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General Biology

by: Vada Ledner

General Biology BIO 2101

Vada Ledner
GPA 3.82

Charlotte Pratt

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Charlotte Pratt
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vada Ledner on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 2101 at Seattle Pacific University taught by Charlotte Pratt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/225350/bio-2101-seattle-pacific-university in Biology at Seattle Pacific University.


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Date Created: 10/20/15
Christopher Whitcomb Biology 2101 MidTerm 1 Study Guide 1 Polarity The more an atom wants electrons OgtgtNgtCH 2 Moles A way to standardize the quantity of molecules with different elements a GramsAtomic Weight Moles gmol 3 Energy 1 Exergonic reaction a Entropy S the amount of disorder Frnc energy in any system b Enthalpy H the amount of heat Pmdum in any system Coursem reaction c Gibbs Free Energy G The capacity llll Endergomcmcmquot of a system to do work whether a reaction will take place i AG AHT AS 0 S Entropy HEnthalpy Free energy Cuurse uf reacliun GFree Energy T AbSOlUte T monumwemmxmm d Exergonic reaction A spontaneous reaction that will increase entropy i AG e Endergonic reaction Not spontaneous requires energy will decrease entropy in system i AG 4 lsomers a Structural lsomers Differ in covalent arrangement b Geometric lsomers Differ around a double bond c Optical lsomers Differ as mirror images 5 KingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies a KingPhilipCameOverForGoodSoup 6 Functional Groups a Hydrophilic TJD x Amino NH2 l Y O OH Carbonyl CHO Carboxyl COOH ktmm call unlit acid iv Hydroxyl OH 3H KTAM v Phosphate P04 quotll 39 39 39 vi Sulfhydrl SH WMW39W quot0 P b Hydrophobic thphamsm i Methyl CH3 7 pH a Acids Increase in relative H b Bases Decrease in relative H c Neutral pH 70 1e397 8 Amino Acids a Composed of Amino and Carboxyl b MonomerDipeptideTripeptidePolymer c Form by Condensation reaction 9 Protein a Formed by Condensation reaction b Primary Structure i Composed of amino acids c Secondary structure Stabilized by Hydrogen bonds ii 2 Forms 0 Alpha helix 0 Beta pleated sheets d Tertiary Structure i Twisting of secondary structure i39 Stabilized by side chains 0 Hydrophobic o Vander walls 0 Disulfide Bridges o Ionic Bonds e Quaternary Structure i Interaction between 2 or more polypeptide chains 10 Enzymes Speed up reaction rate a Activation Energy EA i Energy it takes to get to the transition state 0 Transition state a This is when the original bonds are under strain so they can be broken b They work by lowering EA c Each Enzyme is specific to each substrate lock and key 11 Inhibition a Competitivelnhibition i Directly prevents substrate from binding to active site b NonCompetitiveInhibition i This binds to another active site and changes enzyme to not catalyze c Feedback Inhibition i Negative 0 This shuts down the process when a peak of products is reached a Iodine with thyroid ii Positive 0 This increases the amount of reaction once started a Oxycitosin and pregnancy 12 Carbohydrates a Formed by condensation reactions b MonosaccharidePolysaccharide c Organic molecules made of carbon d Monosaccharides with a CHO ration of 121 e Monosaccharides i Made up of o Hydroxyls OH 0 Carbonyls a Ketones OC b Aldehydes H CO f Polysaccharides i Starch Storage for plants ii Glycogen Storage for humansanimals g Structural Polysaccharides i Cellulose Linear Polymer plant walls 0 Parallel Strands joined by a single hydrogen bond top and bottom ii Chitin Amine Sugar Arthropods 0 Parallel Strands joined by two hydrogen bonds diagonal top bottom iii Peptidoglycan Amine Sugar Bacteria 0 Parallel Strands bonded by peptide bonds 13 Nucleic Acids a Formed by phosphodiester reactions b NucleotideNucleicacid c Made up of 3 parts i 5Carbon Sugar ii Nitrogen Base 0 Determines the function of the Acid iii Phosphate Group 0 Attaches to 5 h Carbon d Two Types i DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid 0 Characterized by Hydrogen bond on 2nd Carbon ii RNA Ribonucleic acid o Characterized by hydroxyl group on 2quotd carbon 14 DNA a 2 Pairs 4 bases i Adenosine Thymine ii Guanine Cytosine b Replication i Watson and Crick o Said that DNA self replicated itself a Unwind b Separate c Copy d Replace 15 RNA a Sugarphosphate Backbone 57 Primary structure i 2 pairs 4 bases 0 Adenosine Uracil o Guanine Cytosine c Secondary structure i Complimentary bases can occur ii This can happen in a single strand with hairpin loop in transcription d Function i Templates for reproduction ii Can catalyze reactions these are called ribosymes 0 Can catalyze both hydrolysis and phosphodiester linkagetype condensation reaction iii Ribosymes o Catalyze a Peptide Bond b Phosphodiesterlinkage c lts own synthesis 16 Lipids a Monomer fatty acid b Types i Saturated 0 Fully hydrogenised all the H atoms are on the carbon skeleton ii Unsaturated 0 Contain double bonds 0 Lacking Hydrogen c Glycerol backbone i Acylgylcerides d Phospholipid i Have Mono Di Tri depending on the amount linked to the backbone Choline Phosphate Glycerol 2 Fatty Acids a 1 Saturated b 1 Unsaturated ii Phospholipid water Micell


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