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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Murphy Mante on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL0004 at Sierra College taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/225365/biol0004-sierra-college in Biological Sciences at Sierra College.
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Date Created: 10/20/15
Exam 2 Key All lab sections 1 Define Carrying capacity Carrying capacity is a feature of the environment organisms are living in and refers to the number of organisms an environment can support or maintain in a functional state Carrying capacity is in uenced by a variety of limiting factors ie features of the environment essential to maintaining life and present in limited quantity Although these may be nutrients eg food available to microorganisms in a batch culture they are not necessarily nutrients A pond s carrying capacity for fish will be decreased to zero if the pond dries up and this will have nothing to do with nutrients Catabolite repression Catab olite repression is a mechanism allowing bacteria to utilize enzymatic pathways involving constitutive enzymes in favor of using those requiring the synthesis of inducible enzymes It involves operon regulation at the promoter site and is a means of increasing cellular efficiency by regulating metabolism at the gene level Virion A virion is a complete virus particle as it exists outside a host cell A virion is the infective form of a virus 2 Binary fission elongation 3 Cells will increase in size dry weight metabolic activity and DNA content 4 The orientation of the fission plane will determine the arrangement 5 Exponential growth stationary The population will enter into an exponential death phase due to a lack of essential nutrients and due to the buildup of toxic metabolic waste products 6 Phosphorylation endergonic light 7 Enzymes ribozymes 8 Oxidation 9 Matching letter sequence is H E D F G B C and A 10 pH light 11 Glycolysis kinase 12 Pyruvic acid homofermentative 13 Cellular respiration Carbon dioxide is formed when carboxyl groups are removed from organic acids just prior to and during the Krebs cycle The acids involved are pyruvic acid isocitric acid and alphaketoglutaric acid The chemical reactions involved are decarboxylation reactions however redox reactions are also involved because electrons and hydrogen protons are removed from carboxyl groups they are oxidized and passed to NAD it is reduced Oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport chain It picks up electrons and hydrogen protons and is thus incorporated into water molecules it is NOT bound to carbon forming C02 Without a final electron acceptor the coenzymes NAD and FAD reduced during the reactions of the Krebs cycle could not be oxidized and metabolism would stop The overall function of oxygen is the oxidation ofmolecules involved in the electron transport chain although technically only the last enzyme in the chain actually passes electrons and hydrogen protons to oxygen directly 14 Acetyl CoA betaoxidation 15 Krebs cycle NADH H and FADHz ribo avin 16 Cytochromes proton motive force ATPsynthase 17 Cristae of mitochondria 18 Ferredoxin NADPH H 19 Photophasphorylation 20 Matching letter sequence is G F E A H B C and D 21 CalvinBenson cycle Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase RuBisCO 2 2 Semiconservative replication polymerase 23 Okazaki fragments Ligase phosphodiester 24 Transcription yields RNA AUG CGG CCC AGA ACU CAU UCG UGA Translation yields an amino acid sequence Methionine arginine proline arginine threonine histadine serine quotumberquot The quotumberquot at the end is the name ofa terminator codon not an amino acid there is one stop or terminator codon quotumberquot 25 AminoacyltRNAsynthase 26 Posttranscriptional modification 27 Translation peptidyl transferase 28 Operon The promoter site is where sigma factor binds to initiate the transcription process The operator site is where the repressor protein binds to block or repress the transcription process The cyclicAMPCAP complex binds with or near the promoter site and serves to enhance the attraction between the promotor and sigma factor This serves to increase transcription at that site 29 Feedback inhibition allosteric 30 The repressor is activated by binding with the corepressor tryptophan The repressor is inactivated by being bound with allolactose the inducer 31 Transcription 32 Genome phenotype 33 Mutation 34 Base analogs substitution 35 Transposon transposase 36 The RNA sequence is GUG AAC GGG UUG GCA CCC GCAUUU GUG UAC CGA The first purine in the DNA sequence is Adenine a substitution replacing this with another purine will insert Guanine making the first codon GCG instead of GUG The amino acid encoded changes from Asparagine to alanine so is a missense mutation A deletion type point mutation is most effectively caused by a physical mutagen specifically ultraviolet light This will cause the formation of a TT dimer within the second codon and will shift the reading frame for all subsequent codons one base to the left This is called a frame shift mutation and all the codons will be changed Not surprisingly most of the amino acids will also be changed but this is not what the question is asking 37 Fuse to form diploid zygotes restriction endonuclease or restriction enzymes 38 Matching letter sequence is H E D B F A C and G 39 Transformation Streptococcus pneumoniae 40 The viral genome can vary in size number of genes present being double or single stranded closed loop or linear one segment or multiple segments and whether it is positive or negative strand see the Baltimore system of classification for eXplanation capsomers 41 Cytolytic bacteriophage Adsorption 42 Penetration Tail assembly 43 Enzymes the capsid and tail assembly 44 Prophage lysogenic conversion EC Questions 1 Respiratory chemoautotrophs can obtain electrons and hydrogen protons from inorganic sources such as hydrogen sulfide They can use these to run their electron transport chains and so to pump hydrogen protons across membranes and create proton motive force gradients The ow of hydrogen protons back across membranes through ATPsynthase complexes will then allow them to make ATP 2 Oxygenic photoautotrophs are essential to us because they produce most of the oxygen we require to carry out cellular respiration and because they fix inorganic carbon into organic compounds We eat them and we eat other organisms that eat them think for a moment about what cows and chickens eat Our sources of food milk eggs our sugar etc are ultimately dependent on photoautotrophs 3 The enzyme is betagalactosidase 4 The lytic genes of bacteriophage lambda are repressed by a constitutive repressor encoded by the c1 gene Under normal circumstances the bacteriophage lambda genome will enter the host chromosome becoming a prophage If the host cell is stressed it will transcribe and translate a cellular gene called RecA and will produce RecA protein This is proteolytic to the lambda repressor protein and will degrade it When the repressor protein is removed the lytic genes of bacteriophage lambda are expressed and the virus becomes cytolytic 5 Global warming the green house effect ofincreased carbon dioxide levels is causing global changes in climate and the overall trend is warming Drastic changes in weather patterns wind rainfall snowfall lightning storms etc are occurring glaciers are melting oceans are rising and the overall effects on human populations throughout the world are likely to be overwhelmingly negative We can change this but only by taking swift and immediate action What are you doing about it
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