o Ambushing arouse in defensiveness from others especially those whom they attack 0 Motivational Distortion when people hear what they want to hear instead of what is actually being said 0 Selfpreoccupation engage in pseudolistening or pretending to listen while their minds are occupied with other topics that have captured their attention When someone else is talking they re mentally rehearsing their next comments
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