Lecture on 10/19
Lecture on 10/19 PSY 100
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaelana Linton on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Victor A. Licatese (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at State University of New York at Oswego.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Thinking amp Intelligence 0 Two different concepts 0 Thinking the mental manipulation of things stored inside of you ideas pictures memories etc 0 These things are called concepts 0 Most people are willing to manipulate their conceptscan t teach an old dog new tricks 0 Concepts 0 ArtificialLogical there is are clear set of rules so that every member of the concept has the same rules I ie Square 0 equal sided 0 Four sided 0 Natural concepts in human mind have shared characteristics and shared rules I ie quotDogquot 0 4 legs elephant 0 Tail horses 0 Barks o Affectionate Loyal not always true 0 Paws cats 0 Fur not the only one I ie quotBirdquot 0 Wings 0 Feathers Penguins have fur o Beak octopus have a beak o Chirps o Claws Talons 0 Flight Ostrich can t o Hollow bones o Opposite knees I Prototype the best defining example for the concepts Based off geography 0 Basic subordinate about communication modestly define object I e if someone sees a car they will say car If someone says machine it s too vague could mean speedboat or computer If someone goes into to detail it s too much information 0 Rules of Acquisition o Affirmation the rule of one attribute I e when a baby learns about a ball the roundness the attribution will then cause them to think everything that is round is a ball If given an orange will think it is a ball 0 Conjunction The And rule I e teach that the orange is round and you peel amp eat it I e teach that the ball is round and you play with it o Disjunctive The Or rule I ie football it s not necessarily round but it s still a ball 0 Reasoning is thinking with a purpose Propositions Premise single units of thought 0 Syllogistic Reasoning O O O O 0 P1 Vic is a man P2 Men are pigs C1 Vic is a pig PX Vic is a pig I Notch P1 and P2 create C1 a new concept ls C1 grows it becomes it s on proposition called PX oncepts are always true I Deductive Reasoning P1 P2 are both true and factual then C1 is definitely true I Inductive reasoning When either P1 or P2 may or may not be true C1 will not have any validity I 9095 of reasoning is made from Inductive reasoning 0 Problem solving using thinking to reach a conclusion 0 Algorithm 100 chance to finding the correct solution I They are not always practical Heuristics problem solving shortcuts I Sometimes make mistakes I This leads to cognitive biases make thinking mistakes 0 Loss Aversion Bias avoid loss and move towards win Doctors tell patients that the drugs will have a 30 chance of working instead of there being a 70 of not working Anchoring Bias the more you know hurts you Availability Bias if you tell someone with a fear of flying that it s much safer to fly than any form of travel and show them with factual evidence they will still will have the fear because they have the image of crashing planes in their mind Hindsight Bias The quotI told you so guy When we overestimate how much we thought we knew when we really didn t how much we thought we knew in the previous situation I Cognitive Dissonance have two thoughts in our head that conflict ie ask a smoker if they are suicidal they will say no however they are technically killing themselves by smoking
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