Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide REL 1310
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriel Hahn on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to REL 1310 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Coker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 203 views. For similar materials see Christian Scriptures in Religious Studies at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
928 1016 Christian Scriptures Study Guide The empire expands all the way to Egypt and along the way captures Judah in 587 BC Destroy much of the city including temples and the people are put into slavery for about 50 years They lost their and Religious crisis develops Do they want to maintain a relationship with YHWH after losing what was promised to them and being put into slavery 5 87 539 BC is the period of captivity ends with the death of Nebuchadnezzar revives the faith of Jews Begin emphasis on Sabbath worship and study of Torah in order to have a way to worship without their temple This is the origin of the Priestly source This period is written from the point of view Stating that when things were good it was because the people were worshiping properly through the standards of the holiness codes and things were bad when worship wasn t preformed properly This keeps the faith alive as it explains that their promised land was taken due to their actions and not because YHWH has left or forgotten them The Restoration 6th BC After the death of Nebuchadnezzar The Empire defeats the Babylonians Led by Cyrus the Great Frees Israelites from captivity and funds rebuilding of Jerusalem and their Temple Rules with policy of as long as they are loyal and pay taxes they can worship and do as the please live and let live Nehomiah Ezra etc played major roles among the people in developing change was a high ranked Jewish official who asked for permission dn money to rebuild Jerusalem s wall and temple This enters them into the period of temple Judaism the temple lasts until 70 AD and there has not been a temple since 3 The Restoration period as also known as the 928 1016 Hellenization 333 63 BC Persians rule Palestine until defeats the Persians in 333 BC Alexander the Great has the same attitude of live and let live Alexander s successors continue to spread Greek culture including philosophy foods policies styles etc Hellenization is embraced around the Mediterranean area especially by the Jewish and specifically the Diaspora Jews abandon many traditions as they accept Greek culture such as what meats they can eat religious rituals and other traditions Triggers the Greek translation of the Bible for the Hellenized Jews writing Under Hellenism successors of Alexander the Great rule over Palestine begin to force Hellenism on Jews in ways such as forcing them to believe in polytheism uprising occurs in response 167 BC Judas the Maccabee Establish an independent Jewish state until the Romans come Roman rule begins in 63 BC There are a series of rulers over the land promised to Abraham there is a constant theme of loss of the this land promised to them throughout this time this leads to the expectation of a savior to restore them to their formal glory and position 928 1016 Former prophets Joshua 1 and 2 Samuel 1 and 2 Latter Prophets Jeremiah and The 12 The 12 Include Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum etc you don t have to memorize these Deuteronomic History DH Joshua through 2 Kings History Deuteronomy holds Torah and Former prophets together Remember history is an interpretive process bias exists as it was written as a way to make sense and give meaning to the past Historiography in ancient times Just because there is bias this doesn t mean it is objective it is detached reporting of facts of historical events there isn t as much emphasis on historical accuracy The goal is to convey a message to the reader with historical reference the Father of History and Thucydides admitted that they made up some of the speeches and other things in order to make an impression on the reader The message conveyed is that good things were happening because of good worship and bad things came from bad worship The Nevi im was probably written in at least 2 stages 1 During the reign of King 600s BC 2 After the fall of Jerusalem 587 BC this is thought because on part is triumphantly written with praises of all the good of Josiah and then the other part is written as a downhill spiral until the Babylonian takeover period of exile due to them not holding the covenant with God Deuteronomy gives a lens through which history is understood Josiah s efforts were not enough to make of for the previous sins blame is not put on YHWH it is put on ancestors and their current lack of faith The key is to be more faithful and be hopeful which becomes a theme for the rest of the Old Testament 928 1016 What is Prophecy Hebrew one who is called out or one who calls Nevi im is the section of TaNak Greek to speak before which is where our notion of prophets as future tellers comes from This is somewhat true though because they do provide warnings for the future but mostly are called out to return people s faith to YHWH Joshua of Promised Land Starts where Deuteronomy left off gives highlights of the conquest of cities including Jericho Ai Hazor etc Judges the Land Transitional stage from leadership of Moses and Joshua at the age of monarchy Judges military leaders and also charismatic leaders EX Samson 1 and 2 Samuel Rise of In the Hebrew bible they don t say 1 and 2 Samuel or Kings the just say Samuel or Kings In the Septuagint it is called Kingdoms 1234 Key characters Samuel Saul David Solomon Samuel waf es as to whether or not monarchy is a good idea and then picks Saul as king Saul messes up with his sacrifice and then David replaces him and unites everyone 1 and 2 Kings and of Kingdoms There is concern for the quality of Israel s religious life in the central theme It is prejudiced against northern kingdom Israel falls because it worshipped other gods falls to Assyrians Judah prospers under King Josiah considered the greatest of the kings other than David because of good worship 928 1016 The Duetronomic history shows bias towards the kingdom Judah The Deuteronomistic Historian and the Babylonian Exile Attempts to answer why God allowed his children to suffer defeats Blames people not YHWH When they worship they prosper Corporate focus it doesn t focus on the individuals 928 1016 Isiah attributed to prophet named believed to consist of 3 separate collections Book Title Period ch 139 First Isiah Isiah of Jerusalem Assyrian period 742701 BC ch 4055 Second Isiah Isiah of the Exile Babylonian exile 596538 BC ch 5666 Third Isiah Isiah of the Restoration Restoration of Judah 538520 BC First Isiah Largest or Smallest section a lot in common the minor prophets of the 8th century BC as it demands social justice denunciates Israel as unfaithful etc It compares them to harlot battles in this time were seen as battles between gods and the most powerful gods would win the battle Hebrews introduce new radical interpretation saying that it is not a battle between gods but instead it is allowing once side or another to win based on who he wants to punish or reward Second Isiah understood to be written by a different person One reason is because it refers to the fall of Jerusalem in past tense full of words of God is no longer chastising Israel now he is encouraging them Third Isiah addressed to postexile Jews in Jerusalem those struggling for faith in the absence of a temple and sacrifices shift in structure as it forms a a story with parallels at the beginning and ends of a story 928 1016 still is encouraging them again it is understood to be written by a different person because of its shift in structure The Book of the Twelve Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah and Malachi are the 12 and are often called the Prophets Minor because there passages are shorter not because they are less important is the final book of the Christian Old Testament In the Hebrew Bible 1 and 2 Corinthians are the final books Prophets didn t come all at once they came during the 3 periods of Isiah discussed earlier Assyrian threat Babylonian exile and Restoration Amos and the role of a prophet collection of sayings by a prophet not much narrative more just the speeches that have been written by followers God punishes surrounding nations for war crimes God will punish Judah for failure to follow law God will punish Israel for its mistreatment of the poor and for their sinfulness 928 1016 The Ketuvim Section of Tanak Ketuvim The most collection of works of the 3 works Lots of different kinds of writings last books to be written what are put in the Hebrew Bible written during the temple Judaism period literature in the canon include Psalms Proverbs Job Ecclesiastes Song of Solomon etc examples of not in the canon include Wisdom of Solomon Sirach Psalms and Odes of Solomon Priests instruct people on covenant law Prophets convey God s message to people like spokesmen provide wisdom literature and advice Well respected and often serve for kings but ideas also were provided to the people Sage tradition attributed to Solomon a king known for his wisdom In the Old Testament wisdom literature comes from the ancient near east wisdom literature has unique traits 1 references to Gods covenant relationship with Israel 2 references to Torah 3 Questions Deuteronomistic ideas that God is always on the side of the righteous the reason to follow God s rule is because God made the rule not because they will be rewarded for following it The Chronicals History Historiography vs Historical Fact The shaping of historical facts for a particular purpose to convey their significance to the reader Chronicles vs Deuteronomistic history tell basically the same story but with different twists emphasis and themes 928 1016 Deuteronomistic tells the good and bad portrayals like the bad things that David did retells the story but takes out or whitewashes the bad stuff Chronicles Joshua 2nd Kings were written much and it diminishes sins of DaVid downplays diVisions and struggles emphasizes the temple and emphasizes immediate retribution by God Chronicler is the writer of the Chronicles Ends the Old Testament with the message of a future messiah to save the people and then sets up for Jesus coming Answer to an in class question Deuteronomistic history was written starting from J osiah s reign and then the second part was written during exile 50 or so years later 928 1016 Issues In The Interpretation of Scripture Inerrancy Inerrancy claim that the Bible is of error however there are various contradictions to this claim like the ones from the homework we did for class Are these contradictions a bid deal though To an inerrest yes they are deeply troubling Common Sense realism SCSR Originates in Scotland Comes to America in 1700s through Princeton It rejects Rationalism of the Enlightenment Embraces of Newton That we can trust our senses Charles views the Bible as a storage of facts Start with things they can confirm and then extrapolate from those if other stories like the resurrection of Jesus can be trusted takes a more scientific approach to the Bible Syllogism 1 syllogism is basically deductive reasoning The bible is true True is historically and verifiable facts Syllogism 2 God wrote scripture God is without error so the Bible must be without error 928 1016 HodgeWarfield definition of inerrancy Original Autographs Says that original was perfect but though the process they became wrong Problem with this it is easy to say original is perfect because one cannot prove that they weren t CC Inerrancy Bible is only without error on matters of faith and morals Inerrancy only without error regarding salvation This is the Vatican 11 Roman Catholic position Chicago Statement on Inerrancy 1978 Bible has no errors and contradictions can be interpreted to where both of the contradicting situations are true came up with scenarios to make both statements true Problems With Inerrancy Puts post enlightenment ideas upon a premodem document scientific thinking on ancient text History was written in a different way back then Intellectually lazy created by choosing one verse as inaccurate then you will start discounting whole sections then whole stories and then discount the Bible all together Creates problems where there should be none EX What exactly did the plaque on Jesus cross say Creates more problems than it solves view of scriptures Denys human role in scripture and denies Gods message was conveyed to and by humans Alternatives to Inerrancy Alternative The Bible is primarily a human document but is still religiously meaningful and powerful It requires faith to accept its teachings Alternative where Peter Enns stands God inspired scripture which contains both divine and human marks 928 1016 Communicates Gods love to humanity One shouldn t demand the Bible to be something that it was not intended to be provides a faith claim for the text Intro to the New Testament The texts emerge from 50 to 120 AD Two Contexts New Testament writings emerge out of two contexts 1 The GrecoRoman world 2 1St century Judaism The GrecoRoman world are of modernday Israel Under Roman control after 63 BC Caesar Augustus brings in 200 years of The Pax Romana Roman Roman Cults 90 of the people were in these anyone who believed in a polytheistic religious system NonJews and nonChristians Cultus Deorum of the gods Cared for gods through things like agriculture Believed in a pantheon of gods Believed there was a hierarchy of gods with the most powerful at the top Neptune Mars Venus etc below them are less powerful ones like god of a river or forest god of Waco Order is something like The One God The great gods Local gods Divine beings Humans Roman religion believed one or more religions could be true 928 1016 all divine beings deserved to be worshiped Very religiously everyone was expected to worship gods of the state collectively worshiping god of Waco and everyone also has to worship the god who helped America Not doing so was 928 1016 Roman Religion believed religion was a matter Gods didn t require constant attention and were not concerned with Focus was on the cultic acts not the ethics of it Was not about having faith to go to heaven it was on getting gods to take care of you was not dependent on ethics but on acts Context of FirstCentury Judaism Various movements very complex lots of sects emerges as a sect of the changing Judaism Differences between Judaism and GrecoRoman cults 1 It was Believed they had a covenant relationship with the one true God 3 Set of that provided requirements of salvations like what foods one can eat rituals etc Maj or Groups within 1St century Judaism Judaism was monotheistic not where everybody has the exact same beliefs 4 Dominant Sects Pharisees Sadducees Mentioned often in the Bible Essenes The 4th Philosophy Not named in the Bible 1 Emphasized adherence to the law by all Jews Not just written laws but had laws as well such as specifications to vague laws like regarding to work on the Sabbath 928 1016 Added laws to Leviticus said this is how you do it properly in order to please YHWH 2 Sadducees Emphasized role of stressed importance of Temple worship and sacrifices rejected oral laws made up of class Jews Good relationship with Romans 3 Essenes Not mentioned in New Testament withdrew from society to form communities EX Qumran the place where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found 4 The Fourth Philosophy Believed in resistance to Rome led to rebellion and war in 66 AD Romans send in troops and destroy temple of Jerusalem in 70 AD The Canon of the New Testament Very complex process to getting the authoritative books of the Bible takes 300400 years after Jesus to get it even within the New Testament there is disagreement to interpretations of scriptures and reference to the many accounts of the teaching of Jesus Nag Hammadi Library of Christian texts discovered in Egypt 1945 quite recent Gnostic is the competing version of Most likely belonged to monks in nearby monastery who hid them when they were forbidden written in NonCanonical writings about Jesus Not chosen to be in the Bible EX Gospel of Thomas Acts of Pilate Gospel of Peter Gospel of Mary Infancy Gospel of Thomas about baby Jesus growing up and using his powers for good etc Beginnings of a Canon Clement of Rome 90s AD letters begin to be collected and be elevated to canonical standing 13 of Paul s works are put into the New Testament 928 1016 Early Canon Lists every town had different lists Fragment 2nd century as early as 170 AD Marcion wants 10 letters of Paul and most of Wanted a canon with no Old Testament and gets rejected but starts idea of creating a Christian list of authoritative books Eusebius lists books in 325 AD lists 27 books in 367 AD The New Testament used today Remains definitive for the most part Criteria For Canonization 1 authorship was it written by an early follower of Jesus like disciples 2 Importance of the Christian community addressed 3 with rule of faith nothing Gnostic orthostraight dox inspiration of the writers was not used as criteria All early Christian writers were assumed to be inspired 928 1016 The Synoptic ProblemPuzzle Synoptic gospels written 1St between 65 and 70 AD about 35 years after Jesus death Matthew and Luke written in the 80s AD written last in the early 90s AD Written in pericopes a short story about Jesus EX a miracle story parable narrative teachings pronouncements Side note discussed in class that the plural of lego is lego The writers have a set of lego that they have to piece together to tell about Jesus often have the same exact lego but will change its placements how do they use these lego why do Matthew and Luke have extra lego and where do those come from Called the synoptic gospels because they have many similarities literary dependence 3 synoptic View Evidence for documentary relationship between the 3 like Matthew was written with the book of Mark sitting infront of him Verbatim agreements presence of editorial comments agreement in basic order literary patters similar sections of material Mark is the as it acts as a foundation to t them all together Triple Tradition and Double Tradition Triple tradition material shared by all 3 synoptic gospels Double tradition material shared by and Luke Then there is some that only appears in one of the 3 EX Matthew frequently quotes the old Hebrew Bible In class we discussed Matthew referring to a colt and donkey to match Old Testament prophecy whereas Mark and Luke only talk about the colt
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