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by: Norwood Klein

HumanRelations MGMT191

Norwood Klein
Solano Community College
GPA 3.81


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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Norwood Klein on Tuesday October 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT191 at Solano Community College taught by PeterCain in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/225405/mgmt191-solano-community-college in Business, management at Solano Community College.

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Date Created: 10/20/15
MGMT 191 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 3 Individual Behavior A Value p 72 7 something of worth or importance to an individual 0 Terminal value p 72 7 one that is expressed in terms of desired goals or ends ie respect a comfortable life family security wisdom a sense of accomplishment 0 Instrumental value p 72 7 the means for achieving desired goals ie honesty independence ambition courage helpfulness Spraunger s Six Value Types 7 see Figure 31 p 73 Theoretical 7 overriding interest is the discovery of truth chief aim in life is to systematize and order knowledge Economic 7 basically interested in what is useful individual is thoroughly practical and conforms well to the prevailing stereotype of the American businessperson Aesthetic 7 sees highest value inform and harmony Social 7 highest value is love of people the only suitable form of human behavior Political 7 interested primarily in power over people or over the environment 6 Religious 7 highest value is unity embracing totality of the cosmos Note Different occupational groups tend to have different value profiles Remember what is imp01tant to management is not necessarily imp01tant to the rank amp file p 73 N L 4 UI Value tests p 73 7 most popular test designed to provide information and insight on individual value is the Allpo VemonLindzey Study of Values designed to measure one s preference for each of Spraunger s siX values Generation Xers p 76 amp 77 7 born between 1965 and 1981 grew up during the computer revolution the advent of MTV sound bites and a business world in which downsizing layoffs and continual change resulted in their parents often having to switch jobs or take early retirement their needs and wants differ greatly from the more mature graying employees in the workplace Perception p 78 7 a person s View of reality Sensory reality p 78 7 a physical reality Normative reality p 79 7 interpretive reality Stereotyping p 80 7 generalizing a pa1ticular trait to all members of a given group Attitudes p 81 7 a person s feelings about objects events and people components include 0 Cognitive component p 81 7 the set of values and beliefs a person has toward a person an object or an event eg The boss is unfair or punitive the belief that is the reason fro the attitude 0 Affective component 81 7 the emotional feeling attached to an attitude feeling anger or disappointment when something happens 7 a ring the emotional feeling that results from the belief o Behavioral component p 81 7 the tendency to act in a particular way toward a person an object or an event eg smiling when hearing that the boss is being transferred the tendency to act in a particular way in response to the feeling Attitude questionnaire p 84 see Figure 36 p 85 7 an instrument used in measuring attitudes An intervening variable eg an attitude change p 84 7 in uenced by a causal variable eg a raise in salary and that affects an endresult variable e g more output Personality p 86 7 a relatively stable set of characteristics and tendencies that help to describe individual behavior major factors in uence behavior see Figure 37 o Heredity 7 born with certain physical characteristics intelligence height and facial features 7 all are inherited 0 Culture 7 values and beliefs of the society in which one is raised help determine how a person will act 0 Social class 7 helps to shape personality because an individual s mores are heavily in uenced by his or her neighborhood and community life 0 Family relationships 7 in uence personality by rewarding a person for certain behaviors and by not rewarding him or her for others Assertiveness training p 90 teaches people how to assert themselves in work and social situations Motivational profiles pp 92 amp 93 7 new employees tend to fit into one of siX pro les 0 Independent thinkers 7 are very entrepreneurial and want freedom 0 Lifestylers 7 are most interested in their quality of life 0 Personal developers 7 are interested in jobs that give them the opportunity to continue learning Careerists 7 want to get ahead and are prepared to make the necessary sacrifices to do so Authenticity seekers 7 interested in selfexpression Collegiality seekers 7 like to work with others and are excellent team players 0 00 Rev 21308pfc 12907pfc MGMT 191 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 10 Developing Appraising amp Rewarding Personnel Diversity is also a recruitment component for talent acquisition at all levels Hodgetts amp Hager ninth edition 2005 p 293 An effective leader develops productive subordinates From a HR Viewpoint every employee is affected by the way the organization recruits develops appraises and rewards its personnel New HR challenges hire people regardless of age religion or sexual preference and more importantly senior management in these companies makes a commitment to meeting diversity challenges As a result of their leadingedge recruiting developing appraising and rewarding programs they are able to outperform their competition Hodgetts amp Hager tenth edition 2008 p 378 Recruiting p 295 7 attracting quali ed applicants for available positions Screening p 295 7 process of eliminating applicants from the pool who are unlikely to be successful on the job Selecting p 295 7 process of accurately determining which applicants from the pool will be offeredjobs 0 Checking on the applicant s education credit history driving record and criminal record process may cost between 50200 per applicant 7 generally money well spent ie avoiding hiring the wrong person job interviews structured or unstructured 7 in recent years regardless of the type of interview used inter viewers have begun relying more and more heavily on situational questions 0 see Figure 101 for a list of common questions for applicants to ask hiring managers Orientation p 296 7 process of introducing new employees to their work group their superior and their tasks Training p 297 basic principle types include o apprentice training 7 done both on and off the job carpenter electrician etc vestibule training 7 done in an environment that simulates the actual workplace on the job training 7 provided by immediate supervisors amp fellow employees a the job training 7 trainers teach both theory and instructional areas and virtual training 7 commonly known as elearning selfpaced components I Note According to American Society for Training and Development ASTD the average company spends 955 a year on training per eligible employee I Rationale Redeveloping skills in the gap areas in skills among workers 0 O O 0 Performance appraisal process 7 designed to reward the best performers and ensure that they remain with the organization a welldesigned performance appraisal process helps accomplish separating the best from the average or poor performers Performance appraisal cycle p 300 see Figure 102 7 helps managers to set goals amp evaluate subordinate performance Performance appraisal tools four of the most common 0 Graphic ratings scales p 301 see Figure 103 7 most widely used ofall performance appraisal tools to evaluate on the basis of predetermined factors 0 Paired comparison method p 302 see Figure 104 p 303 7 compares each person against all others being evaluated performing the same work I Regardless of the number of factors measured only one person ranks at the top when all the ratings are completed ie more discriminating in its approach than graphic ratings scales 0 Management by objectives MBO p 303 see Figure 105 The Basic MBO Cycle p 304 7 process by which superior and subordinate jointly set goals that then are used for evaluating the individual I Advantages attention given to subordinate in the goalsetting process strong emphasis on quanti able objectives concentration on organization s key goals encourages manager to delegate timeconsuming activities and to devote her energies to overall planning and control 0 360degree evaluation review p 307 7 reviews carried out not just by the individual s superior but also by the person s subordinates peers work groups and others with whom he comes in frequent contact suppliers contractors Performance appraisal problems 0 Halo effect p 309 7 occurs when the appraiser gives a worker the same rating on all factors regardless of actual performance 0 Central tendency p 309 7 everyone receives an average rating 0 Leniency p 310 7 the highest possible ratings are given out to all Validity p 310 7 the instrument measures what it is designed to measure Reliability p 310 7 the instrument measures the same factor repeatedly Extrinsic rewards p 311 7 eXternal and physical Intrinsic rewards p 311 7 internal and psychological Incentive payment plans p 313 7 tie rewards directly to outpu Types of discipline 0 Oral warning p 318 7 involves orally pointing out an infraction of a rule 0 Written warning p 318 7 a warning that is palced in an employee s personnel le 0 Disciplinary layoff involves sending a person home without pay for a predetermined time 0 Discharge p 318 7 the separation of the individual from the organization The red hot stove rule p 318 7 app1ies discipline immediately consistently and impersonally 4908pfc 32407pfc MGMT 191 STUDY GUIDE Rev CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Human Relation Human relations p 5 the process by which management and workers interact and attain their objectives Scienti c Management approach in America p 7 7 sought to merge the people and the work and increase work efficiency by measuring one best man for each job and employing such measures as plant design plant layout time study and motion study Traditional and Human Resources Models see Table 11 p 11 7 traditional the old way of managing people with the emergence of industrialism started in England in mid1800 s viewed all worker viewed as factors of production rather than as human beings the new way HR era views people as having untapped potential Behavioral Management movement circa 1920 s p 7 7 concern for production bringing about peoplerelated problems and that the effective manager had to be interested in both personnel and work had its genesis in o The Hawthorne Studies pp 7 7 9 7 started the modern behavioral management movement conducted in 1924 at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric located near Cicero Illinois There were four phases to the studies 1 Phase I researchers sought to examine the relationship between illumination and output concluded that variables other than illumination were responsible for the increases at this point Elton Mayo and a number of other Harvard researchers took an interest in the problem Phase II 7 researchers isolated a group of female workers from the regular workforce and began to study them researchers began to introduce test breaks to see what effect this would have on output researchers an observer was encouraged to create a friendly atmosphere with the operators to assure their cooperation shorter workdays and workweeks were instituted and output again went up when the original conditions were restored output still remained high 7 the change in the physical environment could not have been the only reason for increases in output Phase III investigators changed from direct to indirect questions allowing employees to choose their own questions in interviews with workers and found a wealth of information about employee attitudes researchers began to focus on human relations started to realize that both the person and the group members in uenced an individual s performance position and status in the organization Phase IV 7 investigators decided to examine a small group of workers engaged in one type of work no changes in the working conditions were made an observer was stationed in the test room to record employee interactions and conversations a The group had an informal production norm that restricted output N E 4 b C There were 2 informal groups or cliques in the room and individual behavior was partially dictated by the norms of the groups To be accepted by the group one had to observe informal rules such as not doing too much work not doing to little work and never telling a superior anything thatmight be detrimental to an associate 0 Hawthorne Studies conclusions conducted 1924 pp 8 9 1 Organizations are social networks in which people interacted sought acceptance from and gave approval to fellow workers and found enjoyment in the work and in the social exchange that occurred while they were doing the work 9 People will act differently when they know they are being observed Quality of supervision has an effect on the quality and quantity of work 0 Rensis Likert s Four Systems of Management see Figure 12 p 13 0 System 1 exploitive autocratic Management has little con dence in subordinates amp are seldom involved in decisionmaking the traditional method 0 System 2 benevolent autocratic Management acts in a condescending manner toward subordinates 0 System 3 7 consultative democratic Management has quite a bit of confidence and trust in subordinates 0 System 4 7 participative democratic Management has complete confidence and trust in subordinates interaction takes place in a friendly environment and is characterized by mutual confidence and trust the human resources model I At present there is a swing towards Systems 3 and 4 managers must be aware of the changing attitudes and values of their personnel 0 The scienti c method 7 an objective approach to gaining knowledge 0 Steps include 1 8995 Identify the problem Obtain background information through questionnaire interviews Pose a tentative solution Investigate the problem area Classify the information State a tentative answer and Test the answer with test and control groups 0 Emerging HR challenges 1 N W Managing knowledge workers 7 create an environment that encourages employees to share what they know Managing diversity 7 guidelines needed for ensuring equality for all people in their workplaces a Glass ceiling see Table 12 Ethics and social responsibility concerns a Ethics definition 7 the study of standards and moral judgmen b Social responsibility de nition 7 the obligation of a business to society c Code of conduct de nition 7 a guide summarizing the ethical principles amp standards for individual behavior 4 Current ethical dilemmas 7 discrimination in the workplace on the basis of gender race religion age or physical appearance downsizing dis abilities ADA compliance Internet usage and ecommerce operations 5 Adapting to international and cultural challenges 7 more and more rms will be setting up operations overseas or doing business with foreign multinationals operating within the United States new hires coming from diverse cultures number of women and minorities increasing dramatically piracy and counterfeiting Rev 12809pfc MGMT 191 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 15 Human Relations and You Resume p 464 7 a summary of your experience and training and the first step in an interview a good resume is 112 pages long and geared speci cally to the company unless applying to several Chronological resume p 464 see Figure 152 p 465 for example 7 presents information in descending order the most recent being rst under each heading the most popular resume format anal brings the best results Functional resume p 464 see Figure 153 p 466 for example7 focuses on skills aptitudes and qualities that can be applied in a number of situations suits those who have had a variety of jobs with relevant functions Combination resume p 464 see Figure 154 p 467 for example 7 uses parts of the other two above and is best for those who have a great deal of experience anal many jobs or those who are changing careers 0 0 0 Common mistakes on resumes of college graduates p 468 o The lack ofa clear objective Using generic job descriptions that omit tangible accomplishments Selling short your assets and omitting cuttingedge skills Failing to list jobs in reverse chronological order Cramming resumes with extraneous information 0000 Downplay salary p 472 7 Basic rule of thumb Never ever bring up the subject of salary or benefits unless the interviewer asks if you have any questions 7 then you can discuss your concerns better to focus on what you can do for the company Mentor p 481 7 a coach counselor and sponsor of others share knowledge and understanding with younger managers helping them to develop into effective leaders trend today is that 75 of all executives younger than 40 25 7 40 have a mentor research shows that mentors are particularly important to the success of female executives Rev 5708pfc


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