Intro to Middle Eastern Studies Miterm I Study Guide
Intro to Middle Eastern Studies Miterm I Study Guide 266
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Date Created: 10/20/15
LCA 266 Reading Notes by the Week Professor Uli SchamiloguTA Selcuk Altuntas Notes by Yang Chen Week 1 Introduction Maps and Modern States Everyday Life in the Muslim Middle East Introduction pg 1 15 o This book is a collection of essays The authors intend the book to describe ordinary Muslims in everyday lifeversus what you would read in textbooks o The term quotMiddle East is used to describe a geographical region quotMuslim Middle East describes the people in this region who claim af liation with Muslim communities 0 Islam is a Muslim cultural system but it not the true and only one o In Islamic society there is a strong correlation between religion and politics 0 The ideology of Muslim terrorist groups have little support from Muslim peoples in Middle Eastern statescontrary to what many foreigners believe An Introduction to the Middle East Introduction pg 113 0 Oil is the Middle East s bestknown and signi cant commodity The Middle East is the birthplace of the world s three monotheistic religions Judaism Christianity and Islam 0 Many of the world s most ancient civilizations lie in the Middle East 0 Most Western developments have their origins in the Middle East 0 Literature theology science philosophy medicine math music food architecture law and languages Week 2 Geography Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East Chapter 1 0 The climate distribution of water and minerals and plant and animal life temperature and etc impact the way people live 0 Water is a key factor 0 More water greater population 0 Water de cit region importing water 0 The Middle East s vastly varying temperature and climate forces inhabitants to invest heavily in proper shelter 0 The diversity in all the above factors makes the population density in the Middle East very unevenly distributed Anthropologists believe people discovered agriculturethat the principle developed over time from trial and error strategy and even accidents The rise of agriculture began around 8000 BC in Mesopotamia Early Arab populations traded with far away places such as China Indian and East Africa ArabIslamic conquests began in the 7th century Week 3 Islam I The Middle East and Islamic World Reader Chapter 1 Surprisingly the Qur an actually portrays women as equals to men First Islamic dynasty Umayyad ruled from Damascus for almost a century Second Islamic dynasty Abbasids prosperous and large The Turkish dynasty Seljuk ruled alongside Abbasids Su sm helped calm and guide Muslims during the turbulent time of the 13th and 14th centuries o Su sm also gave rise to a major Shi ite dynasty Safavid The Qur an and Creation God created everything you understand and everything beyond your knowledge There is only one God The Qur an and Judgment Day Judgment day will come and those who fear and trust God will go to Heaven The Qur an and Prophets According to Muslims God sent down many Prophets Muhmmad was the nal and true Prophet However Muslims respect and believe in other Prophets mainly Jesus Moses Abraham and Noah The Qur an and Jihad Struggle for the Faith If you obey God and the prophecies of Muhammad your deeds will not be forsaken for God is forgiving and merciful Fight for your belief in God not against those whose beliefs are different from yours do not provoke hostility The Qur an and Society and Law God s word is the law and those who do not abide will not go to Heaven on Judgment Day The Qur an and Marriage and Family Men can take multiple wives but only if they can treat them all equally Men and women should both inherit wealth and possessions from their parents Men and women should both be chaste when unwedded and always keep sexual impulses under control Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East Chapters 2 amp 3 Samuel Huntington 1993 quotIslam emerged after the fall of communismquot Islamism transcends national and ethnic boundaries Islam is a religious political and social force Muhammad was born 570 AD He was wiser than his age He married a woman of 35 years when he was 20 He married multiple other women after his rst wife s death His last and nal wife Aisha is believed to have passed on more than 2000 sayings in the Qur an Qur an which means quotto read or recitequot was entirely recited by Muhammad in 22 years Muhammad was more than a religious gure he was a political one as well The people who took political charge after Muhammad are called caiphs or khalifa The Sunni Muslims wanted Abu Bakar an old trusted friend of Muhammad to be caiph The Shi a Muslims wanted Ali Muhammad s rst cousin and soninIaw The Shi a believed the caiphs should be relatives of the prophet This created a deep divide between the two groups that still exists today Abu Bakar was the rst caiph Omar succeeded him The 5 pillars of Islam 1 Shanada Statement of Belief 2 Prayer 3 Zakat Tithe 4 Fasting during Ramadan 5 Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca In Islam there are two types of prayers Saat Ritulized Prayer Du a A personal plea to God Islamic dietary rules and taboos include eating pork blood and all alcoholic beverages The esh of dead animals is also forbidden Only animals rituay slaughtered are allows to be consumed Circumcision is also a basic requirement of faith It represents the separation of a boy from his mother and into manhood Following death bodies of the deceased are washed wrapped by a cloth and buried by nightfall Graves are dug so bodies can lay sideways and face Mecca The dead are never allowed inside mosques Shari a Law Laws relating to family relations social codes and political regulations in connection to Islam Chapters in the Qur an are known as quotsurasquot and are arranged according to length in descending order o The quotulamaquot were religious scholars concerned with the interpretation of astronomy and medicine through the Qur an Week 4 Islam ll Everyday Life in the Muslim Middle East Pg 303372 Islam 0 Islam teaches total submission to the creator Although the creator is no particular being or spirit 0 Islam is not a homogeneous religion 0 The two major sects of Islam are Shi a and Shunni o The rst principle in Islam is belief in one god Polytheism is the worst sin a Muslim can commit Mohammad is the nal prophet of God quotSunnaquot Actions of the prophet Muhammad o quotHadithquot Sayings of the prophet and his contemporary followers as recorded by the early Muslim community Ramadan Month where Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset An Introduction to the Middle East Introduction pg 5183 0 The Su who worshipped God through mysticism song and dance and repeated prayer date back to the teachings of Hasan alBasri 643728 AD and Rabia alAdawiyya 801 AD 0 The Druze Muslims that do not preform the Hajj or celebrate Ramadan They live mostly in Syria and Lebanon and date back to the 9th century Many Muslims do not consider The Druze true Muslims o The Alawi A religious group centered in Syria from 957 AD that follow a controversial branch of the Twelfth school of Shi te Islam The term quotalawiquot means follower of Ali Muhammad s Son in Law 0 The Bahai More recent Persian sect from 18605 whose teachings are inspired by Mirza Hussein Ali They base their worship upon all the prophets of God but still consider themselves Muslim because they believe in Muhammad Sala yya Movements from proper more conservative and olden ways of Islamic society 0 Islam is the newest of the three monotheistic religions Muslims therefore feel a challenge from these other quotmore establishedquot religions o Jihad The spread of Islam to nonbelievers This is very controversial Some believe it should obviously be spread while others believe it should be defended from nonbelievers 0 Islam and Martydom In Islam martyrdom brings immediate entrance into Heaven Some Islamists believe martyrdom should be used to defend Islam from its enemies However this is NOT referenced in the Qur an Islam and Democracy Some believe Islamism is not democratic while others do The Qur an has many references to the preference of democracy Week 5 Historical Overview Ancient Peonles Alphabetsamp Religions Medieval States Modernity Clash of Civilizations The Middle East and Islamic World Reader Chapter 2 0 Turkish and Mongol invasions took over the Abbasid Empire during the 14005 0 The fall of the Abbasid Empire led to the growth of the Shi ite Fatimid dynasty o Mamluk dynasty 12501517 last crusader dynasty and developed military from enslaved men 0 The Mongols led by Genghis Khan attacked the Middle East using newly invented Chinese gunpowder They defeated the Seljuks and paved the way for the Ottoman Empire 0 The Ottoman Empire was a very powerful Turkish Empire that lasted from 12811924 The empire was most powerful under the command of Sultan Suleiman in the 15005 0 During the 1300517005 the Safavid Empire ruled Persia now modern Iran 0 The Mugal Empire was the largest of all the empires in terms of land They ruled from the 15005 to the 18005 This empire had Persian origins o The Ottoman Safavid and Mughal Empires were all very powerful This was partially due to the fact that they used gunpowder They also had a more developed economic system than other empires This included mercantilism and monopoly The Middle East and Islamic World Reader Chapter 3 0 During the 18005 Turkish and Qatar states were increasingly becoming more developed in terms of political and military organization 0 This however did not affect handicraft production and the work of small businessmen and artisans 0 Despite the accomplishments of Middle Eastern empires their wealth was nothing compared to that of Asia the Americas and Africa 0 By 1939 the Ottoman Empire was falling behind the West They tried reforming economics politics and educann 0 Tanazimat reordering Land Reform of 1858 0 New penal maritime and commercial codes Abolished slavery and tortured Attemped to establish new taxation system Created secularjudicial system New programs addressing industry public health and education espeicially higher education 0 The Qajar state 17941925 experienced a brief rise to power after the fall of the Safavids o The Mughal Empire ruled over many Hindus in India 0 Many Hindu outcasts converted to Islam A peaceful polyglot civilization managed to ourish 0 That is until the Europeans came in Week 6 Communal Identities Nomadsamp Sedentarists Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East Chapters 46 Chapter 6 Main idea There is dissidence within Islamic and nonMuslim sects This has lead to important ethnic and cultural diversity within the Middle East There are also many people who claim more than one ethnic identity 0 Ethnicity is the social group or identity that a person ascribes themselves to o This is based on language geographical location religion origin etc 0 Ethnic identify changes with constantly changing culture 0 Ethnic grouping serves the individual but better the group Ethnic groups help for the basis for political and economic organizations 0 NonMuslim Communities 0 The Prophet regarded Jews and Muslims as quotpeople of the bookquot They were considered valid but not quotcompletequot The largest Christian group were the Maronites of Lebanon and then the Armenians o MuslimDerived Sectarian Communities 0 Druze of Syria Lebanon and Israel Alawis of Syria and Alevis of Turkey and the Shabak of northern Iran 0 Regional Ethnic Groups Kurds Baluch and Palestinians o The Ottoman Empire 12991923 0 O O O O Founded by rst sultan Osman I First capitol Bursa second capitol Edirne third and nal capitol lstanbul 1433 Millet System Osman divided the people The millet system was this system in the Ottoman Empire where religious minorities Christians Jews were allowed to freely practice their religion and these minorities could go their own law courts and be under Christian and Jewish laws respectively rather than the of cial Islamic law of the Ottoman Empire In exchange these religious minorities pledged allegiance to the Ottoman rulers and swore to defend the Empire in case of attack 1 Armenian Orthodox Christians of Egypt Maronites of Lebanon 2 Greek Orthodox Eastern Christians 3 Jewish Millet 4 RomanCatholic Latins 5 Muslims SheikhalislamChirfjuriseanult Too minor to be included 0 Druze Radical Shi te group 0 Yazidis currently persecuted against ISIS Pact of Omar Edict of Gulhane 1839 Tanzimat Era of Reform 1908 0 Alevis of Turkey 0 O O O O O O Subsect of Shi ism Largest religious minority group today They do not talk about their religious doctrine to outsiders They do not go to mosques They have their own worship place called quotcem eviquot They do not fast during Ramadan but do fast for other times No gender segregation during prayer Politically they support the leftest party Alawites of Syria and southern Turkey 0 O Subsect of Shi ism very radical Religious doctrine is a mix of Christianity lslamism and narcissism Yoruk Turkish nomads still today CHAPTER 5 Pastoralism Agriculture concerned with animal husbandry These people can be nomadic or stationary settlers Their way of life depends heavily on mechanized transportation distant shipment of industrial goods and cellular communication quotBeduquotnomads quotHadarquotsettled peoples of towns and villages Middle Eastern landscape 0 Village agriculture and urban settlement 0 Uninhabitatable deserts o Semiagriculturable Little specialized livestock raising is done 0 Economic and ecological limitations There is often economic competition between farmers and nomads in terms of animal husbandry Many countries have laws that regulate peasantnomad interactions Middle Eastern governments determine how local communities should interact as well quotTranshumacequotvertical migrationanimal management Moving herds between different seasons Horizontal nomadism Greater movement of peoples and herds Women usually take care of animal husbandry The Yoruk of Southeast Turkey specialize in animal husbandry Basseri of Southwestern Iran Nomadic Persian speaking peoples Al Murra of Saudi Arabia quotClassic desert nomadquot The author believes there is no future for nomadic pastoralism o Farming is much more industrialized Borders between political countries limit travel Diminished pasturage The advancement of transportation lessens the need for large group migrations Group migrations build a sense of community that nomadic pastoralism relies on Chapter 6 The Middle East is the birthplace of agriculture some 10000 years ago Water and topography dictate the possibilities of agriculture and therefore distribution of people Some people shift between nomadic pastoralism and farming 4 categories of land rights 0 quotMulkquot freeholdprivate ownership 0 quotMiriquot state lands quotlltizamquot tax farming land could be past down quotTimarquot nontax farming land granted to individual but they had to provide certain services to the state and their land could not be passed down to family members 000 o quotWaqfquot endowment to a charity such as a hospital or church 0 quotMush aquot land that is periodically redistributed due to marginal rainfall Least common kind of land tenure 0 Sharecropping most prevalent of all Tribal villages ElChebayish vs nontribal villages Sakaltutan 0 Why is agrarian wealth so unequally distributed 0 Rich landlords have power over land and water 0 Rich landlords monopolize market 0 Land is very expensive Week 7 Cities Family 8 Women Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East Chapters 79 Chapter 7 o The Middle East has become increasingly urban in the last few decades 0 A country town becomes a city when its able to produce more food than is immediately required 0 Cities attract rural migrant workers 0 quotWaqfquot Bazzarmarketquotsuqquot Janet AbuLughod s book Cairo 1001 Years of the City Victorious quotGecekonduquot Istanbul squatter settlements o Amman Jordan government planned and organized urbanization o Beirut Lebannon government planned from wasteland to urban Chapter 8 o How does kinship terminology dictate family structure 0 Family hierarchy o Taboos married couples refer to each other as quotmy manquot or quotmy womanquot when their children are present They rarely address each other by the others rst name 0 Family structure is not so egalitarian o Husband vs wife daughter vs son Marrying cousins Marrying cousins is okay in many Middle Eastern societies but not all 0 quotFBDquot Father s brother s daughter dominant form of martial alliance o Marrying someone outside of your father s family line o Marrying someone from another village with the idea that you are not blood related to them Chapter 9 The fact that women are living in a patriarchal society is magni ed in Middle Eastern countries Women reinforce the idea that having sons is better than daughters by favoring their son Veilhead scarf Symbol of oppression Why do woman cover themselves There is no exact answer for this but in the Qur an there are statements that say people should dress modestly especially women 0 Many women nd it empowering and choose to wear it sense of quotprotection Especially in America 0 Could the arrival of foreigners also have made Middle Eastern women want to dress more conservatively Not only are there Arabian men but foreign menand foreign womensome of which are prostitutes lslamic women may not have wanted to be confused in anyway with a prostitute 7 0 Some women don t want to wear it but are forced They may wear conservative clothes on the outside and provocative clothes on the inside as a well of rebelling Female circumcision Not of Middle Eastern origin LECTURE NOTES Useful websites about the Middle East Informed Consent wwwjuancolecom Aljazeera wwwaljazeeracom Al Monitor wwwalmonitorcom Turkish news wwwhurriyetdailynewscom Shi a lslam vs Shunni lslam Suicide bombing is not from Islamic origin Although they do believe in martyrdom especially the Shi a 924 Middle Eastern Holiday The Hajj 0 Dress for the Hajj is simple nude color robe This is also how Muslims dress for burial as well 0 The Hajj is also very dangerous 2 million peoplecan lead to many stampedes A stampede happened this year in Meccca and 700 people died For some dying during the Hajj is ideaHzed o Slaughtering of animals DISCUSSION NOTES The Qur an The greatest miracle of the prophet Muhammad is the Qur an itself 23 years of Muhammad s were of the Qur an He was 40 in the beginning The number 40 has symbolic meaning in Islamic culture quotAge of Completionquot The Qur an has 114 chapters Arranged from longest chapter to shortest chapter in exception to the rst chapter There are 6666 verses in the Qur an The prophet Muhammad died in 632 CE and he did not designate any successor The Ummah Muslim community got together to nominate the next caiph Sunnh Abu Bakr Caliphate 2 yr Close friend and fatherinlaw of Muhammaddied naturally Umar Caliphate 10 yr No personal connection to Muhammad but was a strong political gure Now people associate him to justice assignated Uthman Caliphate 12 yr assassinated Ali Caliphate 6 yr Soninlaw of the prophet O O O O Shi ites believe the successor should be a blood family member of the prophet The legitimacy of the caiphs after these four is heavily argued The rst Islamic empire was responsible for killing the sonin laws of the prophet Hasan and Hussein The lead Muawiyah and the empire The Climaggads Yazid killed the soninlaws Shi39tequot O 0000 Khawargi 1 Ali 2 Hasanson in law of prophet 3 Hussein killeddied Karbuli son in law of prophet 4 Zayn alAbidin 5 ZaydMuhammad al Jaqir Zayd s live in Yemen today 6 Jafar alSadiq 7 lsmailMusa alKazim 891011 12 lman Mahdi 3rCI smaller radical group who disagreed with both Sunni and Shi te After a while they disappeared In terms of doctrine they do not believe Shi tes or Sunni are Muslims Modern terrorist groups such as Al Queda and ISIS have similar views to those of the Khawarijs o The people of Oman Obadjis have a modern view of Khawarg o Hijira Migration from Mecca to Medina 622 AD Islamic Law System 0 quotShar iaquot Islamic Law quotFiqhquot lslamicJurisprudence o The Qur an o Sunna actions of the prophet Sunna is larger includes HadithHadith words of the prophet ljima consensus of scholarslearned men Qiyas Analogy Ex Alcoholic beverages are forbidden in Muslim culture However only wine is stated as forbidden in the Qur an The ljima ruled that all alcohol should be banned Schools of Law Hanabi most liberal 0 Sha Maliki Hanbali Su sm Mysticism of Islam
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