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Midterm 1 Study Guide

by: Caroline Miller

Midterm 1 Study Guide PSYC

Marketplace > University of Pennsylvania > Psychlogy > PSYC > Midterm 1 Study Guide
Caroline Miller
Positive Psychology
Dr. Kaufman

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About this Document

In this study guide one can find detailed answers to each of the questions posed by Dr. Kaufman regarding key topics/areas of focus from Positive Psychology (PSYC 266).
Positive Psychology
Dr. Kaufman
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Miller on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC at University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Kaufman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Positive Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 10/20/15
Midterm 1 Study Guide 1 1st lecture on essential philosophies of Socrates Plato Aristotle Stoics Buddhists Socrates a b g quotKnow thyselfquot The search for truth focused on the unchanging truths of the human psyche truths of the human psyche that stay constant True Wisdom requires deep examination of one s universal soul To know what is truly goodnot just selfindulgent or socially expected a person must know the essence or nature of virtue Once the good is known it will be desired and will motivate virtuous behavior He was skeptical of sensory perceptual and emotional forms of knowledge because they constantly change in response to external circumstances Preferred a reality that expressed timeless and unchanging truths Plato student of Socrates h j k Aristotle Like Socrates Pato believed that changeable sensory experience cannot form basis of true wisdom The search for Wisdom involved a passionate and dif cult quest that transcends super cial appearances and challenges preconceived ideas Emphasized importance of reason and intuition direct intellectual insight to discover truth hidden beneath the world of appearances that we experience through the senses Plato39s Cave compared men and women to people chained inside cave They mistake the shadows inside the cave for reality Truth can be found in intellectual discovery of order in the world m The tools were logic classi cation and conceptual n de nitions Unlike Plato Aristotle did not favor direct intuition in the search for higher truth and wellbeing o Valued poise harmony and avoidance of emotional p extremes quotgolden meanquot refers to middle ground between two extremes Believed that quotemotions were to be tamed by rigorous self discipline to accept the dictates of reasonquot q Virtue Theory of Happiness quotAristotelian circlequot wellbeing virtue and practical wisdom continuously in uence each other r Stoic school founded by Zeno 5 Material wealth happiness love andl admiration were a subject to change Therefore one must not base hisher wellbeing on such transient traits t Living life without compaintand accepting one s place in the divine pan u We are all thrown into a life we didn t choose so we must make the best out of it as we can v Stoicism quotpurpose of life is happiness which is achieved by virtue living according to dictates of reason ethical and philosophical training selfre ection careful judgment and inner calmquot Buddhism w 1 Asserting the one irrefutable truth of human existence change x Life always changes we are born we age we die y Pain follows pleasure and joy follows heartache constant change 2 2 Suffering is also part of the human condition aa We all have quot10000 joys and 10000 sorrowsquot ab 3 Fundamental cause of unhappiness is because we crave security permanence stability and an end to doubt and worry acPrimary cause of human suffering all efforts to control and manipulate to only have positive experiences are doomed to failure ad Cure for these problems is Nirvana route to true happiness found in meditative practice The Epicureans ae happiness best achieved by quiet existence of simple pleasures Early Middle Ages af Conceptions of good life were based on notion that true happiness was delayed until after death Moses Maimonides ag Role of both positive and negative emotions for heath ah Warned against chronic anger and sadness 2 John Haidt metaphor quotThe Divided Selfquot Rider on back of Elephant metaphor conscious mind is the rider and the unconscious mind is the elephant The rider is unable to control the elephant Learning how to train the elephant is the secret of selfimprovement c We must try to change these automatic reactions 0390 3 Lecture on Love and Relationships factor that contributes to happiness among married couples a Selfdisclosure b Built balance between selfexpression and listening to partner 4 Flow lecture a Autotelic action not focused on an end focus on action itself b Mihalyi Csikzentmihalyi s book on Flow and what it feels like to experience enjoyment fun play and creativity c What it feels like to experience ow i Merging of action and awareness ii Complete absorption and curiosity on task at hand iii Not worrying about losing control resulting in sense of control iv Loss of selfconsciousness v Time no longer seems to pass in ordinary ways vi Autotelic do something for own sake rather than as a goal nature of the experience vii Accompanies a challenging activity that requires skill viii Activity has clear goals and immediate feedback so person doesn t have to wonder how well she is performing ix Control of consciousness x Lack of internal con ict between competing goals Ability to experience ow is NOT related to IQ d Difference between conceptualizations of wellbeing that exist basic fundamental distinctions i Flow 1 Leisure and satisfaction 2 People return again and again to activities that allow them to experience ow even when receive no recognition or money 3 Flow increases wellbeing the more time spent in ow the greater the quality of experience 4 Flow is NOT related to higher life satisfaction 5 Differences between positive psychologist s closest ancestor a Humanistic Psychology emphasis on theories of optimal personality development such as selfactualization b Man is more than just the sum of his parts and can only be studied as a whole c Abraham Maslow was rst to use term quotpositive psychologyquot 6 Analogy a Hedonic Treadmill adapt to improving circumstances to the point that we always return to point of relative neutrality i For example lottery winner found less pleasure in every day activities than non lottery winners 7 Marty Seligman s Theories a Topic of positive psychology is NOT happiness it is well being b Authentic Happiness Theory goal is to increase amount of happiness in your own life and on the planet i PERMA 1 Positive emotions what we feel pleasure rapture etc 2 Engagement about ow being one with the music etc 3 Relationships 4 Meaning humans demand meaning and purpose in life 5 Achievement c The Wellbeing Theory goal is to increase amount of Flourishing in your own life and on the planet i Topic of psychology is a construct which has many measureable elements each contributing to weIbeing 1 Each element of psychology has three properties a 1 Contributes to wellbeing b 2 Many pursue it for their own sake c 3 It is de ned and measured independently of other elements 8 Bauneister s article difference between happiness and meaning a High meaningfuness thinking about future and past giver rather than a taker higher levels of worry stress and anxiety personal identity and expressing the self i all associated with low happiness except happiness is NOT associated with personal identity and expressing the self b High happiness taker rather than a giver c Thinking about future and past associated with high meaningfulness but low happiness d Happiness is linked to being a taker rather than a giver e Meaningfulness linked to being a giver rather than a taker f Higher levels of worry stress and anxiety associated with higher meaningfulness and lower happiness g Concerns With personal identity and expressing the self associated with meaning but not happiness h Happiness de ned as subjective wellbeing i Theory happiness is natural meaning is cultural 9 Lecture on genetics of happiness a Variability in levels of positive and negative emotionality stems from genetics b Environment and learning are not very in uential more in uential forpositive than negative emotionality c Most return to baseline level of happinesssetpoint after temporary highs and lows in emotionality happiness level is set by genetics d Longterm wellbeing is not completely determined by genech i Many ways people can change their wellbeing over time 10 Readings on happiness hypothesis word that comes before quotprinciplequot a Adaptation principle when one has objective advantages in power status freedom health all of these are subject to adaptation principle b Progress principle pleasure comes more from making progress to achieve goals than actually achieving the goals c Design principle opposing systems push each other to reach balance point 11 Main theories of love on relationship lecture Triangular Theory of Love a Three main aspects Liking intimacy lnfatuation passion Empty Love commitment b Romantic Love passion and intimacy c Fatuous Love passion and commitment d Companionate intimacy and commitment e Consummate Love all three aspects of Triangular Theory of Love intimacy and passion and commitment SelfExpansive Theory of Romantic Love 12 13 14 a b h Humans have basic motivation to expand the self Relationship satisfaction is a biproduct of selfexpansive love Emotions cognitions and behaviors of love fuel self expansion Twitter Study Paper general principles of paper The study look at language community psychological characteristics on Twitter re ecting negative social relationships disengagement and negative emotions as risk factors The ndings Optimistic Mind 5 STRONGLY Bl DlRECTONALLYAssocated With a Healthy Heart Important to cultivate the Whole sefand notjust have blind optimism Most correlations were signi cant after controlling income and education income and education in uenced positive versus negative language the most Twitter language predicted AHD heard disease mortality Optimism is an important coping mechanism i Optimism is associated with positive immunological functioning and health Optimism and vitality are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events Hostility and chronic stress are risk factors for heart disease ii Petterson chapter 3 and the theory he describes related to medical professions a 0390 PeakEnd Theory people s summary evaluations closely re ect an average of the experience s most extreme rating and how it was rated just before it ended i Duration Neglect overlooking how long the experience lasted Petterson s study about the nuns Each sister aspect to write short essay about her childhood Essays were led away for decades Studied whether emotional content of essays had any relationship to survival Fin dings i Positive emotional content happiness was related to longev y 15 16 17 18 0390 ii Negative emotional content was unrelated iii Happier nuns lived on average 10 years longer than the lesshappy nuns Therefore if you focus on happiness expressed you can tell Whether someone Will have a long life Gottman s research The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work I Enhance your love maps pay attention and take interest in each other ii Nurture your fondness and admiration iii Turn toward each other instead of away iv Let your partner in uence you couples need to share power and in uence v Solve your solvable problems con ict resolution vi Overcome gridlock and move toward dialogue vii Created shared meaning Analyzed husband and wife for 15 minutes brie y observed their interactions and predicted their relationship success divorce versus continued marriage with 94 accuracy Magic Ratio for marriage success 5 pos interactions 1 neg interaction Magic 5 hours per week work on marriage every day increases health and longevity Therapeutic Approach therapy to move partners form con ict to comfortable exchanges Neurochemicals of happiness Dopamine increases with expectation of happiness Serotonin contributes to feelings of happiness Oxytocin quotlove hormonequot associated with social bonding trust within couples Opiates neurotransmitters that increase pleasure and decrease experience of pain increased levels of endorphins Neuroscience of happiness Left prefrontal cortex more activated when we are happy i Greater ability to recover from and suppress negative emotions ii Davidson found that studies involving longterm Buddhist meditators people can train themselves to increase left prefrontal cortex activation Margaret Clark Lecture a SelfEsteem how wellregarded you believe you are by others b Close wellfunctioning relationship i Successful close relationships 1 seeks support when needed 2 gives support when needed 3 engages in mutually enjoyable activities ii High trust in another s care and regard Perceive Support and Acceptance l5 availabe SelfProtection and Vigilance DropsljFlexible Relational Foci of Attention in relationships the spotlight does not always have to be on you 1 Provide support and help when others experience need 2 Able to seek support when experience own need 3 Relational Activity Focus engage in mutually enjoyable activity non selfconsciously c Low SelfEsteem those who fear rejection and adopt a chronic goal of selfprotection i Fail to approach others and initiate relationships fail to recognize and accept care fail to quotseequot partners as they really are react in partner failures and success in selffocused ways ii Consequently become chronically relationally self focused iii Lowtrust in another s care and regard Perceived Support and Acceptance is NOTavailableSef Protection and Vigilance Rise Chronic Self Protective Relational SelfFocus 1 Hesitant to give support when others experience need 2 Hesitant to seek support when experience own need 3 Hesitantto join in activities iv Third Party Focus people love in selfesteem are more likely to engage in third party focus which means focusing on what third party others thinks of you 19 Science behind relationship between money and wellbeing a Money buys you happiness to an extent b Schwartz stated when you have more money you get more options in life Too many options in life decreases your happiness c Money doesn t buy meaningful social relationships d Refraining from spending leads increases happiness e Greatest thing for wellbeing is to marry someone who makes you happy f Worst thing for wellbeing is to marry someone who makes you unhappy 20 Different attachment styles a Attachment Theory close relationships persist because of feelings that both people have for one another b Secure attachment balance between exploration of environment and contact with caregiver most common attachment style c lnsecureavoidant attachment increasing tensions between child and caregiver over course of strange situation avoidance of caregiver when she returns second most common attachment style d Insecureresistant attachment hostility toward caregiver while wanting to be held and comforted least common attachment style Models of self and others are relatively stable over development pedods 21 Emotional intelligence lecture main components of emotional intelligence a Recognizing emotions playful upset worried i Identifying emotion in self and others by interpreting facial expressions body language vocal tones and physiology b Using emotions to help thinking for example what mood might be helpful when planning a birthday celebration i Knowing what to do depending on your emotions c Understanding emotions knowing causes and consequences of emotions including in uence of different emotions on thinking learning deciding and behaving i Knowing difference of different emotions shame v guilt d Labeling emotions e Managing Expressing emotions i what to express in disagreement f Regulating emotions 22 Positive and negative emotions quotnegative emotions slidequot remember the positive aspects of negative emotions a Negative emotions can be helpful i Anger helps us respond to upsetting situations can lead to more successful negotiations ii Guit motivated to improve your behavior pushes us to be more socially sensitive and caring citizens iii Anxiety lead to heightened perception and ampli ed heanng 23 Barbara Fredrickson s work describing work on positive emotions a Broaden and Build Model of positive emotions positive emotions broaden an individual s momentary thought acUon i Joy opens up and broadens us to new thoughts and behaviors ii On the contrary those who expressed negative emotions shut down their thinking about subsequent possible activities 24 Hedonism pursuit of wellbeing is pursuit of individual sensual pleasure and avoidance of harm pain and suffering a Seen as unworkable by most societies because sensual pleasures are shortlived 25 Eudaimonia living conditioned upon selftruth and self responsibilities quotknow thyselfquot and quotchoose yourselfquot


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